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In JoVE (2)
- Morphological Analysis of Drosophila Larval Peripheral Sensory Neuron Dendrites and Axons Using Genetic Mosaics
- Immunohistological Labeling of Microtubules in Sensory Neuron Dendrites, Tracheae, and Muscles in the Drosophila Larva Body Wall
Other Publications (9)
Articles by Adrian W. Moore in JoVE
Morphological Analysis of Drosophila Larval Peripheral Sensory Neuron Dendrites and Axons Using Genetic Mosaics
M. Rezaul Karim1,2, Adrian W. Moore1
1Disease Mechanism Research Core, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 2Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University
The dendritic arborization sensory neurons of the Drosophila larval peripheral nervous system are useful models to elucidate both general and neuron class-specific mechanisms of neuron differentiation. We present a practical guide to generate and analyze dendritic arborization neuron genetic mosaics.
Immunohistological Labeling of Microtubules in Sensory Neuron Dendrites, Tracheae, and Muscles in the Drosophila Larva Body Wall
Cagri Yalgin1,2, M. Rezaul Karim1,2, Adrian W. Moore1
1Disease Mechanism Research Core, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 2Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University
To understand how complex cell shapes, such as neuronal dendrites, are achieved during development, it is important to be able to accurately assay microtubule organization. Here we describe a robust immunohistological labeling method to examine microtubule organization of dendritic arborization neuron sensory dendrites, trachea, muscle, and other Drosophila larva body wall tissues.
Other articles by Adrian W. Moore on PubMed
Science (New York, N.Y.). Aug, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12193790
The dendritic morphology of neurons determines the number and type of inputs they receive. In the Drosophila peripheral nervous system (PNS), the external sensory (ES) neurons have a single nonbranched dendrite, whereas the lineally related multidendritic (MD) neurons have extensively branched dendritic arbors. We report that hamlet is a binary genetic switch between these contrasting morphological types. In hamlet mutants, ES neurons are converted to an MD fate, whereas ectopic hamlet expression in MD precursors results in transformation of MD neurons into ES neurons. Moreover, hamlet expression induced in MD neurons undergoing dendrite outgrowth drastically reduces arbor branching.
Dendrites of Distinct Classes of Drosophila Sensory Neurons Show Different Capacities for Homotypic Repulsion
Current Biology : CB. Apr, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12699617
Understanding how dendrites establish their territory is central to elucidating how neuronal circuits are built. Signaling between dendrites is thought to be important for defining their territories; however, the strategies by which different types of dendrites communicate are poorly understood. We have shown previously that two classes of Drosophila peripheral da sensory neurons, the class III and class IV neurons, provide complete and independent tiling of the body wall. By contrast, dendrites of class I and class II neurons do not completely tile the body wall, but they nevertheless occupy nonoverlapping territories.
Conversion of Neurons and Glia to External-cell Fates in the External Sensory Organs of Drosophila Hamlet Mutants by a Cousin-cousin Cell-type Respecification
Genes & Development. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15075290
The Drosophila external sensory organ forms in a lineage elaborating from a single precursor cell via a stereotypical series of asymmetric divisions. HAMLET transcription factor expression demarcates the lineage branch that generates two internal cell types, the external sensory neuron and thecogen. In HAMLET mutant organs, these internal cells are converted to external cells via an unprecedented cousin-cousin cell-fate respecification event. Conversely, ectopic HAMLET expression in the external cell branch leads to internal cell production. The fate-determining signals NOTCH and PAX2 act at multiple stages of lineage elaboration and HAMLET acts to modulate their activity in a branch-specific manner.
Developmental Biology. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15617679
Many studies have focused on the mechanisms of axon guidance; however, little is known about the transcriptional control of the navigational components that carryout these decisions. This report describes the functional analysis of Nerfin-1, a nuclear regulator of axon guidance required for a subset of early pathfinding events in the developing Drosophila CNS. Nerfin-1 belongs to a highly conserved subfamily of Zn-finger proteins with cognates identified in nematodes and man. We show that the neural precursor gene prospero is essential for nerfin-1 expression. Unlike nerfin-1 mRNA, which is expressed in many neural precursor cells, the encoded Nerfin-1 protein is only detected in the nuclei of neuronal precursors that will divide just once and then transiently in their nascent neurons. Although nerfin-1 null embryos have no discernible alterations in neural lineage development nor in neuronal or glial identities, CNS pioneering neurons require nerfin-1 function for early axon guidance decisions. Furthermore, nerfin-1 is required for the proper development of commissural and connective axon fascicles. Our studies also show that Nerfin-1 is essential for the proper expression of robo2, wnt5, derailed, G-oalpha47A, Lar, and futsch, genes whose encoded proteins participate in these early navigational events.
Prdm Proto-oncogene Transcription Factor Family Expression and Interaction with the Notch-Hes Pathway in Mouse Neurogenesis
PloS One. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19050759
Establishment and maintenance of a functional central nervous system (CNS) requires a highly orchestrated process of neural progenitor cell proliferation, cell cycle exit, and differentiation. An evolutionary conserved program consisting of Notch signalling mediated by basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factor activity is necessary for both the maintenance of neural progenitor cell character and the progression of neurogenesis; however, additional players in mammalian CNS neural specification remain largely unknown. In Drosophila we recently characterized Hamlet, a transcription factor that mediates Notch signalling and neural cell fate.
