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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (9)
- Brain : a Journal of Neurology
- Muscle & Nerve
- AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
- IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics : a Joint Publication of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society and the ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Division
- Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology
- IEEE Transactions on Robotics : a Publication of the IEEE Robotics and Automation Society
- Journal of Magnetic Resonance (San Diego, Calif. : 1997)
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Articles by Alan McMillan in JoVE
In vivo מכרסמים דגם של פגיעה הנגרמת על התכווצות ולא פולשנית לניטור של התאוששות
Richard M. Lovering1,2, Joseph A. Roche1, Mariah H. Goodall2, Brett B. Clark2, Alan McMillan3
1Department of Physiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 2Department of Orthopaedics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine
Other articles by Alan McMillan on PubMed
Voxel-based Morphometry of Unilateral Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Reveals Abnormalities in Cerebral White Matter
NeuroImage. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15325363
Voxel-based morphometric (VBM) investigations of temporal lobe epilepsy have focused on the presence and distribution of gray matter abnormalities. VBM studies to date have identified the expected abnormalities in hippocampus and extrahippocampal temporal lobe, as well as more diffuse abnormalities in the thalamus, cerebellum, and extratemporal neocortical areas. To date, there has not been a comprehensive VBM investigation of cerebral white matter in nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy. This study examined 25 lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy patients (13 left, 12 right) and 62 healthy controls in regard to both temporal and extratemporal lobe gray and white matter. Consistent with prior reports, gray matter abnormalities were evident in ipsilateral hippocampus and ipsilateral thalamus. Temporal and extratemporal white matter was affected ipsilateral to the side of seizure onset, in both left and right temporal lobe epilepsy groups. These findings indicate that chronic temporal lobe epilepsy is associated not only with abnormalities in gray matter, but also with concomitant abnormalities in cerebral white matter regions that may affect connectivity both within and between the cerebral hemispheres.
NeuroImage. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15734354
Self-paced functional MR imaging (fMRI) paradigms, in which the task timing is determined by the subject's performance, can offer several advantages over commonly applied paradigms with predetermined stimulus timing. Independent component analysis (ICA) does not require specification of a timed response function, and could be an advantageous method of deriving results from fMRI data sets with varying response timings and durations. In this study normal volunteers (N = 10) each performed two self-paced fMRI motor and arithmetic paradigms. Individual data sets were analyzed with the Infomax spatial ICA algorithm. Conventional regression analysis was performed for comparison purposes. Spatial ICA effectively produced task-related components from each of the self-paced data sets, even in a few cases where regression analysis yielded non-specific functional maps. For the motor paradigm, these components consistently mapped to primary motor areas. ICA of the arithmetic paradigm yielded multiple task-related components that variably mapped to regions of parietal and frontal lobes. Regression analysis generally yielded similar spatial maps. The multiple task-related ICA components that were sometimes produced from each self-paced data set can be challenging to identify and evaluate for significance. These preliminary results indicate that ICA is useful as an exploratory and complementary method to conventional regression analysis for fMRI of self-paced paradigms.
Brain : a Journal of Neurology. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17947336
Recent studies suggest that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common comorbid condition in childhood epilepsy, but little is known regarding the nature, frequency and timing of associated neurobehavioural/cognitive complications or the underlying aetiology of ADHD in epilepsy. This investigation examined: (i) the prevalence of ADHD and its subtypes; (ii) the association of ADHD with abnormalities in academic, neuropsychological, behavioural and psychiatric status and (iii) the aetiology of ADHD in paediatric epilepsy. Seventy-five children (age 8-18) with new/recent onset idiopathic epilepsy and 62 healthy controls underwent structured interview (K-SADS) to identify the presence and type of DSM-IV defined ADHD, neuropsychological assessment, quantitative MR volumetrics, characterization of parent observed executive function, review of academic/educational progress and assessment of risk factors during gestation and delivery. The results indicate that ADHD is significantly more prevalent in new onset epilepsy than healthy controls (31% versus 6%), characterized predominantly by the inattentive variant, with onset antedating the diagnosis of epilepsy in the majority of children. ADHD in childhood epilepsy is associated with significantly increased rates of school based remedial services for academic underachievement, neuropsychological consequences with prominent differences in executive function, and parent-reported dysexecutive behaviours. ADHD in paediatric epilepsy is neither associated with demographic or clinical epilepsy characteristics nor potential risk factors during gestation and birth. Quantitative MRI demonstrates that ADHD in epilepsy is associated with significantly increased gray matter in distributed regions of the frontal lobe and significantly smaller brainstem volume. Overall, ADHD is a prevalent comorbidity of new onset idiopathic epilepsy associated with a diversity of salient educational, cognitive, behavioural and social complications that antedate epilepsy onset in a significant proportion of cases, and appear related to neurodevelopmental abnormalities in brain structure.
Muscle & Nerve. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19760787
High-force lengthening contractions are associated with muscle damage and pain, and the muscle-tendon junction is commonly cited as the primary area where myofiber damage occurs. We induced injury in the rat tibialis anterior muscle and acquired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images postinjury. We also assayed membrane damage and quantified the number of centrally nucleated myofibers throughout the injured muscles. Results suggest that myofiber injury occurs primarily in the middle portion of the muscle, with interstitial edema in the middle and distal portions.
Comparison of Sagittal T2-weighted BLADE and Fast Spin-echo MRI of the Female Pelvis for Motion Artifact and Lesion Detection
AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21785057
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of BLADE (proprietary name for periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction [PROPELLER] in MR systems from Siemens Healthcare) MRI compared with conventional T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) MRI for reducing artifacts and improving image quality when imaging the female pelvis.
