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In JoVE (1)
- Amplifying और मानक नैदानिक Assays द्वारा जांच की सीमा से नीचे वायरल लोड के साथ एचआईवी संक्रमित व्यक्तियों में एचआईवी -1 शाही सेना बढ़ाता
Other Publications (16)
- Journal of Clinical Microbiology
- PLoS Pathogens
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- AIDS (London, England)
- The Journal of Infectious Diseases
- The Journal of Infectious Diseases
- The Journal of Infectious Diseases
- The Journal of Infectious Diseases
- PloS One
- PLoS Medicine
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999)
- Journal of Virology
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Articles by Ann Wiegand in JoVE
Amplifying और मानक नैदानिक Assays द्वारा जांच की सीमा से नीचे वायरल लोड के साथ एचआईवी संक्रमित व्यक्तियों में एचआईवी -1 शाही सेना बढ़ाता
Helene Mens1, Mary Kearney1, Ann Wiegand1, Jonathan Spindler1, Frank Maldarelli1, John W. Mellors2, John M. Coffin3
1The virology Core at the HIV Drug Resistance Program, NCI-Frederick, 2Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Pittsburgh, 3Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tuffts University
प्लाज्मा और अनुक्रमण में एचआईवी -1 शाही सेना के स्तर को बढ़ाता एकल एचआईवी -1 (50-75 प्रतियां / मिलीलीटर) पता लगाने की सीमा से नीचे वायरल भार के साथ व्यक्तियों से जीनोम मुश्किल है. यहाँ हम का वर्णन कैसे निकालने और प्लाज्मा वायरल शाही सेना का उपयोग कर एक वास्तविक समय पीसीआर परख कि मज़बूती से एचआईवी -1 शाही सेना के उपाय नीचे 0.3 प्रतियां / एमएल और कैसे एकल जीनोम अनुक्रमण द्वारा वायरल जीनोम बढ़ाना करने के लिए बहुत कम वायरल लोड के साथ नमूनों से यों.
Other articles by Ann Wiegand on PubMed
New Real-time Reverse Transcriptase-initiated PCR Assay with Single-copy Sensitivity for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA in Plasma
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Oct, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14532178
More sensitive assays for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA are needed to detect, quantify, and characterize persistent viremia in patients who are receiving antiretroviral therapy and whose plasma HIV-1 RNA levels are suppressed to less than 50 to 75 copies/ml. We therefore developed an internally controlled real-time reverse transcriptase-initiated PCR assay that quantifies HIV-1 RNA concentrations down to 1 copy per ml of plasma. This assay with single-copy sensitivity (the single-copy assay) generates a reproducible linear regression plot of input copy number versus threshold cycle by using HIV-1 RNA transcripts at copy numbers ranging from 1 to 10(6) per reaction mixture. The single-copy assay was compared to the ultrasensitive AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR assay and a more sensitive modification of the ultrasensitive assay by repeatedly testing a low-copy-number panel containing 200 to 0.781 copies of HIV-1 RNA per ml of plasma. This comparison showed that the single-copy assay had a greater sensitivity than the other assays and was the only assay that detected HIV-1 RNA at levels as low as 0.781 copies/ml. Testing of plasma samples from 15 patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy and who had <75 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml revealed persistent viremia in all 15 patients, with HIV-1 RNA levels ranging from 1 to 32 copies/ml (median, 13 copies/ml). The greater sensitivity of the single-copy assay should allow better characterization of persistent viremia in patients who are receiving antiretroviral therapy and whose HIV-1 RNA levels are suppressed to below the detection limits of present assays.
Lancet. Aug 13-19, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16099290
Persistent infection in resting CD4+ T cells prevents eradication of HIV-1. Since the chromatin remodeling enzyme histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) maintains latency of integrated HIV, we tested the ability of the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid to deplete persistent, latent infection in resting CD4+ T cells.
