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Capítulo 9
Tipos de Ligações Químicas
Chemical bonding theories were pioneered by American chemist Gilbert N. Lewis. He developed a model called the Lewis model to explain the type…
Símbolos de Lewis e a Regra do Octeto
Chemical bonds are complex interactions between two or more atoms or ions, which reduce the potential energy of the molecule. Gilbert N. Lewis…
Ligações Iónicas e Transferência de Eletrões
Ions are atoms or molecules bearing an electrical charge. A cation (a positive ion) forms when a neutral atom loses one or more electrons from its…
O Ciclo de Born-Haber
An ionic compound is stable because of the electrostatic attraction between its positive and negative ions. The lattice energy of a compound is a…
Tendências em Energia Reticular: Tamanho e Carga de Iões
An ionic compound is stable because of the electrostatic attraction between its positive and negative ions. The lattice energy of a compound is a…
Ligações Covalentes e Estruturas de Lewis
Compared to ionic bonds, which results from the transfer of electrons between metallic and nonmetallic atoms, covalent bonds result from the mutual…
Eletronegatividade
Whether a bond is nonpolar or polar covalent is determined by a property of the bonding atoms called electronegativity.  Electronegativity…
Polaridade de Ligações, Momento Dipolar, e Carácter Iónico Percentual
The absolute value of the difference in electronegativity (ΔEN) of two bonded atoms provides a rough measure of the polarity to be expected…
Estruturas de Lewis de Compostos Moleculares e Iões Poliatómicos
To draw Lewis structures for complicated molecules and molecular ions, it is helpful to follow a step-by-step procedure as outlined: Determine the…
Ressonância
The Lewis structure of a nitrite anion (NO2−) may actually be drawn in two different ways, distinguished by the locations of the N-O and N=O…
Cargas Formais
In some cases, there are seemingly more than one valid Lewis structures for molecules and polyatomic ions. The concept of formal charges can be used…
Excepções à Regra do Octeto
Many covalent molecules have central atoms that do not have eight electrons in their Lewis structures. These molecules fall into three…
Energias de Ligação e Tamanhos de Ligação
Stable molecules exist because covalent bonds hold the atoms together. The strength of a covalent bond is measured by the energy required to break…
Ligações em Metais
Metallic bonds are formed between two metal atoms. A simplified model to describe metallic bonding has been developed by Paul Drüde called the…
Medição de coerências vibracionais ultra rápidas em Polyatomic radicais cátions com ionização adiabática Strong-campo
We present a pump-probe method for preparing vibrational coherences in polyatomic radical cations and probing their ultrafast dynamics. By shifting…
Preparação de Carbono nanofolhas à Temperatura Ambiente
Amphiphilic molecules equipped with a reactive, carbon-rich "oligoyne" segment consisting of conjugated carbon-carbon triple bonds self-assemble into…

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