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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (26)
- Cardiovascular Research
- Cardiovascular Research
- Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
- Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
- Science Signaling
- Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
- Brain Research
- FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
- Genome Medicine
- PloS One
- American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
- FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- Nature Neuroscience
- Basic Research in Cardiology
- The Journal of Chemical Physics
- American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
- Nutrition & Metabolism
- Genome Biology
- Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)
- The FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- Cell Metabolism
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Articles by Andrew J. Murray in JoVE
Produktion och Titering av rekombinanta Adeno-associerad virala vektorer
Christina McClure*1, Katy L. H. Cole*1, Peer Wulff1, Matthias Klugmann2, Andrew J. Murray1,3
1School of Medical Sciences, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Aberdeen, 2Translational Neuroscience Facility and Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University
Rekombinant Adeno-associerade virus (rAAVs) vektorer blir allt mer värdefulla för
Other articles by Andrew J. Murray on PubMed
Lancet. Nov 13-19, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15541452
Abnormal energetic activity in heart failure correlates inversely with plasma free-fatty-acid concentrations. However, the link between energetic and metabolic abnormalities is unknown. To investigate this association, we obtained blood samples from 39 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Patients fasted overnight before samples were taken. When plasma free-fatty-acid concentrations were raised, cardiac mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCP) increased (isoform UCP2, p<0.0001; isoform UCP3, p=0.0036) and those of glucose transporter (GLUT4) protein decreased (cardiac, p=0.0001; skeletal muscle, p=0.0006). Consequently, energy deficiency in heart failure might result from increased mitochondrial UCPs (ie, less efficient ATP synthesis) and depleted GLUT4 (ie, reduced glucose uptake). New treatment to correct these energy defects would be to simultaneously lower plasma free fatty acids and provide an alternative energy source.
Plasma Free Fatty Acids and Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Alpha in the Control of Myocardial Uncoupling Protein Levels
Diabetes. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16306367
Diabetic patients have abnormal cardiac energy metabolism associated with high plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. We investigated whether high plasma FFAs increase mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP) levels in the mouse heart by activating the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha. We used Western blotting to measure UCP protein levels in isolated cardiac mitochondria from PPARalpha-/- and diabetic mice. Cardiac UCP2 and UCP3 were significantly lower in the PPARalpha-/- mouse than in the wild type. Treatment with the PPARalpha-specific agonist, WY-14,643, increased cardiac UCP2 and UCP3 levels in wild-type mice but did not alter UCP levels in PPARalpha-/- mice. Inhibition of beta-oxidation with etomoxir increased cardiac UCP2 and UCP3 levels in wild-type mice and UCP2 levels in PPARalpha-/- mice but did not alter UCP3 levels in PPARalpha-/- mice. Streptozotocin treatment, which increased circulating FFAs by 91%, did not alter cardiac UCP2 levels in wild-type or PPARalpha-/- mice but increased UCP3 levels in wild-type, and not in PPARalpha-/-, mice. The diabetic db/db mouse had 50% higher plasma FFA concentrations and elevated cardiac UCP2 and UCP3 protein levels. We conclude that high plasma FFAs activated PPARalpha to increase cardiac UCP3 levels, but cardiac UCP2 levels changed via PPARalpha-dependent and -independent mechanisms.
Insulin Resistance, Abnormal Energy Metabolism and Increased Ischemic Damage in the Chronically Infarcted Rat Heart
Cardiovascular Research. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16616054
Many patients with heart failure have whole-body insulin resistance and reduced cardiac fluorodeoxyglucose uptake, but whether these metabolic changes have detrimental effects on the heart is unknown. Here, we tested whether there is a link between insulin resistance and ischemic damage in the chronically infarcted Wistar rat heart, postulating that the heart would have decreased insulin sensitivity, with lower GLUT4 glucose transporter protein levels due to high circulating free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. A decreased capacity for glucose uptake would lower glycolytic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and thereby increase ischemic injury in the infarcted heart.
