Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (22)
- Chemical Senses
- News in Physiological Sciences : an International Journal of Physiology Produced Jointly by the International Union of Physiological Sciences and the American Physiological Society
- Chemical Senses
- FEBS Letters
- The Journal of General Physiology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Journal of Molecular Modeling
- Journal of Neurophysiology
- Journal of Neurophysiology
- Chemical Senses
- Journal of Neurophysiology
- PloS One
- Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)
- Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology
- Physiological Reviews
- The Journal of Physiology
- Journal of Clinical Orthodontics : JCO
- The Journal of Physiology
- European Journal of Orthodontics
- International Orthodontics / Collège Européen D'orthodontie
- Chemical Senses
- Experimental Physiology
Articles by Anna Menini in JoVE
Flash Photolysis of Caged Compounds in the Cilia of Olfactory Sensory Neurons
Anna Boccaccio1,2, Claudia Sagheddu1, Anna Menini1,3
1SISSA, International School for Advanced Studies, 2Istituto di Biofisica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 3SISSA Unit, Italian Institute of Technology
Photolysis of caged compounds allows the production of rapid and localized increases in the concentration of various physiologically active compounds. Here, we show how to obtain patch-clamp recordings combined with photolysis of caged cAMP or caged Ca for the study of olfactory transduction in dissociated mouse olfactory sensory neurons.
Other articles by Anna Menini on PubMed
Whole-cell Recordings and Photolysis of Caged Compounds in Olfactory Sensory Neurons Isolated from the Mouse
Chemical Senses. Oct, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14627539
Gene manipulation and molecular biological techniques for the study of olfaction are well developed in mice, while electrophysiological properties of mouse olfactory sensory neurons have been less extensively investigated. We used the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique in mouse isolated olfactory sensory neurons to investigate both voltage-gated and transduction currents. Voltage-gated currents were composed of transient inward currents followed by outward currents with transient and sustained components. Of the tested olfactory sensory neurons, 12% responded to the odorant cineole with an inward current. Caged compounds were introduced into the cytoplasm through the patch pipette and flash photolysis of caged cyclic nucleotides activated an inward current in 94% of the cells. When the flash was localized at the cilia, the response latency, rising time and duration were shorter than when the flash illuminated the soma. The amplitude of the photolysis response was dependent on light intensity and the relation was fitted by the Hill equation, with a Hill coefficient of 3.2. These results demonstrate that it is possible to obtain recordings in the whole-cell configuration from olfactory sensory neurons isolated from the mouse and that voltage-gated currents and transduction properties are largely similar to those of amphibians.
News in Physiological Sciences : an International Journal of Physiology Produced Jointly by the International Union of Physiological Sciences and the American Physiological Society. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15143202
How do we smell? Our knowledge of how odor information from the environment is perceived has greatly advanced since the discovery of approximately 1,000 genes for odorant receptors in the mammalian genome. From the combination of molecular-genetic, electrophysiological, and optical imaging studies a better understanding of how we smell is emerging.
Electrophysiological Properties and Modeling of Murine Vomeronasal Sensory Neurons in Acute Slice Preparations
Chemical Senses. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16547196
The vomeronasal system is involved in the detection of pheromones in many mammals. Vomeronasal sensory neurons encode the behaviorally relevant information into action potentials that are directly transmitted to the accessory olfactory bulb. We developed a model of the electrical activity of mouse basal vomeronasal sensory neurons, which mimics both the voltage-gated current properties and the firing behavior of these neurons in their near-native state, using a minimal number of parameters. Data were obtained by recordings with the whole-cell voltage-clamp or current-clamp techniques from mouse basal vomeronasal sensory neurons in acute slice preparations. The resting potential ranged from -50 to -70 mV, and current injections of less than 2-10 pA induced tonic firing in most neurons. The experimentally determined firing frequency as a function of injected current was well described by a Michaelis-Menten equation and was exactly reproduced by the model, which could be used in combination with future models that will include details of the mouse vomeronasal transduction cascade.
FEBS Letters. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16631748
Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels, directly activated by the binding of cyclic nucleotides, were first discovered in retinal rods, cones and olfactory sensory neurons. In the visual and olfactory systems, CNG channels mediate sensory transduction by conducting cationic currents carried primarily by sodium and calcium ions. In olfactory transduction, calcium in combination with calmodulin exerts a negative feedback on CNG channels that is the main molecular mechanism responsible for fast adaptation in olfactory sensory neurons. Six mammalian CNG channel genes are known and some human visual disorders are caused by mutations in retinal rod or cone CNG genes.
