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Kapitel 34
 Einführung in die Pflanzenvielfalt
From Water to Land Kingdom Plantae first appeared about 410 million years ago as green algae transitioned from water to land. This land was a…
 Nicht-vaskuläre samenlose Pflanzen
The diverse plant life on Earth—consisting of nearly 400,000 species—can be divided into three broad categories based on biological…
 Samenlose Gefäßpflanzen
Seedless Vascular Plants Were the First Tall Plants on Earth Today, seedless vascular plants are represented by monilophytes and lycophytes.…
 Einführung in Samenpflanzen
Most plants are seed plants—characterized by seeds, pollen, and reduced gametophytes. Seed plants include gymnosperms and…
 Grundlegende Pflanzenanatomie: Wurzeln, Stengel und Blätter
The primary organs of vascular plants are roots, stems, and leaves, but these structures can be highly variable, adapted for the specific needs and…
 Pflanzenzellen und Gewebe
Plant tissues are collections of similar cells performing related functions. Different plant tissues will have their own specialized roles and can be…
 Meristeme und Pflanzenwachstum
Plants grow throughout their lives; this is called indeterminate growth, and it distinguishes plants from most animals. Although certain parts of…
 Primäres und sekundäres Wachstum bei Wurzeln und Trieben
Vascular plants, which account for over 90% of the Earth’s vegetation, all undergo primary growth—which lengthens roots and shoots. Many…
 Morphogenese
Plant morphogenesis—the development of a plant’s form and structure—involves several overlapping developmental processes, including…
 Lichtaufnahme
In order to produce glucose, plants need to capture sufficient light energy. Many modern plants have evolved leaves specialized for light…
 Wasser- und Mineralgewinnung
Specialized tissues in plant roots have evolved to capture water, minerals, and some ions from the soil. Roots exhibit a variety of branching…
 Kurzstreckentransport von Ressourcen
Short-distance transport refers to transport that occurs over a distance of just 2-3 cells, crossing the plasma membrane in the process. Small…
 Xylem- und Transpirationsgetriebener Transport von Ressourcen
The xylem of vascular plants distributes water and dissolved minerals that are taken up by the roots to the rest of the plant. The cells that…
 Regulation der Transpiration durch Stomata
During photosynthesis, plants acquire the necessary carbon dioxide and release the produced oxygen back into the atmosphere. Openings in the…
 Anpassungen, die den Wasserverlust reduzieren
Though evaporation from plant leaves drives transpiration, it also results in loss of water. Because water is critical for photosynthetic reactions…
 Phloem- und Zuckertransport
Like many living organisms, plants have tissues that specialize in specific plant functions. For example, shoots are well adapted to rapid growth,…
 Das Bodenökosystem
Plants obtain inorganic minerals and water from the soil, which acts as a natural medium for land plants. The composition and quality of soil depend…
 Schlüsselelemente der Pflanzenernährung
Like all living organisms, plants require organic and inorganic nutrients to survive, reproduce, grow and maintain homeostasis. To identify nutrients…
 Die Rolle von Bakterien und Pilzen in der Pflanzenernährung
Plants have the impressive ability to create their own food through photosynthesis. However, plants often require assistance from organisms in the…
 Epiphyten, Parasiten und Fleischfresser
Plants often form mutualistic relationships with soil-dwelling fungi or bacteria to enhance their roots’ nutrient uptake ability.…
 Der Apoplast und Symplast
Plant growth depends on its ability to take up water and dissolved minerals from the soil. The root system of every plant is equipped with the…

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