Fatty Acid Transporter Levels and Palmitate Oxidation Rate Correlate with Ejection Fraction in the Infarcted Rat Heart
Cardiovascular Research. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17034771
Cardiac fatty acid uptake occurs predominantly via sarcolemmal transporter proteins; fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein (FABPpm) and fatty acid transporter proteins (FATP) 1 and 6. We hypothesised that levels of the fatty acid transporters would be reduced in the chronically infarcted rat heart, in parallel with reduced dependence on fatty acid utilisation.
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18089951
Energetic abnormalities in cardiac and skeletal muscle occur in heart failure and correlate with clinical symptoms and mortality. It is likely that the cellular mechanism leading to energetic failure involves mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, it is crucial to elucidate the causes of mitochondrial myopathy, in order to improve cardiac and skeletal muscle function, and hence quality of life, in heart failure patients.
Increased Mitochondrial Uncoupling Proteins, Respiratory Uncoupling and Decreased Efficiency in the Chronically Infarcted Rat Heart
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18328500
Heart failure patients have abnormal cardiac high energy phosphate metabolism, the explanation for which is unknown. Patients with heart failure also have elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. Elevated FFA levels are associated with increased cardiac mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs), which, in turn, are associated with decreased mitochondrial respiratory coupling and low cardiac efficiency. Here, we determined whether increased mitochondrial UCP levels contribute to decreased energetics in the failing heart by measuring UCPs and respiration in mitochondria isolated from the viable myocardium of chronically infarcted rat hearts and measuring efficiency (hydraulic work/O(2) consumption) in the isolated, working rat heart. Ten weeks after infarction, cardiac levels of UCP3 were increased by 53% in infarcted, failing hearts that had ejection fractions less than 45%. Cardiac UCP3 levels correlated positively with non-fasting plasma FFAs (r=0.81; p<0.01). Mitochondria from failing hearts were less coupled than those from control hearts, as demonstrated by the lower ADP/O ratio of 1.9+/-0.1 compared with 2.5+/-0.2 in controls (p<0.05). The decreased ADP/O ratio was reflected in an efficiency of 14+/-2% in the failing hearts when perfused with 1 mM palmitate, compared with 20+/-1% in controls (p<0.05). We conclude that failing hearts have increased UCP3 levels that are associated with high circulating FFA concentrations, mitochondrial uncoupling, and decreased cardiac efficiency. Thus, respiratory uncoupling may underlie the abnormal energetics and low efficiency in the failing heart, although whether this is maladaptive or adaptive would require direct investigation.
Science Signaling. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18523239
Signaling through the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase [protein kinase A (PKA)] is an important and widely studied area of signal transduction research. This signaling pathway is commonly investigated through the use of the pharmacological PKA inhibitors H89 and KT 5720. Both of these compounds are thought to block PKA actions through competitive inhibition of the adenosine triphosphate site on the PKA catalytic subunit. Recently, a number of studies have identified actions of H89 and KT 5720 that are independent of their effects on PKA. These nonspecific effects are widespread; they include actions on other protein kinases and signaling molecules and also on basic cellular functions, such as transcription. Here, I summarize the nonspecific effects of these two compounds and compare their actions with those of other PKA inhibitors.
Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18583150
A decline in developing neuronal cAMP levels appears to render mammalian axons susceptible to growth inhibitory factors in the damaged CNS. cAMP elevation enhances axon regeneration, but the cellular mechanisms involved have yet to be fully elucidated. Epac has been identified as a signaling protein that can be activated by cAMP independently of PKA, but little is known of its expression or role in the nervous system. We report that Epac expression is developmentally regulated in the rat nervous system, and that activation of Epac promotes DRG neurite outgrowth and is as effective as cAMP elevation in promoting neurite regeneration on spinal cord tissue. Additionally, siRNA mediated knockdown of Epac reduces DRG neurite outgrowth, prevents the increased growth promoted by cAMP elevation and also diminishes the ability of embryonic neurons to grow processes on spinal cord tissue. Furthermore, we show that asymmetric activation of Epac promotes attractive growth cone turning in a similar manner to cAMP activation. We propose that Epac plays a role in mediating cAMP-dependent axon growth and guidance, and may provide an important target for inducing axon regeneration in vivo.
