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Chapter 3

Macromolecules

What are Proteins?
Proteins are chains of amino acids that are connected by peptide bonds and folded into a 3-dimensional structure. The side chains of individual…
Protein Organization
Proteins are one of the fundamental building blocks of life that carry out many diverse functions in the cell. Proteins are assembled from amino…
Protein Folding
Proteins are chains of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. Upon synthesis, a protein folds into a three-dimensional conformation which is…
What are Carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates are essential biological molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, often in the ratio of 1:2:1. They occur as simple or…
Dehydration Synthesis
Dehydration synthesis is the chemical process in which two molecules are covalently linked together with the release of a water molecule. Many…
Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction in which water breaks a bond within a molecule. For example, it breaks peptides into amino acids, carbohydrates…
What are Lipids?
Lipids are a group of structurally and functionally diverse organic compounds that are insoluble in water. Certain classes of lipids, such as fats,…
What are Nucleic Acids?
Nucleic acids are long chains of nucleotides linked together by phosphodiester bonds. There are two types of nucleic acids: deoxyribonucleic acid,…
Phosphodiester Linkages
Phosphodiester linkage is created when a phosphoric acid molecule (H3PO4) is linked with two hydroxyl groups (–OH) of two other molecules,…
Small and Wide Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies of Biological Macromolecules in Solution
In this paper, Small and Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (SWAXS) analysis of macromolecules is demonstrated through experimentation. SWAXS is a technique…
Phloem Sap Sampling from <em>Brassica napus</em> for 3D-PAGE of Protein and Ribonucleoprotein Complexes
Sampling the phloem of higher plants is often laborious and significantly dependent on the plant species. However, proteome studies under denaturing…
Method to Visualize and Analyze Membrane Interacting Proteins by Transmission Electron Microscopy
Monotopic proteins exert their function when attached to a membrane surface, and such interactions depend on the specific lipid composition and on…
Fluorescence Anisotropy as a Tool to Study Protein-protein Interactions
Protein-protein interactions play an essential role in the function of a living organism. Once an interaction has been identified and validated it is…
Peptide-based Identification of Functional Motifs and their Binding Partners
Specific short peptides derived from motifs found in full-length proteins, in our case HIV-1 Nef, not only retain their biological function, but…
Submillisecond Conformational Changes in Proteins Resolved by Photothermal Beam Deflection
Photothermal beam deflection together with photo-acoustic calorimetry and thermal grating belongs to the family of photothermal methods that monitor…
Analyzing Protein Architectures and Protein-Ligand Complexes by Integrative Structural Mass Spectrometry
Proteins are an important class of biological macromolecules that play many key roles in cellular functions including gene expression, catalyzing…

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