PLoS Pathogens. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17411338
Current antiretroviral therapy is effective in suppressing but not eliminating HIV-1 infection. Understanding the source of viral persistence is essential for developing strategies to eradicate HIV-1 infection. We therefore investigated the level of plasma HIV-1 RNA in patients with viremia suppressed to less than 50-75 copies/ml on standard protease inhibitor- or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy using a new, real-time PCR-based assay for HIV-1 RNA with a limit of detection of one copy of HIV-1 RNA. Single copy assay results revealed that >80% of patients on initial antiretroviral therapy for 60 wk had persistent viremia of one copy/ml or more with an overall median of 3.1 copies/ml. The level of viremia correlated with pretherapy plasma HIV-1 RNA but not with the specific treatment regimen. Longitudinal studies revealed no significant decline in the level of viremia between 60 and 110 wk of suppressive antiretroviral therapy. These data suggest that the persistent viremia on current antiretroviral therapy is derived, at least in part, from long-lived cells that are infected prior to initiation of therapy.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18332425
Residual viremia can be detected in most HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy despite suppression of plasma RNA to <50 copies per ml, but the source and duration of this viremia is currently unknown. Therefore, we analyzed longitudinal plasma samples from 40 patients enrolled in the Abbott M97-720 trial at baseline (pretherapy) and weeks 60 to 384 by using an HIV-1 RNA assay with single-copy sensitivity. All patients were on therapy (lopinavir/ritonavir, stavudine, and lamivudine) with plasma HIV RNA <50 copies per ml by week 96 of the study and thereafter. Single-copy assay results revealed that 77% of the patient samples had detectable low-level viremia (>/=1 copy per ml), and all patients had at least one sample with detectable viremia. A nonlinear mixed effects model revealed a biphasic decline in plasma RNA levels occurring over weeks 60 to 384: an initial phase of decay with a half-life of 39 weeks and a subsequent phase with no perceptible decay. The level of pretherapy viremia extrapolated for each phase of decay was significantly correlated with total baseline viremia for each patient (R(2) = 0.27, P = 0.001 and R(2) = 0.19, P < 0.005, respectively), supporting a biological link between the extent of overall baseline viral infection and the infection of long-lived reservoirs. These data suggest that low-level persistent viremia appears to arise from at least two cell compartments, one in which viral production decays over time and a second in which viral production remains stable for at least 7 years.
Valproic Acid Without Intensified Antiviral Therapy Has Limited Impact on Persistent HIV Infection of Resting CD4+ T Cells
AIDS (London, England). Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18525258
Valproic acid and intensified antiretroviral therapy may deplete resting CD4+ T-cell HIV infection. We tested the ability of valproic acid to deplete resting CD4+ T-cell infection in patients receiving standard antiretroviral therapy.
Lytic Granule Loading of CD8+ T Cells is Required for HIV-infected Cell Elimination Associated with Immune Control
Immunity. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19062316
Virus-specific CD8+ T cells probably mediate control over HIV replication in rare individuals, termed long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) or elite controllers. Despite extensive investigation, the mechanisms responsible for this control remain incompletely understood. We observed that HIV-specific CD8+ T cells of LTNPs persisted at higher frequencies than those of treated progressors with equally low amounts of HIV. Measured on a per-cell basis, HIV-specific CD8+ T cells of LTNPs efficiently eliminated primary autologous HIV-infected CD4+ T cells. This function required lytic granule loading of effectors and delivery of granzyme B to target cells. Defective cytotoxicity of progressor effectors could be restored after treatment with phorbol ester and calcium ionophore. These results establish an effector function and mechanism that clearly segregate with immunologic control of HIV. They also demonstrate that lytic granule contents of memory cells are a critical determinant of cytotoxicity that must be induced for maximal per-cell killing capacity.
Regimen Simplification to Atazanavir-ritonavir Alone As Maintenance Antiretroviral Therapy: Final 48-week Clinical and Virologic Outcomes
The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19191590
Simplified maintenance therapy with ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/RTV) alone is attractive because of nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-sparing benefits, low pill burden, once-daily dosage, and safety.
