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Chapter 17

Thermodynamics

Spontaneity
A spontaneous process is one that occurs naturally under certain conditions. A nonspontaneous process, on the other hand, will not take place unless…
Entropy
Salt particles that have dissolved in water never spontaneously come back together in solution to reform solid particles. Moreover, a gas that has…
Second Law of Thermodyamics
In the quest to identify a property that may reliably predict the spontaneity of a process, a promising candidate has been identified: entropy.…
Third Law of Thermodynamics
A pure, perfectly crystalline solid possessing no kinetic energy (that is, at a temperature of absolute zero, 0 K) may be described by a single…
Standard Entropy Change for a Reaction
Entropy is a state function, so the standard entropy change for a chemical reaction (ΔS°rxn) can be calculated from the difference in…
Gibbs Free Energy
One of the challenges of using the second law of thermodynamics to determine if a process is spontaneous is that it requires measurements of the…
Effects of Temperature on Free Energy
The spontaneity of a process depends upon the temperature of the system. Phase transitions, for example, will proceed spontaneously in one direction…
Calculating Standard Free Energy Changes
The free energy change for a reaction that occurs under the standard conditions of 1 bar pressure and at 298 K is called the standard free energy…
Free Energy Changes for Nonstandard States
The free energy change for a process taking place with reactants and products present under nonstandard conditions (pressures other than 1 bar;…
Free Energy and Equilibrium
The free energy change for a process may be viewed as a measure of its driving force. A negative value for ΔG represents a driving force for the…
Thermodynamics of Membrane Protein Folding Measured by Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Membrane protein folding is an emerging topic with both fundamental and health-related significance. The abundance of membrane proteins in cells…
Unraveling Entropic Rate Acceleration Induced by Solvent Dynamics in Membrane Enzymes
Enzyme catalysis evolved in an aqueous environment. The influence of solvent dynamics on catalysis is, however, currently poorly understood and…
Formation of Ordered Biomolecular Structures by the Self-assembly of Short Peptides
In nature, complex functional structures are formed by the self-assembly of biomolecules under mild conditions. Understanding the forces that control…

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