CGMP Promotes Neurite Outgrowth and Growth Cone Turning and Improves Axon Regeneration on Spinal Cord Tissue in Combination with CAMP
Brain Research. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19646425
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) has been intensively studied in recent years in order to elucidate its contribution in intracellular signalling mechanisms that regulate axon growth and guidance, and also to test if its activation can promote axon regeneration after injury. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), however, has been given considerably less attention even though it too mediates intracellular signalling cascades activated by extracellular guidance cues. cGMP can promote neurite outgrowth in neuronal cell lines but its role in promoting growth and regeneration of primary neurons is not well established. Here, we have examined the effects of elevating cGMP activity on axon growth, guidance and regeneration in vitro. We have found that, like cAMP elevation, activation of cGMP increases rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurite outgrowth on a polylysine substrate and that asymmetric cGMP elevation promotes attractive growth cone turning. When grown in an in vitro model of axon regeneration activation of cGMP alone was not sufficient to promote adult neurite outgrowth. However, when combined with cAMP elevation substantial regeneration of adult neurites is achieved, superior to that achieved with either cAMP or cGMP alone. Regeneration is enhanced still further with simultaneous application of a Nogo receptor blocking peptide, suggesting this combinatorial strategy could achieve far greater axon regeneration in vivo than targeting individual cell signalling mechanisms.
Deterioration of Physical Performance and Cognitive Function in Rats with Short-term High-fat Feeding
FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19667117
Efficiency, defined as the amount of work produced for a given amount of oxygen consumed, is a key determinant of endurance capacity, and can be altered by metabolic substrate supply, in that fatty acid oxidation is less efficient than glucose oxidation. It is unclear, however, whether consumption of a high-fat diet would be detrimental or beneficial for endurance capacity, due to purported glycogen-sparing properties. In addition, a high-fat diet over several months leads to cognitive impairment. Here, we tested the hypothesis that short-term ingestion of a high-fat diet (55% kcal from fat) would impair exercise capacity and cognitive function in rats, compared with a control chow diet (7.5% kcal from fat) via mitochondrial uncoupling and energy deprivation. We found that rats ran 35% less far on a treadmill and showed cognitive impairment in a maze test with 9 d of high-fat feeding, with respiratory uncoupling in skeletal muscle mitochondria, associated with increased uncoupling protein (UCP3) levels. Our results suggest that high-fat feeding, even over short periods of time, alters skeletal muscle UCP3 expression, affecting energy production and physical performance. Optimization of nutrition to maximize the efficiency of mitochondrial ATP production could improve energetics in athletes and patients with metabolic abnormalities.
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20007468
cAMP is a key mediator of a number of molecules that induce growth cone chemotaxis, including netrin-1 and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Endogenous neuronal cAMP levels decline during development, and concomitantly axonal growth cones switch their response to cAMP-dependent guidance cues from attraction to repulsion. The mechanisms by which cAMP regulates these polarized growth cone responses are unknown. We report that embryonic growth cone attraction to gradients of cAMP, netrin-1, or MAG is mediated by Epac. Conversely, the repulsion conferred by MAG or netrin-1 on adult growth cones is mediated by protein kinase A (PKA). Furthermore, fluorescence resonance energy transfer reveals that netrin-1 distinctly activates Epac in embryonic growth cones but PKA in postnatal neurons. Our results suggest that cAMP mediates growth cone attraction or repulsion by distinctly activating Epac or PKA, respectively. Moreover, we propose that the developmental switch in growth cone response to gradients of cAMP-dependent guidance cues from attraction to repulsion is the result of a switch from Epac- to PKA-mediated signaling pathways.
