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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (2)
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Articles by Aaron B. Stephan in JoVE
تحليل الردود من الخلايا العصبية الحسية الشمية ماوس باستخدام تسجيل Electroolfactogram الهواء المرحلة
Katherine D. Cygnar, Aaron B. Stephan, Haiqing Zhao
Biology, Johns Hopkins University
وelectroolfactogram (EOG) هو تسجيل بالمعلومات ، طريقة سهلة لقواعد السلوك ، وموثوق بها لتقييم وظيفة حاسة الشم عند مستوى الظهارة الشمية. يصف هذا البروتوكول على إعداد تسجيل ، والماوس إعداد الأنسجة ، وجمع البيانات وتحليل البيانات الأساسية.
Other articles by Aaron B. Stephan on PubMed
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19561302
For vertebrate olfactory signal transduction, a calcium-activated chloride conductance serves as a major amplification step. However, the molecular identity of the olfactory calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) is unknown. Here we report a proteomic screen for cilial membrane proteins of mouse olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that identified all the known olfactory transduction components as well as Anoctamin 2 (ANO2). Ano2 transcripts were expressed specifically in OSNs in the olfactory epithelium, and ANO2::EGFP fusion protein localized to the OSN cilia when expressed in vivo using an adenoviral vector. Patch-clamp analysis revealed that ANO2, when expressed in HEK-293 cells, forms a CaCC and exhibits channel properties closely resembling the native olfactory CaCC. Considering these findings together, we propose that ANO2 constitutes the olfactory calcium-activated chloride channel.
The Na(+)/Ca(2+) Exchanger NCKX4 Governs Termination and Adaptation of the Mammalian Olfactory Response
Nature Neuroscience. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22057188
Sensory perception requires accurate encoding of stimulus information by sensory receptor cells. We identified NCKX4, a potassium-dependent Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, as being necessary for rapid response termination and proper adaptation of vertebrate olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Nckx4(-/-) (also known as Slc24a4) mouse OSNs displayed substantially prolonged responses and stronger adaptation. Single-cell electrophysiological analyses revealed that the majority of Na(+)-dependent Ca(2+) exchange in OSNs relevant to sensory transduction is a result of NCKX4 and that Nckx4(-/-) mouse OSNs are deficient in encoding action potentials on repeated stimulation. Olfactory-specific Nckx4(-/-) mice had lower body weights and a reduced ability to locate an odorous source. These results establish the role of NCKX4 in shaping olfactory responses and suggest that rapid response termination and proper adaptation of peripheral sensory receptor cells tune the sensory system for optimal perception.