Transvenous Embolization of Carotid Cavernous Fistula through Inferior Petrosal Sinus with Detachable Coils and Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer

* These authors contributed equally
This article has been accepted and is currently in production

Abstract

Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is a rare disease caused by abnormal communications between the internal carotid artery (direct fistula) or meningeal branches of the external carotid artery (indirect fistula) and the cavernous sinus (CS). Trauma is the most common cause of CCF. The clinical presentation of CCF is closely related to the venous drainage pattern. Orbital and neuro-ophthalmological symptoms are the most common clinical presentation of CCF with drainage through the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV). Endovascular embolization by arterial or venous approaches is the most common management of CCF. Transvenous embolization using detachable coils and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) is an alternative method for the treatment of CCF. Endovascular embolization offers different options to treat CCF by minimally invasive approach decreasing morbidity and residual fistulas. The purpose of this article is to report our treatment experiences via the inferior petrosal sinus (IPS), and immediate-term outcomes of endovascular embolization of CCF by using detachable coils and EVOH.