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20076763
Although GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of cerebellar Purkinje cells by molecular layer interneurons (MLIs) has been studied intensely at the cellular level, it has remained unclear how this inhibition regulates cerebellum-dependent behaviour. We have implemented two complementary approaches to investigate the function of the MLI-Purkinje cell synapse on the behavioural level. In the first approach we permanently disrupted inhibitory fast synaptic transmission at the synapse by genetically removing the postsynaptic GABA(A) receptors from Purkinje cells (PC-Deltagamma2 mice). We found that chronic disruption of the MLI-Purkinje cell synapse strongly impaired cerebellar learning of the vestibular occular reflex (VOR), presumably by disrupting the temporal patterns of Purkinje cell activity. However, in PC-Deltagamma2 mice the baseline VOR reflex was only mildly affected; indeed PC-Deltagamma2 mice show no ataxia or gait abnormalities, suggesting that MLI control of Purkinje cell activity is either not involved in ongoing motor tasks or that the system compensates for its loss. To investigate the latter possibility we developed an alternative genetic technique; we made the MLI-Purkinje cell synapse selectively sensitive to rapid manipulation with the GABA(A) receptor modulator zolpidem (PC-gamma2-swap mice). Minutes after intraperitoneal zolpidem injection, these PC-gamma2-swap mice developed severe motor abnormalities, revealing a substantial contribution of the MLI-Purkinje cell synapses to real time motor control. The cell-type selective permanent knockout of synaptic GABAergic input and the fast reversible modulation of GABAergic input at the same synapse illustrate how pursuing both strategies gives a fuller view.
Metabolic Adaptation of Skeletal Muscle to High Altitude Hypoxia: How New Technologies Could Resolve the Controversies
Genome Medicine. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20090895
In most tissues of the body, cellular ATP production predominantly occurs via mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation of reduced intermediates, which are in turn derived from substrates such as glucose and fatty acids. In order to maintain ATP homeostasis, and therefore cellular function, the mitochondria require a constant supply of fuels and oxygen. In many disease states, or in healthy individuals at altitude, tissue oxygen levels fall and the cell must meet this hypoxic challenge to maintain energetics and limit oxidative stress. In humans at altitude and patients with respiratory disease, loss of skeletal muscle mitochondrial density is a consistent finding. Recent studies that have used cultured cells and genetic mouse models have elucidated a number of elegant adaptations that allow cells with a diminished mitochondrial population to function effectively in hypoxia. This article reviews these findings alongside studies of hypoxic human skeletal muscle, putting them into the context of whole-body physiology and acclimatization to high-altitude hypoxia. A number of current controversies are highlighted, which may eventually be resolved by a systems physiology approach that considers the time-or tissue-dependent nature of some adaptive responses. Future studies using high-throughput metabolomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic technologies to investigate hypoxic skeletal muscle in humans and animal models could resolve many of these controversies, and a case is therefore made for the integration of resulting data into computational models that account for factors such as duration and extent of hypoxic exposure, subjects' backgrounds, and whether data have been acquired from active or sedentary individuals. An integrated and more quantitative understanding of the body's metabolic response to hypoxia and the conditions under which adaptive processes occur could reveal much about the ways that tissues function in the very many disease states where hypoxia is a critical factor.
The Effect of High-altitude on Human Skeletal Muscle Energetics: P-MRS Results from the Caudwell Xtreme Everest Expedition
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20502713
Many disease states are associated with regional or systemic hypoxia. The study of healthy individuals exposed to high-altitude hypoxia offers a way to explore hypoxic adaptation without the confounding effects of disease and therapeutic interventions. Using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging, we investigated skeletal muscle energetics and morphology after exposure to hypobaric hypoxia in seven altitude-naïve subjects (trekkers) and seven experienced climbers. The trekkers ascended to 5300 m while the climbers ascended above 7950 m. Before the study, climbers had better mitochondrial function (evidenced by shorter phosphocreatine recovery halftime) than trekkers: 16+/-1 vs. 22+/-2 s (mean +/- SE, p<0.01). Climbers had higher resting [Pi] than trekkers before the expedition and resting [Pi] was raised across both groups on their return (PRE: 2.6+/-0.2 vs. POST: 3.0+/-0.2 mM, p<0.05). There was significant muscle atrophy post-CXE (PRE: 4.7+/-0.2 vs. POST: 4.5+/-0.2 cm(2), p<0.05), yet exercising metabolites were unchanged. These results suggest that, in response to high altitude hypoxia, skeletal muscle function is maintained in humans, despite significant atrophy.