Fast Adaptation in Mouse Olfactory Sensory Neurons Does Not Require the Activity of Phosphodiesterase
The Journal of General Physiology. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16880265
Vertebrate olfactory sensory neurons rapidly adapt to repetitive odorant stimuli. Previous studies have shown that the principal molecular mechanisms for odorant adaptation take place after the odorant-induced production of cAMP, and that one important mechanism is the negative feedback modulation by Ca2+-calmodulin (Ca2+-CaM) of the cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel. However, the physiological role of the Ca2+-dependent activity of phosphodiesterase (PDE) in adaptation has not been investigated yet. We used the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique to record currents in mouse olfactory sensory neurons elicited by photorelease of 8-Br-cAMP, an analogue of cAMP commonly used as a hydrolysis-resistant compound and known to be a potent agonist of the olfactory CNG channel. We measured currents in response to repetitive photoreleases of cAMP or of 8-Br-cAMP and we observed similar adaptation in response to the second stimulus. Control experiments were conducted in the presence of the PDE inhibitor IBMX, confirming that an increase in PDE activity was not involved in the response decrease. Since the total current activated by 8-Br-cAMP, as well as that physiologically induced by odorants, is composed not only of current carried by Na+ and Ca2+ through CNG channels, but also by a Ca2+-activated Cl- current, we performed control experiments in which the reversal potential of Cl- was set, by ion substitution, at the same value of the holding potential, -50 mV. Adaptation was measured also in these conditions of diminished Ca2+-activated Cl- current. Furthermore, by producing repetitive increases of ciliary's Ca2+ with flash photolysis of caged Ca2+, we showed that Ca2+-activated Cl- channels do not adapt and that there is no Cl- depletion in the cilia. All together, these results indicate that the activity of ciliary PDE is not required for fast adaptation to repetitive stimuli in mouse olfactory sensory neurons.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16912113
Ca-activated Cl channels are an important component of olfactory transduction. Odor binding to olfactory receptors in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) leads to an increase of intraciliary Ca concentration by Ca entry through cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels. Ca activates a Cl channel that leads to an efflux of Cl from the cilia, contributing to the amplification of the OSN depolarization. The molecular identity of this Cl channel remains elusive. Recent evidence has indicated that bestrophins are able to form Ca-activated Cl channels in heterologous systems. Here we have analyzed the expression of bestrophins in the mouse olfactory epithelium and demonstrated that only mouse bestrophin-2 (mBest2) was expressed. Single-cell RT-PCR showed that mBest2 was expressed in OSNs but not in supporting cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed that mBest2 was expressed on the cilia of OSNs, the site of olfactory transduction, and colocalized with the main CNGA2 channel subunit. Electrophysiological properties of Ca-activated Cl currents from native channels in dendritic knob/cilia of mouse OSNs were compared with those induced by the expression of mBest2 in HEK-293 cells. We found the same anion permeability sequence, small estimated single-channel conductances, a Ca sensitivity difference of one order of magnitude, and the same side-specific blockage of the two Cl channel blockers commonly used to inhibit the odorant-induced Ca-activated Cl current in OSNs, niflumic acid, and 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanato-stilben-2,2'-disulfonate (SITS). Therefore, our data suggest that mBest2 is a good candidate for being a molecular component of the olfactory Ca-activated Cl channel.
Journal of Molecular Modeling. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17120078
Odorant receptors belong to class A of the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and detect a large number of structurally diverse odorant molecules. A recent structural bioinformatic analysis suggests that structural features are conserved across class A of GPCRs in spite of their low sequence identity. Based on this work, we have aligned the sequences of 29 ORs for which ligand binding data are available. Recent site-directed mutagenesis experiments on one such receptor (MOR174-9) provide information that helped to identify nine amino-acid residues involved in ligand binding. Our modeling provides a rationale for amino acids in equivalent positions in most of the odorant receptors considered and helps to identify other amino acids that could be important for ligand binding. Our findings are consistent with most of the previous models and allow predictions for site-directed mutagenesis experiments, which could also validate our model.
Temporal Development of Cyclic Nucleotide-gated and Ca2+ -activated Cl- Currents in Isolated Mouse Olfactory Sensory Neurons
Journal of Neurophysiology. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17460108
A Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current constitutes a large part of the transduction current in olfactory sensory neurons. The binding of odorants to olfactory receptors in the cilia produces an increase in cAMP concentration; Ca(2+) enters into the cilia through CNG channels and activates a Cl(-) current. In intact mouse olfactory sensory neurons little is known about the kinetics of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current. Here, we directly activated CNG channels by flash photolysis of caged cAMP or 8-Br-cAMP and measured the current response with the whole cell voltage-clamp technique in mouse neurons. We measured multiphasic currents in the rising phase of the response at -50 mV. The current rising phase became monophasic in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), at +50 mV, or when most of the intracellular Cl(-) was replaced by gluconate to shift the equilibrium potential for Cl(-) to -50 mV. These results show that the second phase of the current in mouse intact neurons is attributed to a Cl(-) current activated by Ca(2+), similarly to previous results on isolated frog cilia. The percentage of the total saturating current carried by Cl(-) was estimated in two ways: 1) by measuring the maximum secondary current and 2) by blocking the Cl(-) channel with niflumic acid. We estimated that in the presence of 1 mM extracellular Ca(2+) and in symmetrical Cl(-) concentrations the Cl(-) component can constitute up to 90% of the total current response. These data show how to unravel the CNG and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) component of the current rising phase.
