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Chapter 12

Solutions and Colloids

Solution Formation
There is no one solvent that can dissolve every type of solute. Some substances that readily dissolve in a certain solvent might be insoluble in a…
Intermolecular Forces in Solutions
The formation of a solution is an example of a spontaneous process, a process that occurs under specified conditions without energy from some…
Enthalpy of Solution
There are two criteria that favor, but do not guarantee, the spontaneous formation of a solution: A decrease in the internal energy of the system…
Aqueous Solutions and Heats of Hydration
Water and other polar molecules are attracted to ions. The electrostatic attraction between an ion and a molecule with a dipole is called an…
Solution Equilibrium and Saturation
Imagine adding a small amount of sugar to a glass of water, stirring until all the sugar has dissolved, and then adding a bit more. You can repeat…
Physical Properties Affecting Solubility
Solutions of Gases in Liquids As for any solution, the solubility of a gas in a liquid is affected by the attractive intermolecular forces between…
Expressing Solution Concentration
A solute is a component of a solution that is typically present at a much lower concentration than the solvent. Solute concentrations are often…
Vapor Pressure Lowering
The equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid is the pressure exerted by its gaseous phase when vaporization and condensation are occurring at equal…
Ideal Solutions
According to Raoult’s law, the partial vapor pressure of a solvent in a solution is equal or identical to the vapor pressure of the pure…
Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation
Boiling Point Elevation The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which its vapor pressure is equal to ambient atmospheric pressure. Since…
Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure of Solutions
A number of natural and synthetic materials exhibit selective permeation, meaning that only molecules or ions of a certain size, shape, polarity,…
Electrolytes: van't Hoff Factor
Colligative Properties of Electrolytes The colligative properties of a solution depend only on the number, not on the identity, of solute species…
Colloids
Children at play often make suspensions such as mixtures of mud and water, flour and water, or a suspension of solid pigments in water known as…
Study of Short Peptide Adsorption on Solution Dispersed Inorganic Nanoparticles Using Depletion Method
Fundamentals of inorganic-organic interactions are critically important in the discovery and development of novel biointerfaces amenable for…
Synthesis and Characterization of Supramolecular Colloids
Control over colloidal assembly is of utmost importance for the development of functional colloidal materials with tailored structural and mechanical…
Material Formation of Recombinant Spider Silks through Aqueous Solvation using Heat and Pressure
Many spiders produce seven types of silks. Six of the silks are fiber in form when produced by the spiders. These fibers are not water soluble. In…

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