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19789644
The fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster is well established as a model system in the study of human neurodegenerative diseases. Utilizing RNAi, we have carried out a high-throughput screen for modifiers of aggregate formation in Drosophila larval CNS-derived cells expressing mutant human Huntingtin exon 1 fused to EGFP with an expanded polyglutamine repeat (62Q). 7200 genes, encompassing around 50% of the Drosophila genome, were screened, resulting in the identification of 404 candidates that either suppress or enhance aggregation. These candidates were subjected to secondary screening in normal length (18Q)-expressing cells and pruned to remove dsRNAs with greater than 10 off-target effects (OTEs). De novo RNAi probes were designed and synthesized for the remaining 68 candidates. Following a tertiary round of screening, 21 high confidence candidates were analyzed in vivo for their ability to modify mutant Huntingtin-induced eye degeneration and brain aggregation. We have established useful models for the study of human HD using the fly, and through our RNAi screen, we have identified new modifiers of mutant human Huntingtin aggregation and aggregate formation in the brain. Newly identified modifiers including genes related to nuclear transport, nucleotide processes, and signaling, may be involved in polyglutamine aggregate formation and Huntington disease cascades.
Selection of Behaviors and Segmental Coordination During Larval Locomotion is Disrupted by Nuclear Polyglutamine Inclusions in a New Drosophila Huntington's Disease-like Model
Journal of Neurogenetics. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21087194
Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by abnormal expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein, resulting in intracellular aggregate formation and neurodegeneration. How neuronal cells are affected by such a polyglutamine tract expansion remains obscure. To dissect the ways in which polyglutamine expansion can cause neural dysfunction, the authors generated Drosophila transgenic strains expressing either a nuclear targeted or cytoplasmic form of pathogenic (NHtt-152Q(NLS), NHtt-152Q), or nonpathogenic (NHtt-18Q(NLS), NHtt-18Q) N-terminal human huntingtin. These proteins were expressed in the dendritic arborization neurons of the larval peripheral nervous system and their effects on neuronal survival, morphology, and larval locomotion were examined. The authors found that NHtt-152Q(NLS) larvae had altered dendrite morphology and larval locomotion, whereas NHtt-152Q, NHtt-18Q(NLS), and NHtt-18Q larvae did not. Furthermore, the authors examined the physiological defect underlying this disrupted larval locomotion in detail by recording spontaneous ongoing segmental nerve activity. NHtt-152Q(NLS) larvae displayed uncoordinated activity between anterior and posterior segments. Moreover, anterior segments had shorter bursts and longer interburst intervals in NHtt-152Q(NLS) larvae than in NHtt-18Q(NLS) larvae, whereas posterior segments had longer bursts and shorter interburst intervals. These results suggest that the pathogenic protein disrupts neuron function without inducing cell death, and describe how this dysfunction leads to a locomotor defect. These results also suggest that sensory inputs are necessary for the coordination of anterior and posterior body parts during locomotion. From these analyses the authors show that examination of motor behaviors in the Drosophila larvae is a powerful new model to dissect non-cell-lethal mechanisms of mutant Htt toxicity.
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22114271
Development of sensory neural circuits requires concurrent specification of neuron modality, position, and topographic projections. However, little is understood about how controls over these distinct parameters can unify in a single developmental sequence. To address this question, we have used the nociceptive class IV dendritic arborization neurons in the Drosophila larval body wall as an excellent model that allows precise spatiotemporal dissection of developmental-genetic control over sensory neuron positioning and wiring, and subsequent analysis of its functional significance for sensorimotor behavior. The class IV neurogenetic program is intrinsic to the anterior domain of the embryonic parasegment epithelium. Along the ventrolateral axis of this domain, nociceptive neuron induction requirements depend upon location. Near the ventral midline, both Hedgehog and Epithelial growth factor receptor signaling are required for class IV neurogenesis. In addition, close to the ventral midline, class IV neurogenesis is preceded by expression of the Iroquois factor Mirror that promotes local nociceptive neuron differentiation. Remarkably, Mirror is also required for the proper routing of class IV topographic axonal projections across the midline of the CNS. Manipulation of Mirror activity in class IV neurons retargeted axonal projections and caused concordant changes in larval nociceptive escape behavior. These findings indicate that convergent sensory neuron specification, local differentiation, and topographic wiring are mediated by Mirror, and they suggest an integrated paradigm for position-sensitive neural development.
Nature Neuroscience. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22197833
Neuronal-class diversification is central during neurogenesis. This requirement is exemplified in the olfactory system, which utilizes a large array of olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) classes. We discovered an epigenetic mechanism in which neuron diversity is maximized via locus-specific chromatin modifications that generate context-dependent responses from a single, generally used intracellular signal. Each ORN in Drosophila acquires one of three basic identities defined by the compound outcome of three iterated Notch signaling events during neurogenesis. Hamlet, the Drosophila Evi1 and Prdm16 proto-oncogene homolog, modifies cellular responses to these iteratively used Notch signals in a context-dependent manner, and controls odorant receptor gene choice and ORN axon targeting specificity. In nascent ORNs, Hamlet erases the Notch state inherited from the parental cell, enabling a modified response in a subsequent round of Notch signaling. Hamlet directs locus-specific modifications of histone methylation and histone density and controls accessibility of the DNA-binding protein Suppressor of Hairless at the Notch target promoter.