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Chapter 15

Biotechnology

What is Genetic Engineering?
Overview Genetic engineering is the process of modifying an organism’s DNA to introduce new, desirable traits. Many organisms, from bacteria…
Antibiotic Selection
Overview Researchers use antibiotic resistance genes to identify bacteria that possess a plasmid containing their gene of interest. Antibiotic…
Recombinant DNA
Overview Scientists create recombinant DNA by combining DNA from different sources—often, other species—in the laboratory. DNA cloning…
Transgenic Organisms
Overview Transgenic organisms are genetically engineered to carry transgenes—genes from a different species—as part of their genome. The…
Adult Stem Cells
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that divide and produce more stem cells or progenitor cells that differentiate into mature, specialized cell…
Embryonic Stem Cells
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are undifferentiated pluripotent cells, meaning they can produce any cell type in the body. This gives them tremendous…
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that divide and produce different types of cells. Ordinarily, cells that have differentiated into a specific…
In-vitro Mutagenesis
To learn more about the function of a gene, researchers can observe what happens when the gene is inactivated or “knocked out,” by…
DNA Isolation
DNA from cells is required for many biotechnology and research applications, such as molecular cloning. To remove and purify DNA from cells,…
Gene Therapy
Gene therapy is a technique where a gene is inserted into a person’s cells to prevent or treat a serious disease. The added gene may be a…
Reproductive Cloning
Reproductive cloning is the process of producing a genetically identical copy—a clone—of an entire organism. While clones can be produced…
CRISPR
Genome editing technologies allow scientists to modify an organism’s DNA via the addition, removal, or rearrangement of genetic material at…
Complementary DNA
Overview Only genes that are transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) are active, or expressed. Scientists can, therefore, extract the mRNA from cells…
PCR
Overview The polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, is a widely used technique for copying segments of DNA. Due to exponential amplification, PCR can…
Alternative Cultures for Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Production, Maintenance, and Genetic Analysis
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) hold great promise for regenerative medicine and biopharmaceutical applications. Currently, optimal culture and…
Targeted Next-generation Sequencing and Bioinformatics Pipeline to Evaluate Genetic Determinants of Constitutional Disease
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is quickly revolutionizing how research into the genetic determinants of constitutional disease is performed. The…
The Multi-organ Chip - A Microfluidic Platform for Long-term Multi-tissue Coculture
The ever growing amount of new substances released onto the market and the limited predictability of current in vitro test systems has led to a high…
CRISPR Guide RNA Cloning for Mammalian Systems
The outlined protocol describes streamlined methods for the efficient and cost-effective generation of Cas9-associated guide RNAs. Two alternative…
CAPRRESI: Chimera Assembly by Plasmid Recovery and Restriction Enzyme Site Insertion
Here, we present chimera assembly by plasmid recovery and restriction enzyme site insertion (CAPRRESI). CAPRRESI benefits from many strengths of the…
Synthesis of Keratin-based Nanofiber for Biomedical Engineering
Electrospinning, due to its versatility and potential for applications in various fields, is being frequently used to fabricate nanofibers.…
Protocols for Assessing Radiofrequency Interactions with Gold Nanoparticles and Biological Systems for Non-invasive Hyperthermia Cancer Therapy
Cancer therapies which are less toxic and invasive than their existing counterparts are highly desirable. The use of RF electric-fields that…

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