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Capítulo 34
Introdução à Diversidade de Plantas
From Water to Land Kingdom Plantae first appeared about 410 million years ago as green algae transitioned from water to land. This land was a…
Plantas Não Vasculares Sem Sementes
The diverse plant life on Earth—consisting of nearly 400,000 species—can be divided into three broad categories based on biological…
Plantas Vasculares Sem Sementes
Seedless Vascular Plants Were the First Tall Plants on Earth Today, seedless vascular plants are represented by monilophytes and lycophytes.…
Introdução às Plantas Com Sementes
Most plants are seed plants—characterized by seeds, pollen, and reduced gametophytes. Seed plants include gymnosperms and…
Anatomia Vegetal Básica: Raízes, Caules e Folhas
The primary organs of vascular plants are roots, stems, and leaves, but these structures can be highly variable, adapted for the specific needs and…
Células e Tecidos das Plantas
Plant tissues are collections of similar cells performing related functions. Different plant tissues will have their own specialized roles and can be…
Meristemas e Crescimento das Plantas
Plants grow throughout their lives; this is called indeterminate growth, and it distinguishes plants from most animals. Although certain parts of…
Crescimento Primário e Secundário em Raízes e Rebentos
Vascular plants, which account for over 90% of the Earth’s vegetation, all undergo primary growth—which lengthens roots and shoots. Many…
Morfogénese
Plant morphogenesis—the development of a plant’s form and structure—involves several overlapping developmental processes, including…
Aquisição de Luz
In order to produce glucose, plants need to capture sufficient light energy. Many modern plants have evolved leaves specialized for light…
Aquisição de Água e Minerais
Specialized tissues in plant roots have evolved to capture water, minerals, and some ions from the soil. Roots exhibit a variety of branching…
Transporte de Recursos a Curta Distância
Short-distance transport refers to transport that occurs over a distance of just 2-3 cells, crossing the plasma membrane in the process. Small…
Xilema e Transporte de Recursos por Transpiração
The xylem of vascular plants distributes water and dissolved minerals that are taken up by the roots to the rest of the plant. The cells that…
Regulação da Transpiração por Estomas
During photosynthesis, plants acquire the necessary carbon dioxide and release the produced oxygen back into the atmosphere. Openings in the…
Adaptações que Reduzem a Perda de Água
Though evaporation from plant leaves drives transpiration, it also results in loss of water. Because water is critical for photosynthetic reactions…
Floema e Transporte de Açúcar
Like many living organisms, plants have tissues that specialize in specific plant functions. For example, shoots are well adapted to rapid growth,…
O Ecossistema do Solo
Plants obtain inorganic minerals and water from the soil, which acts as a natural medium for land plants. The composition and quality of soil depend…
Elementos-Chave para a Nutrição das Plantas
Like all living organisms, plants require organic and inorganic nutrients to survive, reproduce, grow and maintain homeostasis. To identify nutrients…
O Papel das Bactérias e Fungos na Nutrição das Plantas
Plants have the impressive ability to create their own food through photosynthesis. However, plants often require assistance from organisms in the…
Epífitas, Parasitas e Carnívoros
Plants often form mutualistic relationships with soil-dwelling fungi or bacteria to enhance their roots’ nutrient uptake ability.…
O Apoplasto e o Simplasto
Plant growth depends on its ability to take up water and dissolved minerals from the soil. The root system of every plant is equipped with the…
Identificação de novos reguladores de transpiração vegetal por triagem de imagens térmicas em larga escala em <em>Helianthus Annuus</em>
Plant adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses is governed by a variety of factors, among which the regulation of stomatal aperture in response to…
Usando tomografia de tórax para visualizar a estrutura tridimensional e Função da Usina Vasculatura
High resolution x-ray computed tomography (HRCT) is a non-destructive diagnostic imaging technique with sub-micron resolution capability that is now…

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