Evaluation of the Pathogenesis of Decreasing CD4(+) T Cell Counts in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-infected Patients Receiving Successfully Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy
The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19432547
Most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals experience increases in peripheral CD4(+) T cell counts with suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) that achieves plasma HIV RNA levels that are less than the limit of detection. However, some individuals experience decreasing CD4(+) T cell counts despite suppression of plasma viremia. We evaluated 4 patients with a history of CD4(+) T cell decline despite successfully suppressive ART, from a median of 719 cells/mm(3) (range, 360-1141 cells/mm(3)) to 227 cells/mm(3) (range, 174-311 cells/mm(3)) over a period of 18-24 months; 3 of the patients were receiving tenofovir and didanosine, which may have contributed to this decrease. There was no evidence of HIV replication, nor of antiretroviral drug resistance in the blood or lymphoid tissue, or increased proliferation or decreased thymic production of naive CD4(+) T cells. All 4 patients had significant fibrosis of the T cell zone of lymphoid tissue, which appeared to be an important factor in the failure to reconstitute T cells.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19656066
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) elite controllers are able to control virus replication to levels below the limits of detection by commercial assays, but the actual level of viremia in these individuals is not well defined. Here, we quantify plasma HIV-1 RNA in elite controllers and correlate this with specific immunologic parameters.
Low Frequency Nonnucleoside Reverse-transcriptase Inhibitor-resistant Variants Contribute to Failure of Efavirenz-containing Regimens in Treatment- Experienced Patients
The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20102272
The contribution of low frequency drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants to failure of antiretroviral therapy is not well defined in treatment-experienced patients. We sought to detect minor nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-resistant variants at the initiation of multidrug efavirenz-containing therapy in both NNRTI-naive and NNRTI-experienced patients and to determine their association with virologic response.
Antiretroviral Intensification and Valproic Acid Lack Sustained Effect on Residual HIV-1 Viremia or Resting CD4+ Cell Infection
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20186346
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that persists despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a daunting problem. Given the limited evidence that resting CD4+ T cell infection (RCI) is affected by the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA), we measured the stability of RCI and residual viremia in patients who added VPA with or without raltegravir (RAL), or enfuvirtide (ENF) with or without VPA, to standard ART.
The Effect of Raltegravir Intensification on Low-level Residual Viremia in HIV-infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy: a Randomized Controlled Trial
PLoS Medicine. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20711481
Most HIV-1-infected patients on effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) with plasma HIV-1 RNA levels below the detection limits of commercial assays have residual viremia measurable by more sensitive methods. We assessed whether adding raltegravir lowered the level of residual viremia in such patients.
Journal of Virology. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20926564
Elucidating mechanisms leading to the natural control of HIV-1 infection is of great importance for vaccine design and for understanding viral pathogenesis. Rare HIV-1-infected individuals, termed HIV-1 controllers, have plasma HIV-1 RNA levels below the limit of detection by standard clinical assays (<50 to 75 copies/ml) without antiretroviral therapy. Although several recent studies have documented persistent low-grade viremia in HIV-1 controllers at a level not significantly different from that in HIV-1-infected individuals undergoing treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), it is unclear if plasma viruses are undergoing full cycles of replication in vivo or if the infection of new cells is completely blocked by host immune mechanisms. We studied a cohort of 21 HIV-1 controllers with a median level of viremia below 1 copy/ml, followed for a median of 11 years. Less than half of the cohort carried known protective HLA types (B*57/27). By isolating HIV-1 RNA from large volumes of plasma, we amplified single genome sequences of both pro-rt and env longitudinally. This study is the first to document that HIV-1 pro-rt and env evolve in this patient group, albeit at rates somewhat lower than in HIV-1 noncontrollers, in HLA B*57/27-positive, as well as HLA B*57/27-negative, individuals. Viral diversity and adaptive events associated with immune escape were found to be restricted in HIV-1 controllers, suggesting that replication occurs in the face of less overall immune selection.
