Immunotherapies show promise in the treatment of oncology patients, but complex heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment makes predicting treatment response challenging. The ability to resolve the relative populations of immune cells present in and around the tumor tissue has been shown to be clinically-relevant to understanding response, but is limited by traditional techniques such as flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC), due the large amount of tissue required, lack of accurate cell type markers, and many technical and logistical hurdles. One assay (e.g., the ImmunoPrism Immune Profiling Assay) overcomes these challenges by accommodating both small amounts of RNA and highly degraded RNA, common features of RNA extracted from clinically archived solid tumor tissue. The assay is accessed via a reagent kit and cloud-based informatics that provides an end-to-end quantitative, high-throughput immuno-profiling solution for Illumina sequencing platforms. Researchers start with as few as two sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue or 20-40 ng of total RNA (depending on sample quality), and the protocol generates an immune profile report quantifying eight immune cell types and ten immune escape genes, capturing a complete view of the tumor microenvironment. No additional bioinformatic analysis is required to make use of the resulting data. With the appropriate sample cohorts, the protocol may also be used to identify statistically significant biomarkers within a patient population of interest.