New Whiffs About Chemesthesis. Focus on "TRPM5-expressing Solitary Chemosensory Cells Respond to Odorous Irritants"
Journal of Neurophysiology. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18199823
Electroolfactogram Responses from Organotypic Cultures of the Olfactory Epithelium from Postnatal Mice
Chemical Senses. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18303030
Organotypic cultures of the mouse olfactory epithelium connected to the olfactory bulb were obtained with the roller tube technique from postnatal mice aged between 13 and 66 days. To test the functionality of the cultures, we measured electroolfactograms (EOGs) at different days in vitro (DIV), up to 7 DIV, and we compared them with EOGs from identical acute preparations (0 DIV). Average amplitudes of EOG responses to 2 mixtures of various odorants at concentrations of 1 mM or 100 microM decreased in cultures between 2 and 5 DIV compared with 0 DIV. The percentage of responsive cultures was 57%. We also used the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) to trigger the olfactory transduction cascade bypassing odorant receptor activation. Average amplitudes of EOG responses to 500 microM IBMX were not significantly different in cultures up to 6 DIV or 0 DIV, and the average percentage of responsive cultures between 2 and 5 DIV was 72%. The dose-response curve to IBMX measured in cultures up to 7 DIV was similar to that at 0 DIV. Moreover, the percentage of EOG response to IBMX blocked by niflumic acid, a blocker of Ca-activated Cl channels, was not significantly different in cultured or acute preparations.
Journal of Neurophysiology. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18509074
Hyperpolarization-activated currents (Ih) are present in several neurons of the central and peripheral nervous system. However, Ih in neurons of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) is not well characterized. We studied the properties of Ih in sensory neurons from acute slices of mouse VNO. In voltage-clamp studies, Ih was identified by the characteristic kinetics of activation, voltage dependence, and blockage by Cs+ or ZD-7288, two blockers of the Ih. Forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase, shifted the activation curve for Ih to less negative potentials. A comparison of Ih properties in VNO neurons with those of heterologously expressed hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, together with RT-PCR experiments in VNO, indicate that Ih is caused by HCN2 and/or HCN4 subunits. In current-clamp recordings, blocking Ih with ZD-7288 induced a hyperpolarization of 5.1 mV, an increase in input resistance, a decrease in the sensitivity to elicit action potentials in response to small current injections, and did not modify the frequency of action potentials elicited by a large current injection. It has been shown that in VNO neurons some pheromones induce a decrease in cAMP concentration, but the physiological role of cAMP is unknown. After application of blockers of adenylyl cyclase, we measured a hyperpolarization of 5.1 mV in 11 of 14 neurons, suggesting that basal levels of cAMP could modulate the resting potential. In conclusion, these results show that mouse VNO neurons express HCN2 and/or HCN4 subunits and that Ih contributes to setting the resting membrane potential and to increase excitability at stimulus threshold.
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19262692
Bestrophins are a recently discovered family of Cl(-) channels, for which no structural information is available. Some family members are activated by increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Bestrophins feature a well conserved Asp-rich tract in their COOH terminus (Asp-rich domain), which is homologous to Ca2+-binding motifs in human thrombospondins and in human big-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-gated K+ channels (BK(Ca)). Consequently, the Asp-rich domain is also a candidate for Ca2+ binding in bestrophins. Based on these considerations, we constructed homology models of human bestrophin-1 (Best1) Asp-rich domain using human thrombospondin-1 X-ray structure as a template. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to identify Asp and Glu residues binding Ca2+ and to predict the effects of their mutations to alanine. We then proceeded to test selected mutations in the Asp-rich domain of the highly homologous mouse bestrophin-2. The mutants expressed in HEK-293 cells were investigated by electrophysiological experiments using the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique. Based on our molecular modeling results, we predicted that Asp-rich domain has two defined binding sites and that D301A and D304A mutations may impact the binding of the metal ions. The experiments confirmed that these mutations do actually affect the function of the protein causing a large decrease in the Ca2+-activated Cl(-) current, fully consistent with our predictions. In addition, other studied mutations (E306A, D312A) did not decrease Ca2+-activated Cl(-) current in agreement with modeling results.