American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19864339
We have previously demonstrated placentas from laboring deliveries at high altitude have lower binding of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) to DNA than those from low altitude. It has recently been reported that labor causes oxidative stress in placentas, likely due to ischemic hypoxic insult. We hypothesized that placentas of high-altitude residents acquired resistance, in the course of their development, to oxidative stress during labor. Full-thickness placental tissue biopsies were collected from laboring vaginal and nonlaboring cesarean-section term (37-41 wk) deliveries from healthy pregnancies at sea level and at 3,100 m. After freezing in liquid nitrogen within 5 min of delivery, we quantified hydrophilic and lipid metabolites using (31)P and (1)H NMR metabolomics. Metabolic markers of oxidative stress, increased glycolysis, and free amino acids were present in placentas following labor at sea level, but not at 3,100 m. In contrast, at 3,100 m, the placentas were characterized by the presence of concentrations of stored energy potential (phosphocreatine), antioxidants, and low free amino acid concentrations. Placentas from pregnancies at sea level subjected to labor display evidence of oxidative stress. However, laboring placentas at 3,100 m have little or no oxidative stress at the time of delivery, suggesting greater resistance to ischemia-reperfusion. We postulate that hypoxic preconditioning might occur in placentas that develop at high altitude.
Cardiac Response to Hypobaric Hypoxia: Persistent Changes in Cardiac Mass, Function, and Energy Metabolism After a Trek to Mt. Everest Base Camp
FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20978235
We postulated that changes in cardiac high-energy phosphate metabolism may underlie the myocardial dysfunction caused by hypobaric hypoxia. Healthy volunteers (n=14) were studied immediately before, and within 4 d of return from, a 17-d trek to Mt. Everest Base Camp (5300 m). (31)P magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy was used to measure cardiac phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP, and MR imaging and echocardiography were used to assess cardiac volumes, mass, and function. Immediately after returning from Mt. Everest, total body weight had fallen by 3% (P<0.05), but left ventricular mass, adjusted for changes in body surface area, had disproportionately decreased by 11% (P<0.05). Alterations in diastolic function were also observed, with a reduction in peak left ventricular filling rates and mitral inflow E/A, by 17% (P<0.05) and 24% (P<0.01), respectively, with no change in hydration status. Compared with pretrek, cardiac PCr/ATP ratio had decreased by 18% (P<0.01). Whether the abnormalities were even greater at altitude is unknown, but all had returned to pretrek levels after 6 mo. The alterations in cardiac morphology, function, and energetics are similar to findings in patients with chronic hypoxia. Thus, a decrease in cardiac PCr/ATP may be a universal response to periods of sustained low oxygen availability, underlying hypoxia-induced cardiac dysfunction in healthy human heart and in patients with cardiopulmonary diseases.
Short-term Consumption of a High-fat Diet Impairs Whole-body Efficiency and Cognitive Function in Sedentary Men
FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21106937
We recently showed that a short-term high-fat diet blunted exercise performance in rats, accompanied by increased uncoupling protein levels and greater respiratory uncoupling. In this study, we investigated the effects of a similar diet on physical and cognitive performance in humans. Twenty sedentary men were assessed when consuming a standardized, nutritionally balanced diet (control) and after 7 d of consuming a diet comprising 74% kcal from fat. Efficiency was measured during a standardized exercise task, and cognition was assessed using a computerized assessment battery. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial function was measured using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The diet increased mean ± se plasma free fatty acids by 44% (0.32±0.03 vs. 0.46±0.05 mM; P<0.05) and decreased whole-body efficiency by 3% (21±1 vs. 18±1%; P<0.05), although muscle uncoupling protein (UCP3) content and maximal mitochondrial function were unchanged. High-fat diet consumption also increased subjects' simple reaction times (P<0.01) and decreased power of attention (P<0.01). Thus, we have shown that a high-fat diet blunts whole-body efficiency and cognition in sedentary men. We suggest that this effect may be due to increased respiratory uncoupling.
Nature Neuroscience. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21278730
Parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons in cortical circuits are hypothesized to control cognitive function. To test this idea directly, we functionally removed parvalbumin-positive interneurons selectively from hippocampal CA1 in mice. We found that parvalbumin-positive interneurons are dispensable for spatial reference, but are essential for spatial working memory.