Design and Control of a 1-DOF MRI Compatible Pneumatically Actuated Robot with Long Transmission Lines
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics : a Joint Publication of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society and the ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Division. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22058649
This paper presents the design and control of an MRI-compatible 1-DOF needle driver robot and its precise position control using pneumatic actuation with long transmission lines. MRI provides superior image quality compared to other imaging modalities such as CT or ultrasound, but imposes severe limitations on the material and actuator choice (to prevent image distortion) due to its strong magnetic field. We are primarily interested in developing a pneumatically actuated breast biopsy robot with a large force bandwidth and precise targeting capability during radio-frequency ablation (RFA) of breast tumor, and exploring the possibility of using long pneumatic transmission lines from outside the MRI room to the device in the magnet to prevent any image distortion whatsoever. This paper presents a model of the entire pneumatic system. The pneumatic lines are approximated by a first order system with time delay, because its dynamics are governed by the telegraph equation with varying coefficients and boundary conditions, which cannot be solved precisely. The slow response of long pneumatic lines and valve subsystems make position control challenging. This is further compounded by the presence of non-uniform friction in the device. Sliding mode control (SMC) was adopted, where friction was treated as an uncertainty term to drive the system onto the sliding surface. Three different controllers were designed, developed, and evaluated to achieve precise position control of the RFA probe. Experimental results revealed that all SMCs gave satisfactory performance with long transmission lines. We also performed several experiments with a 3-DOF fiber-optic force sensor attached to the needle driver to evaluate the performance of the device in the MRI under continuous imaging.
Diffusion Tensor MRI to Assess Damage in Healthy and Dystrophic Skeletal Muscle After Lengthening Contractions
Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22190860
The purpose of this study was to determine if variables calculated from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) would serve as a reliable marker of damage after a muscle strain injury in dystrophic (mdx) and wild type (WT) mice. Unilateral injury to the tibialis anterior muscle (TA) was induced in vivo by 10 maximal lengthening contractions. High resolution T1- and T2-weighted structural MRI, including T2 mapping and spin echo DTI was acquired on a 7T small animal MRI system. Injury was confirmed by a significant loss of isometric torque (85% in mdx versus 42% in WT). Greater increases in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), axial, and radial diffusivity (AD and RD) of the injured muscle were present in the mdx mice versus controls. These changes were paralleled by decreases in fractional anisotropy (FA). Additionally, T2 was increased in the mdx mice, but the spatial extent of the changes was less than those in the DTI parameters. The data suggest that DTI is an accurate indicator of muscle injury, even at early time points where the MR signal changes are dominated by local edema.
IEEE Transactions on Robotics : a Publication of the IEEE Robotics and Automation Society. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22267960
Brain tumors are the most feared complications of cancer. Their treatment is challenging due to the lack of good imaging modality and the inability to remove the complete tumor. Facilitating tumor removal by accessing regions outside the "line-of-sight" will require a highly dexterous and MRI compatible robot. We present our work towards the development of a MRI-compatible neurosurgical robot. We used two antagonistic shape memory alloy (SMA) wires as actuators for each joint. Due to the size limitation of the device, we rely on temperature feedback to control the joint motion of the robot. We have developed a theoretical model based on Tanaka's model to characterize the joint motion with the change in SMA wire temperature. The results demonstrated that the SMA wire temperature can be used reliably to predict the motion of the robot. We then used a PWM scheme and switching circuit to control the temperature of multiple SMA wires. Experimental results showed that we can actuate the robot reliably and observe joint motion in a gelatin medium. MR images also showed that the robot is fully MRI-compatible and creates no significant image distortion.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance (San Diego, Calif. : 1997). Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22188976
Oxygen maps derived from electron paramagnetic resonance spectral-spatial imaging (EPRI) are based upon the relaxivity of molecular oxygen with paramagnetic spin probes. This technique can be combined with MRI to facilitate mapping of pO(2) values in specific anatomic locations with high precision. The co-registration procedure, which matches the physical and digital dimensions of EPR and MR images, may present the pO(2) map at the higher MRI resolution, exaggerating the spatial resolution of oxygen, making it difficult to precisely distinguish hypoxic regions from normoxic regions. The latter distinction is critical in monitoring the treatment of cancer by radiation and chemotherapy, since it is well-established that hypoxic regions are three or four times more resistant to treatment compared to normoxic regions. The aim of this article is to describe pO(2) maps based on the intrinsic resolution of EPRI. A spectral parameter that affects the intrinsic spatial resolution of EPRI is the full width at half maximum (FWHM) height of the gradient-free EPR absorption line in frequency-encoded imaging. In single point imaging too, the transverse relaxation times (T(2)(∗)) limit the resolution since the signal decays by exp(-t(p)/T(2)(∗)) where the delay time after excitation pulse, t(p), is related to the resolution. Although the spin densities of two point objects may be resolved at this separation, it is inadequate to evaluate quantitative changes of pO(2) levels since the linewidths are proportionately affected by pO(2). A spatial separation of at least twice this resolution is necessary to correctly identify a change in pO(2) level. In addition, the pO(2) values are blurred by uncertainties arising from spectral dimensions. Blurring due to noise and low resolution modulates the pO(2) levels at the boundaries of hypoxic and normoxic regions resulting in higher apparent pO(2) levels in hypoxic regions. Therefore, specification of intrinsic resolution and pO(2) uncertainties are necessary to interpret digitally processed pO(2) illustrations.