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The Wave Nature of Light
The nature of light has been a subject of inquiry since antiquity. In the seventeenth century, Isaac Newton performed experiments with lenses and…
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
The electromagnetic spectrum consists of all the types of electromagnetic radiation arranged according to their frequency and wavelength. Each of the…
Interference and Diffraction
Interference is a characteristic phenomenon exhibited by waves. When two electromagnetic waves interact with their peaks and troughs coinciding, a…
Photoelectric Effect
When light of a particular wavelength strikes a metal surface, electrons are emitted. This is called the photoelectric effect. The minimum frequency…
The Bohr Model
Following the work of Ernest Rutherford and his colleagues in the early twentieth century, the picture of atoms consisting of tiny dense nuclei…
Emission Spectra
When solids, liquids, or condensed gases are heated sufficiently, they radiate some of the excess energy as light. Photons produced in this manner…
The de Broglie Wavelength
In the macroscopic world, objects that are large enough to be seen by the naked eye follow the rules of classical physics. A billiard ball moving on…
The Uncertainty Principle
Werner Heisenberg considered the limits of how accurately one can measure properties of an electron or other microscopic particles. He determined…
The Quantum–Mechanical Model of an Atom
Shortly after de Broglie published his ideas that the electron in a hydrogen atom could be better thought of as being a circular standing wave…
Quantum Numbers
It is said that the energy of an electron in an atom is quantized; that is, it can be equal only to certain specific values and can jump from one…
Atomic Orbitals
An atomic orbital represents the three-dimensional regions in an atom where an electron has the highest probability to reside. The radial…
The Pauli Exclusion Principle
The arrangement of electrons in the orbitals of an atom is called its electron configuration. We describe an electron configuration with a symbol…
The Energies of Atomic Orbitals
In an atom, the negatively charged electrons are attracted to the positively charged nucleus. In a multielectron atom, electron-electron repulsions…
The Aufbau Principle and Hund's Rule
To determine the electron configuration for any particular atom, we can build the structures in the order of atomic numbers. Beginning with hydrogen,…
Electron Configuration of Multielectron Atoms
The alkali metal sodium (atomic number 11) has one more electron than the neon atom. This electron must go into the lowest-energy subshell available,…
Characterizing Far-infrared Laser Emissions and the Measurement of Their Frequencies
The generation and subsequent measurement of far-infrared radiation has found numerous applications in high-resolution spectroscopy, radio astronomy,…
Synchrotron X-ray Microdiffraction and Fluorescence Imaging of Mineral and Rock Samples
In this report, we describe a detailed procedure for acquiring and processing x-ray microfluorescence (μXRF), and Laue and powder…
Near-Infrared Temperature Measurement Technique for Water Surrounding an Induction-heated Small Magnetic Sphere
A technique to measure the temperature of water and non-turbid aqueous media surrounding an induction-heated small magnetic sphere is presented. This…

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