A High Fat Diet Increases Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation and Uncoupling to Decrease Efficiency in Rat Heart
Basic Research in Cardiology. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21318295
Elevated levels of cardiac mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) and decreased cardiac efficiency (hydraulic power/oxygen consumption) with abnormal cardiac function occur in obese, diabetic mice. To determine whether cardiac mitochondrial uncoupling occurs in non-genetic obesity, we fed rats a high fat diet (55% kcal from fat) or standard laboratory chow (7% kcal from fat) for 3 weeks, after which we measured cardiac function in vivo using cine MRI, efficiency in isolated working hearts and respiration rates and ADP/O ratios in isolated interfibrillar mitochondria; also, measured were medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) and citrate synthase activities plus uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), mitochondrial thioesterase 1 (MTE-1), adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) and ATP synthase protein levels. We found that in vivo cardiac function was the same for all rats, yet oxygen consumption was 19% higher in high fat-fed rat hearts, therefore, efficiency was 21% lower than in controls. We found that mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation rates were 25% higher, and MCAD activity was 23% higher, in hearts from rats fed the high fat diet when compared with controls. Mitochondria from high fat-fed rat hearts had lower ADP/O ratios than controls, indicating increased respiratory uncoupling, which was ameliorated by GDP, a UCP3 inhibitor. Mitochondrial UCP3 and MTE-1 levels were both increased by 20% in high fat-fed rat hearts when compared with controls, with no significant change in ATP synthase or ANT levels, or citrate synthase activity. We conclude that increased cardiac oxygen utilisation, and thereby decreased cardiac efficiency, occurs in non-genetic obesity, which is associated with increased mitochondrial uncoupling due to elevated UCP3 and MTE-1 levels.
Low Energy (e,2e) Studies from CH4: Results from Symmetric Coplanar Experiments and Molecular Three-body Distorted Wave Theory
The Journal of Chemical Physics. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21548684
Low energy experimental and theoretical triply differential cross sections are presented for electron impact ionization of methane (CH(4)) for both the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and next highest occupied molecular orbital (NHOMO). The HOMO is a predominantly p-type orbital which is labeled 1t(2) and the NHOMO is predominantly s-type labeled 2a(1). Coplanar symmetric (symmetric both in final state electron energies and observation angles) are presented for final state electron energies ranging from 2.5 to 20 eV. The theoretical M3DW (molecular three-body distorted wave) results are in surprisingly good agreement with experiment for the HOMO state and less satisfactory agreement for the NHOMO state. The molecular NHOMO results are also compared with the ionization of the 2s shell of neon which is the isoelectronic atom.
Endurance Exercise Training Blunts the Deleterious Effect of High-fat Feeding on Whole Body Efficiency
American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21632846
We recently showed that a week-long, high-fat diet reduced whole body exercise efficiency in sedentary men by >10% (Edwards LM, Murray AJ, Holloway CJ, Carter EE, Kemp GJ, Codreanu I, Brooker H, Tyler DJ, Robbins PA, Clarke K. FASEB J 25: 1088-1096, 2011). To test if a similar dietary regime would blunt whole body efficiency in endurance-trained men and, as a consequence, hinder aerobic exercise performance, 16 endurance-trained men were given a short-term, high-fat (70% kcal from fat) and a moderate carbohydrate (50% kcal from carbohydrate) diet, in random order. Efficiency was assessed during a standardized exercise task on a cycle ergometer, with aerobic performance assessed during a 1-h time trial and mitochondrial function later measured using (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The subjects then underwent a 2-wk wash-out period, before the study was repeated with the diets crossed over. Muscle biopsies, for mitochondrial protein analysis, were taken at the start of the study and on the 5th day of each diet. Plasma fatty acids were 60% higher on the high-fat diet compared with moderate carbohydrate diet (P < 0.05). However, there was no change in whole body efficiency and no change in mitochondrial function. Endurance exercise performance was significantly reduced (P < 0.01), most probably due to glycogen depletion. Neither diet led to changes in citrate synthase, ATP synthase, or mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3. We conclude that prior exercise training blunts the deleterious effect of short-term, high-fat feeding on whole body efficiency.
