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Chapter 1

Scientific Inquiry

What is Biology?
Biology is the natural science that focuses on the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, development,…
Levels of Organization
Biological organization is the classification of biological structures, ranging from atoms at the bottom of the hierarchy to the Earth’s…
The Scientific Method
The scientific method is a detailed, empirical, problem-solving process leveraged by biologists and scientists of other disciplines. This iterative…
Inductive Reasoning
Inductive reasoning is a type of logic in which premises lead to a conclusion. Inductive reasoning is uncertain and operates in degrees to which…
Deductive Reasoning
When scientists set out to explore and explain natural phenomena, they often start with specific observations that highlight a particular question or…
Correlation and Causation
Statistical tests can calculate whether there is a relationship, or correlation, between independent and dependent variables. An indirect…
Taxonomy
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms based on shared characteristics. It uses a hierarchy of increasingly…
Phylogeny
Phylogeny is concerned with the evolutionary diversification of organisms or groups of organisms. A group of organisms with a name is called a taxon.…
Detecting Estrogenic Ligands in Personal Care Products using a Yeast Estrogen Screen Optimized for the Undergraduate Teaching Laboratory
The Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) is used to detect estrogenic ligands in environmental samples and has been broadly applied in studies of endocrine…
Proprioception and Tension Receptors in Crab Limbs: Student Laboratory Exercises
The primary purpose of these procedures is to demonstrate for teaching and research purposes how to record the activity of living primary sensory…
Using Mouse Mammary Tumor Cells to Teach Core Biology Concepts: A Simple Lab Module
Undergraduate biology students are required to learn, understand and apply a variety of cellular and molecular biology concepts and techniques in…

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