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Chapter 7

Alkene Structure and Reactivity

Structure and Bonding of Alkenes
Olefins, which are unsaturated hydrocarbons containing one or more carbon–carbon double bonds, are broadly divided into alkenes and…
Nomenclature of Alkenes
The IUPAC naming system for alkenes replaces -an- with -en- in the corresponding parent alkanes. Accordingly, a simple alkene replaces the -ane…
Degree of Unsaturation
The degree of unsaturation (U), or index of hydrogen deficiency (IHD), is defined as the difference in the number of pairs of hydrogen atoms between…
Isomerism in Alkenes
Alkenes like 1-butene and 2-butene exhibit constitutional isomerism, as they differ in the position of the double bond. Further, 2-butene exhibits…
Relative Stabilities of Alkenes
The relative stability of alkenes can be determined by comparing their heats of hydrogenation. The lower heat of hydrogenation indicates the more…
Introduction to Electrophilic Addition Reactions of Alkenes
The double bond in a simple, unconjugated alkene is a region of high electron density that can act as a weak base or a nucleophile. The filled π…
Regioselectivity of Electrophilic Additions to Alkenes: Markovnikov's Rule
If a set of reactants can yield multiple constitutional isomers, but one of the isomers is obtained as the major product, the reaction is said to be…
Facile Preparation of (2<em>Z</em>,4<em>E</em>)-Dienamides by the Olefination of Electron-deficient Alkenes with Allyl Acetate
Direct cross-coupling between two alkenes via vinylic C-H bond activation represents an efficient strategy for the synthesis of butadienes with high…
Mizoroki-Heck Cross-coupling Reactions Catalyzed by Dichloro{bis[1,1',1''-(phosphinetriyl)tripiperidine]}palladium Under Mild Reaction Conditions
Dichloro-bis(aminophosphine) complexes of palladium with the general formula of [(P{(NC5H10)3-n(C6H11)n})2Pd(Cl)2] (where n = 0-2), belong to a new…
Free Radicals in Chemical Biology: from Chemical Behavior to Biomarker Development
The involvement of free radicals in life sciences has constantly increased with time and has been connected to several physiological and pathological…

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