Dietary Long-chain, but Not Medium-chain, Triglycerides Impair Exercise Performance and Uncouple Cardiac Mitochondria in Rats
Nutrition & Metabolism. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21806803
ABSTRACT: Short-term consumption of a high-fat diet impairs exercise capacity in both rats and humans, and increases expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein, UCP3, in rodent cardiac and skeletal muscle via activation of the transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). Unlike long-chain fatty acids however, medium-chain fatty acids do not activate PPARα and do not increase muscle UCP3 expression. We therefore investigated exercise performance and cardiac mitochondrial function in rats fed a chow diet (7.5% kcal from fat), a long-chain triglyceride (LCT) rich diet (46% kcal from LCTs) or a medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) rich diet (46% kcal from MCTs). Rats fed the LCT-rich diet for 15 days ran 55% less far than they did at baseline, whereas rats fed the chow or MCT-rich diets neither improved nor worsened in their exercise capacities. Moreover, consumption of an LCT-rich diet increased cardiac UCP3 expression by 35% and decreased oxidative phosphorylation efficiency, whereas consumption of the MCT-rich diet altered neither UCP3 expression nor oxidative phosphorylation efficiency. Our results suggest that the negative effects of short-term high-fat feeding on exercise performance are predominantly mediated by long-chain rather than medium-chain fatty acids, possibly via PPARα-dependent upregulation of UCP3.
The Contrasting Roles of PPARδ and PPARγ in Regulating the Metabolic Switch Between Oxidation and Storage of Fats in White Adipose Tissue
Genome Biology. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21843327
The nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) play central roles in regulating metabolism in adipose tissue, as well as being targets for the treatment of insulin resistance. While the role of PPARγ in regulating insulin sensitivity has been well defined, research into PPARδ has been limited until recently due to a scarcity of selective PPARδ agonists.
Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21885798
Acclimatization of Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria to High-altitude Hypoxia During an Ascent of Everest
The FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22186874
Ascent to high altitude is associated with a fall in the partial pressure of inspired oxygen (hypobaric hypoxia). For oxidative tissues such as skeletal muscle, resultant cellular hypoxia necessitates acclimatization to optimize energy metabolism and restrict oxidative stress, with changes in gene and protein expression that alter mitochondrial function. It is known that lowlanders returning from high altitude have decreased muscle mitochondrial densities, yet the underlying transcriptional mechanisms and time course are poorly understood. To explore these, we measured gene and protein expression plus ultrastructure in muscle biopsies of lowlanders at sea level and following exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Subacute exposure (19 d after initiating ascent to Everest base camp, 5300 m) was not associated with mitochondrial loss. After 66 d at altitude and ascent beyond 6400 m, mitochondrial densities fell by 21%, with loss of 73% of subsarcolemmal mitochondria. Correspondingly, levels of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α fell by 35%, suggesting down-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Sustained hypoxia also decreased expression of electron transport chain complexes I and IV and UCP3 levels. We suggest that during subacute hypoxia, mitochondria might be protected from oxidative stress. However, following sustained exposure, mitochondrial biogenesis is deactivated and uncoupling down-regulated, perhaps to improve the efficiency of ATP production.-Levett, D. Z., Radford, E. J., Menassa, D. A., Graber, E. F., Morash, A. J., Hoppeler, H., Clarke, K., Martin, D. C., Ferguson-Smith, A. C., Montgomery, H. E., Grocott, M. P. W., Murray, A. J., Caudwell Xtreme Everest Research Group. Acclimatization of skeletal muscle mitochondria to high-altitude hypoxia during an ascent of Everest.
Cell Metabolism. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22326222
Neonatal survival in mammals is crucially dependent upon maintenance of body temperature. Neonatal body temperature is largely maintained by thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). BAT develops perinatally in mice requiring integration of adipogenic and thermoregulatory gene pathways. We describe a regulatory mutation in the imprinted gene cluster on mouse chromosome 12 resulting in early postnatal lethality. Maternal inheritance of this mutation impairs the ability of young mice to maintain body temperature. While mechanisms of perinatal BAT development are well understood, our work highlights a second phase of BAT recruitment necessary to support small animals newly independent of the nest. We show that the imprinted delta-like homolog 1/preadipocyte factor (Dlk1/Pref1) and iodothyronine deiodinase type 3 (Dio3) functions converge on the development of brown fat at the transition to independent life. This shows that appropriate dosage control at imprinted loci can act as a critical determinant in postnatal survival during phases of physiological adaptation.