Clonal Sequences Recovered from Plasma from Patients with Residual HIV-1 Viremia and on Intensified Antiretroviral Therapy Are Identical to Replicating Viral RNAs Recovered from Circulating Resting CD4+ T Cells
Journal of Virology. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21367910
Despite successful antiretroviral therapy (ART), low-level viremia (LLV) may be intermittently detected in most HIV-infected patients. Longitudinal blood plasma and resting CD4(+) T cells were obtained from two patients on suppressive ART to investigate the source of LLV. Single-genome sequencing of HIV-1 env from LLV plasma was performed, and the sequences were compared to sequences recovered from limiting-dilution outgrowth assays of resting CD4(+) T cells. The circulating LLV virus clone was identical to virus recovered from outgrowth assays from pools of millions of resting CD4(+) T cells. Understanding the sources of LLV requires evaluation of all possible reservoirs of persistent HIV infection.
No Effect of Raltegravir Intensification on Viral Replication Markers in the Blood of HIV-1-Infected Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999). Mar, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22083073
BACKGROUND:: Controversy continues regarding the extent of ongoing viral replication in HIV-1-infected patients on effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). Adding an additional potent agent, such as raltegravir, to effective ART in patients with low-level residual viremia may reveal whether there is ongoing HIV-1 replication. METHODS:: We previously reported the outcome of a randomized placebo-controlled study of raltegravir intensification in patients on ART with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies per milliliter that showed no effect on residual viremia measured by single copy assay. We now report the effects of raltegravir intensification in that trial on other potential measures of ongoing HIV-1 replication as follows: 2-LTR HIV-1 circles, total cellular HIV-1 DNA, and T-cell activation. RESULTS:: Of 50 patients tested, 12 (24%) had 2-LTR circles detected at baseline. Patients who were 2-LTR-positive had higher plasma HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 DNA levels than 2-LTR-negative individuals. At week 12 of raltegravir intensification, there was no change from baseline in 2-LTR circles, in total HIV-1 DNA or in the ratio of 2-LTR circles to total HIV-1 DNA. There was also no change in markers of T-cell activation. CONCLUSIONS:: In HIV-1-infected individuals on effective ART, we find no evidence of ongoing viral replication in the blood that is suppressible by raltegravir intensification. The results imply that raltegravir intensification alone will not eradicate HIV-1 infection.
Journal of Virology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22238316
Although Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Virus (XMRV) has been previously linked to prostate cancer and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, recent data indicate that results interpreted as evidence of human XMRV infection reflect laboratory contamination rather than authentic in vivo infection. Nevertheless, XMRV is a retrovirus of undefined pathogenic potential, able to replicate in human cells. Here, we describe comprehensive analysis of two male pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) experimentally infected with XMRV. Following intravenous inoculation with >10(10) RNA copy equivalents of XMRV, viral replication was limited and transient, peaking at ≤2200 viral RNA (vRNA) copies/ml plasma and becoming undetectable by 4 weeks postinfection, though viral DNA (vDNA) in PBMC remained detectable through 119 days of follow-up. Similarly, vRNA was not detectable in LN by in situ hybridization (ISH) despite detectable vDNA. Sequencing of cell-associated vDNA revealed extensive G-to-A hypermutation, suggestive of APOBEC-mediated viral restriction. Consistent with limited viral replication, we found transient upregulation of type I IFN responses that returned to baseline by 2 weeks postinfection, no detectable cellular immune responses, and limited or no spread to prostate tissue. Antibody responses, including neutralizing antibodies, however, were detectable by 2 weeks postinfection and maintained throughout the study. Both animals were healthy for the duration of follow-up. These findings indicate that XMRV replication and spread were limited in pigtailed macaques, predominantly by APOBEC-mediated hypermutation. Given that human APOBEC proteins restrict XMRV infection in vitro, human XMRV infection, if it occurred, would be expected to be characterized by similarly limited viral replication and spread.