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Chapter 3

Protein Structure

What are Proteins?
Proteins are chains of amino acids that are connected by peptide bonds and folded into a 3-dimensional structure. The side chains of individual…
Protein Organization
Proteins are one of the fundamental building blocks of life that carry out many diverse functions in the cell. Proteins are assembled from amino…
Protein Folding
Proteins are chains of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. Upon synthesis, a protein folds into a three-dimensional conformation which is…
Protein Families
Protein families are groups of homologous proteins; that is, they have similarities in amino acid sequences and three-dimensional structures. Protein…
Conservation of Protein Domains over Different Proteins
Protein domains are small structurally independent units that are part of a single amino acid chain.  Although these domains are often…
Globular and Fibrous Proteins
Many proteins can be classified into two distinct subtypes - globular or fibrous. These two types differ in their shapes and solubilities. Globular…
Intrinsically Disordered Proteins
Intrinsically disordered proteins are a group of proteins that do not fold into specific three-dimensional structures. Their structural flexibility…
Protein Complex Assembly
Proteins can form homomeric complexes with another unit of the same protein or heteromeric complexes with different types.  Most protein…
Conjugated Proteins
Simple proteins and protein complexes contain only amino acids. In contrast, many other proteins, called conjugated proteins, covalently bond with…
Amyloid Fibrils
Amyloid fibrils are aggregates of misfolded proteins.  Under most circumstances, misfolded proteins are either refolded by chaperone proteins or…
Antibody Structure
Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins (Ig), are essential players of the adaptive immune system. These antigen-binding proteins are produced by…
Labeling and Imaging of Amyloid Plaques in Brain Tissue Using the Natural Polyphenol Curcumin
Deposition of amyloid beta protein (Aβ) in extra- and intracellular spaces is one of the hallmark pathologies of Alzheimer's disease (AD).…
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for the Identification of Multiple Phosphorylations of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins
Aggregates of the neuronal Tau protein are found inside neurons of Alzheimer's disease patients. Development of the disease is accompanied by…
Combining Chemical Cross-linking and Mass Spectrometry of Intact Protein Complexes to Study the Architecture of Multi-subunit Protein Assemblies
Proteins interact with their ligands to form active and dynamic assemblies which carry out various cellular functions. Elucidating these interactions…

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