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Chapter 11
Molecular Comparison of Gases, Liquids, and Solids
Particles in a solid are tightly packed together (fixed shape) and often arranged in a regular pattern; in a liquid, they are close together with no…
Intermolecular vs Intramolecular Forces
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are electrostatic attractions arising from charge-charge interactions between molecules. The strength of the…
Intermolecular Forces
Atoms and molecules interact through bonds (or forces): intramolecular and intermolecular. The forces are electrostatic as they arise from…
Comparing Intermolecular Forces: Melting Point, Boiling Point, and Miscibility
Intermolecular forces are attractive forces that exist between molecules. They dictate several bulk properties, such as melting points, boiling…
Surface Tension, Capillary Action, and Viscosity
Surface Tension The various IMFs between identical molecules of a substance are examples of cohesive forces. The molecules within a liquid are…
Phase Transitions
Whether solid, liquid, or gas, a substance's state depends on the order and arrangement of its particles (atoms, molecules, or ions). Particles…
Phase Transitions: Vaporization and Condensation
The physical form of a substance changes on changing its temperature. For example, raising the temperature of a liquid causes the liquid to vaporize…
Vapor Pressure
When a liquid vaporizes in a closed container, gas molecules cannot escape. As these gas phase molecules move randomly about, they will occasionally…
Clausius-Clapeyron Equation
The equilibrium between a liquid and its vapor depends on the temperature of the system; a rise in temperature causes a corresponding rise in the…
Phase Transitions: Melting and Freezing
Heating a crystalline solid increases the average energy of its atoms, molecules, or ions, and the solid gets hotter. At some point, the added energy…
Phase Transitions: Sublimation and Deposition
Some solids can transition directly into the gaseous state, bypassing the liquid state, via a process known as sublimation. At room temperature and…
Heating and Cooling Curves
When a substance—isolated from its environment—is subjected to heat changes, corresponding changes in temperature and phase of the…
Phase Diagrams
A phase diagram combines plots of pressure versus temperature for the liquid-gas, solid-liquid, and solid-gas phase-transition equilibria of a…
Structures of Solids
Solids in which the atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a definite repeating pattern are known as crystalline solids. Metals and ionic…
Lattice Centering and Coordination Number
The structure of a crystalline solid, whether a metal or not, is best described by considering its simplest repeating unit, which is referred to as…
Molecular and Ionic 
Solids
Crystalline solids are divided into four types: molecular, ionic, metallic, and covalent network based on the type of constituent units and their…
Ionic Crystal Structures
Ionic crystals consist of two or more different kinds of ions that usually have different sizes. The packing of these ions into a crystal structure…
Metallic Solids
Metallic solids such as crystals of copper, aluminum, and iron are formed by metal atoms. The structure of metallic crystals is often described as a…
Band Theory
When two or more atoms come together to form a molecule, their atomic orbitals combine and molecular orbitals of distinct energies result. In a…
Network Covalent Solids
Network covalent solids contain a three-dimensional network of covalently bonded atoms as found in the crystal structures of nonmetals like diamond,…
X-ray Crystallography
The size of the unit cell and the arrangement of atoms in a crystal may be determined from measurements of the diffraction of X-rays by the crystal,…
A Method to Manipulate Surface Tension of a Liquid Metal via Surface Oxidation and Reduction
Controlling interfacial tension is an effective method for manipulating the shape, position, and flow of fluids at sub-millimeter length scales,…
Characterization of Glycoproteins with the Immunoglobulin Fold by X-Ray Crystallography and Biophysical Techniques
Glycoproteins on the surface of cells play critical roles in cellular function, including signalling, adhesion and transport. On leukocytes, several…
Fabricating High-viscosity Droplets using Microfluidic Capillary Device with Phase-inversion Co-flow Structure
The generation of monodisperse droplets with high viscosity has always been a challenge in droplet microfluidics. Here, we demonstrate a…

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