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Chapter 9

Translation: RNA to Protein

Translation
Translation is the process of synthesizing proteins from the genetic information carried by messenger RNA (mRNA). Following transcription, it…
tRNA Activation
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are present in both eukaryotes and bacteria. Though eukaryotes have 20 different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases to couple to…
Ribosomes
Ribosomes translate genetic information encoded by messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have ribosomes. Cells…
Improving Translational Accuracy
Base complementarity between the three base pairs of mRNA codon and the tRNA anticodon is not a failsafe mechanism. Inaccuracies can range from a…
Initiation of Translation
Initiating translation is complex because it involves multiple molecules. Initiator tRNA, ribosomal subunits, and eukaryotic initiation factors…
Termination of Translation
The large ribosomal subunit has several important structures essential to translation. These include the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) - which is…
Nonsense-mediated mRNA Decay
The Upf proteins that carry out nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) are found in all eukaryotic organisms, including humans. Each protein has an individual…
Molecular Chaperones and Protein Folding
The native conformation of a protein is formed by interactions between the side chains of its constituent amino acids. When the amino acids cannot…
The Proteasome
Eukaryotic cells can degrade proteins through several pathways. One of the most important amongst these is the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. It helps…
Regulated Protein Degradation
It is vital to regulate the activity of enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic proteins inside the cell. This can be achieved either through creating a…
Proteins: From Genes to Degradation
Within a biological system, the DNA encodes the RNA, and the nucleotide sequence in the RNA further defines the amino acid sequence in the protein.…
Defining Hsp33's Redox-regulated Chaperone Activity and Mapping Conformational Changes on Hsp33 Using Hydrogen-deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry
Living organisms regularly need to cope with fluctuating environments during their life cycle, including changes in temperature, pH, the accumulation…
Measurement of mRNA Decay Rates in <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> Using <em>rpb1-1</em> Strains
mRNA steady state levels vary depending on environmental conditions. Regulation of the steady state accumulation levels of an mRNA ensures that the…
Reconstitution Of &#946;-catenin Degradation In <em>Xenopus</em> Egg Extract
Xenopus laevis egg extract is a well-characterized, robust system for studying the biochemistry of diverse cellular processes. Xenopus egg extract…

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