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Chapter 8

Periodic Properties of the Elements

Periodic Classification of the Elements
The periodic table arranges atoms based on increasing atomic number so that elements with the same chemical properties recur periodically. When their…
Atomic Radii and Effective Nuclear Charge
The elements in groups of the periodic table exhibit similar chemical behavior. This similarity occurs because the members of a group have the same…
Ionic Radii
Ionic radius is the measure used to describe the size of an ion. A cation always has fewer electrons and the same number of protons as the parent…
Ionization Energy
The amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron from a gaseous atom in its ground state is called its first ionization energy…
Electron Affinity
The electron affinity (EA) is the energy change for adding an electron to a gaseous atom to form an anion (negative ion). This process can be…
Alkali Metals
Group 1 elements are soft and shiny metallic solids. They are malleable, ductile, and good conductors of heat and electricity. The melting points of…
Halogens
Group 17 elements, known as halogens, are nonmetals. At room temperature, fluorine and chlorine are gases, bromine is a liquid, and iodine a solid.…
Noble Gases
The elements in group 18 are noble gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon). They earned the name “noble” because they…
Quantification of Metal Leaching in Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography
Contamination of enzymes with metals leached from immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) columns poses a major concern for enzymologists,…
From Molecules to Materials: Engineering New Ionic Liquid Crystals Through Halogen Bonding
Herein, we demonstrate that a bottom-up approach, based on halogen bonding (XB), can be successfully applied for the design of a new type of ionic…
Photoelectron Imaging of Anions Illustrated by 310 Nm Detachment of F<sup>&#8722;</sup>
Anion photoelectron imaging is a very efficient method for the study of energy states of bound negative ions, neutral species and interactions of…

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