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Chapter 4
Reaction Stoichiometry
A balanced chemical equation provides a great deal of information in a very succinct format. Chemical formulas provide the identities of the…
Limiting Reactant
The relative amounts of reactants and products represented in a balanced chemical equation are often referred to as stoichiometric amounts. However,…
Reaction Yield
The theoretical yield of a reaction is the amount of product estimated to form based on the stoichiometry of the balanced chemical equation. The…
General Properties of Solutions
Many common substances around us exist as a solution, such as ocean water, air, and gasoline. All solutions are mixtures of substances that are…
Solution Concentration and Dilution
The relative amount of a given solution component is known as its concentration. Often, though not always, a solution contains one component with a…
Electrolyte and Nonelectrolyte Solutions
Substances that undergo either a physical or a chemical change in solution to yield ions that can conduct electricity are called electrolytes. If a…
Solubility of Ionic Compounds
Solubility is the measure of the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent at a given temperature and pressure.…
Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions
Chemical substances interact in many different ways. Certain chemical reactions exhibit common patterns of reactivity. Due to the vast number of…
Precipitation Reactions
In a precipitation reaction, aqueous solutions of soluble salts react to give an insoluble ionic compound – the precipitate. The reaction…
Oxidation–Reduction Reactions
Earth’s atmosphere contains about 20% molecular oxygen, O2, a chemically reactive gas that plays an essential role in the metabolism of…
Oxidation Numbers
In redox reactions, the transfer of electrons occurs between reacting species. Electron transfer is described by a hypothetical number called the…
Acids, Bases and Neutralization Reactions
An acid-base reaction is one in which a hydrogen ion, H+, is transferred from one chemical species to another. Such reactions are of central…
Synthesis and Decomposition Reactions
Synthesis and decomposition are two types of redox reactions. Synthesis means to make something, whereas decomposition means to break something. The…
Extraction of Lignin with High β-O-4 Content by Mild Ethanol Extraction and Its Effect on the Depolymerization Yield
Lignin valorization strategies are a key factor for achieving more economically competitive biorefineries based on lignocellulosic biomass. Most of…
Manufacturing Simple and Inexpensive Soil Surface Temperature and Gravimetric Water Content Sensors
Quantifying temperature and moisture at the soil surface is essential for understanding how soil surface biota respond to changes in the environment.…
Experimental Procedure for Laboratory Studies of <em>In Situ</em> Burning : Flammability and Burning Efficiency of Crude Oil
A new method for the simultaneous study of the flammability and burning efficiency of fresh and weathered crude oil through two experimental…

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