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第12章
遗传术语
An organism is diploid if it inherits two variants, or alleles, of each gene, one from each parent. These two alleles constitute the genotype for a…
Punnett 方块
A Punnett square displays the possible genotypes offspring can inherit from two parental genotypes. If a trait’s inheritance pattern (e.g.,…
单杂交组合
In the 1850s and 1860s, Gregor Mendel investigated inheritance by performing monohybrid crosses in pea plants. He crossed two plants that were…
双杂交组合
To determine whether traits are inherited together or separately, Gregor Mendel crossed pea plants that differed in two traits. These parental…
隔离法
When crossing pea plants, Mendel noticed that one of the parental traits would sometimes disappear in the first generation of offspring, called the…
独立分类法
While Mendel’s Law of Segregation states that the two alleles for one gene are separated into different gametes, a different question of how…
测试十字架
Alleles are different forms of the same gene. Humans and other diploid organisms inherit two alleles of every gene, one from each parent. An allele…
系谱分析
A pedigree is a diagram displaying a family’s history of a trait. Analyzing pedigrees can reveal (1) whether a trait is dominant or…
概率定律
The probability of inheriting a trait can be calculated using the sum and product rules. The sum rule is used to calculate the probability of…
多等位基因性状
Multiple allelism describes genes that exist in three or more allelic forms. Although diploid organisms, like humans, normally possess only two…
染色体遗传学理论
In 1866, Gregor Mendel published the results of his pea plant breeding experiments, providing evidence for predictable patterns in the inheritance of…
无核继承
Most DNA resides in the nucleus of a cell. However, some organelles in the cell cytoplasm⁠—such as chloroplasts and…
X连锁特征
In most mammalian species, females have two X sex chromosomes and males have an X and Y. As a result, mutations on the X chromosome in females may be…
与性有关的疾病
Like autosomes, sex chromosomes contain a variety of genes necessary for normal body function. When a mutation in one of these genes results in…
X染色体失活
The human X chromosome contains over ten times the number of genes as in the Y chromosome. Since males have only one X chromosome, and females have…
异位显性
In addition to multiple alleles at the same locus influencing traits, numerous genes or alleles at different locations may interact and influence…
多基因性状
When more than one gene is responsible for a given phenotype, the trait is considered polygenic. Human height is a polygenic trait. Studies have…
基因多效性
Pleiotropy is the phenomenon in which a single gene impacts multiple, seemingly unrelated phenotypic traits. For example, defects in the SOX10 gene…
先天与后天
Many human characteristics, like height, are shaped by both nature—in other words, by our genes—and by nurture, or our environment. For…

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