JoVE Monthly Highlights December 2017

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Published 12/11/2017
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McAllister, C., Navani, D. JoVE Monthly Highlights December 2017. J. Vis. Exp. (130), e5949, (2017).

Abstract

Here's a look at what's coming up in the December 2017 issue of JoVE: The World's Premier Video Journal.

From a flurry of fantastic articles for December, we begin with a customizable MRI guided focused ultrasound treatment for patients with essential tremor. In JoVE Medicine, our authors describe patient selection, equipment setup, sonication, and post treatment follow-up. The exciting results show that patients experienced both short- and long-term reductions in their tremors, beginning immediately after treatment.

Next, JoVE Neuroscience loops in to the circulatory system. Here, our authors describe a protocol that uses diffuse polarization spectroscopy to improve the clinical usefulness of the capillary refill test. The capillary refilling response is measured quantitatively using videos, in contrast to traditional methods that rely on visual observation. Compared to naked eye observations, this method allows for more accurate monitoring of circulation in critically injured or ill patients.

In a gem of an article, from JoVE Developmental Biology, our authors demonstrate a procedure for microinjecting developing jewel wasps Nasonia vitripennis. The test embryos were removed from their parasitized host pupae, and successfully injected with CRISPR/Cas9 molecules. This procedure overcomes significant challenges in working with jewel wasp embryos and will allow future research groups to perform genome modifications in this and similar organisms.

Our final article heats things up, with laboratory experiments simulating the formation of a lava-phase following a nuclear reactor core meltdown. In JoVE Chemistry, our authors heat real nuclear fuel, cladding, and containment materials to temperatures beyond 3,000 degrees Kelvin. These experiments answer key questions related to core meltdown, and contribute to the prevention of severe accidents in nuclear power plants. That's hot science!

You've just had a sneak peek of the December 2017 issue of JoVE. Visit our website to see the full-length articles, plus many more, in JoVE: The World's Premier Video Journal.

Protocol

Embryo Microinjection and Transplantation Technique for Nasonia vitripennis Genome Manipulation

Ming Li1,2, Michelle Bui1,2, Omar S. Akbari1,2

1Department of Entomology and Riverside Center of Disease Vector Research, Institute for Integrative Genome Biology, University of California, Riverside, 2Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego

Microinjection of Nasonia vitripennis embryos is an essential method for generating heritable genome modifications. Described here is a detailed procedure for microinjection and transplantation of Nasonia vitripennis embryos, which will greatly facilitate future genome manipulation in this organism.

Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy: Getting the Capillary Refill Test Under One's Thumb

Joakim Henricson1,2, Rani Toll John1,3, Chris D. Anderson4,5, Daniel Björk Wilhelms1,2

1Department of Emergency Medicine, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Region Östergötland, 2Division of Drug Research, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, 3Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, 4Division of Cell Biology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, 5Department of Dermatology and Venerology, Heart and Medicine Center, Region Östergötland

This protocol describes how the use of diffuse polarization spectroscopy can improve the clinical usefulness of the capillary refill test. We suggest a more detailed analysis of the course of the capillary refill in healthy volunteers using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy videos and new informatic endpoints.

MRI-guided Focused Ultrasound Thalamotomy for Patients with Medically-refractory Essential Tremor

Ying Meng1, Yuexi Huang2, Benjamin Solomon2, Kullervo Hynynen2, Nadia Scantlebury1, Michael L. Schwartz1, Nir Lipsman1

1Division of Neurosurgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre

High-intensity MRI guided focused ultrasound is an emerging noninvasive technique to precisely ablate brain tissue. It has been shown to be safe and effective in treating medically-refractory essential tremor. This article describes the protocol for thalamotomy from patient selection to equipment setup to post-treatment follow-up.

Laser-heating and Radiance Spectrometry for the Study of Nuclear Materials in Conditions Simulating a Nuclear Power Plant Accident

Dario Manara1, Luca Soldi1,2,4, Sara Mastromarino1,3,5, Kostantinos Boboridis1, Davide Robba1, Luka Vlahovic1, Rudy Konings1

1European Commission, Joint Research Centre, 2Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, 3Department of Chemical Physics, Sapienza - Università di Roma, 4CEA Saclay, 5TU Delft

We present experiments in which real nuclear fuel, cladding, and containment materials are laser heated to temperatures beyond 3,000 K while their behavior is studied by radiance spectroscopy and thermal analysis. These experiments simulate, on a laboratory scale, the formation of a lava-phase following a nuclear reactor core meltdown.

Disclosures

No conflicts of interest declared.

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