Human Cord Blood CD133+ Stem Cells Transplanted to Nod-scid Mice Provide Conditions for Regeneration of Olfactory Neuroepithelium After Permanent Damage Induced by Dichlobenil
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19350683
The herbicide dichlobenil selectively causes necrosis of the dorsomedial part of olfactory neuroepithelium (NE) with permanent damage to the underlying mucosa, whereas the lateral part of the olfactory region and the nasal respiratory mucosa remain undamaged. We investigated here whether human umbilical cord blood CD133(+) stem cells (HSC) injected intravenously to nod-scid mice pretreated with dichlobenil may engraft the olfactory mucosa and contribute to the regeneration of the damaged NE. We tested HLA-DQalpha1 DNA and three human microsatellites (Combined DNA Index System) as indicators of engrafted cells, finding polymerase chain reaction evidence of chimaerism in various tissues of the host, including the olfactory mucosa and bulb, at 7 and 31 days following HSC transplantation. Histology, immunohistochemistry, and lectin staining revealed the morphological recovery of the dorsomedial region of the NE in dichlobenil-treated mice that received HSC, contrasting with the lack of regeneration in similarly injured areas as these remained damaged in control nontransplanted mice. FISH analysis, to detect human genomic sequences from different chromosomes, confirmed persistent engraftment of the regenerating olfactory area with chimeric cells. Electro-olfactograms in response to odorants, to test the functionality of the olfactory NE, confirmed the functional damage of the dorsomedial area in dichlobenil-treated mice and the functional recovery of the same area in transplanted mice. These findings support the concept that transplanted HSC migrating to the damaged olfactory area provide conditions facilitating the recovery from olfactory receptor cell loss.
Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19475416
Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels play important physiological roles in various cell types, but their molecular identity is still unclear. Recently, members of the protein family named transmembrane 16 (TMEM16) have been suggested to function as Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels. Here, we report the functional properties of mouse TMEM16B (mTMEM16B) expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, measured both in the whole-cell configuration and in inside-out excised patches. In whole cell, a current induced by mTMEM16B was activated by intracellular Ca(2+) diffusing from the patch pipette, released from intracellular stores through activation of a G-protein-coupled receptor, or photoreleased from caged Ca(2+) inside the cell. In inside-out membrane patches, a current was rapidly activated by bath application of controlled Ca(2+) concentrations, indicating that mTMEM16B is directly gated by Ca(2+). Both in the whole-cell and in the inside-out configurations, the Ca(2+)-induced current was anion selective, blocked by the Cl(-) channel blocker niflumic acid, and displayed a Ca(2+)-dependent rectification. In inside-out patches, Ca(2+) concentration for half-maximal current activation decreased from 4.9 microM at -50 mV to 3.3 microM at +50 mV, while the Hill coefficient was >2. In inside-out patches, currents showed a reversible current decrease at -50 mV in the presence of a constant high Ca(2+) concentration and, moreover, an irreversible rundown, not observed in whole-cell recordings, indicating that some unknown modulator was lost upon patch excision. Our results demonstrate that mTMEM16B functions as a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel when expressed in HEK 293T cells.
Physiological Reviews. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19584317
In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved in the comprehension of the profound effects of pheromones on reproductive physiology and behavior. Pheromones have been classified as molecules released by individuals and responsible for the elicitation of specific behavioral expressions in members of the same species. These signaling molecules, often chemically unrelated, are contained in body fluids like urine, sweat, specialized exocrine glands, and mucous secretions of genitals. The standard view of pheromone sensing was based on the assumption that most mammals have two separated olfactory systems with different functional roles: the main olfactory system for recognizing conventional odorant molecules and the vomeronasal system specifically dedicated to the detection of pheromones. However, recent studies have reexamined this traditional interpretation showing that both the main olfactory and the vomeronasal systems are actively involved in pheromonal communication. The current knowledge on the behavioral, physiological, and molecular aspects of pheromone detection in mammals is discussed in this review.
The Journal of Physiology. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19622610
Olfactory sensory neurons use a chloride-based signal amplification mechanism to detect odorants. The binding of odorants to receptors in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons activates a transduction cascade that involves the opening of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels and the entry of Ca(2+) into the cilia. Ca(2+) activates a Cl(-) current that produces an efflux of Cl(-) ions and amplifies the depolarization. The molecular identity of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels is still elusive, although some bestrophins have been shown to function as Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels when expressed in heterologous systems. In the olfactory epithelium, bestrophin-2 (Best2) has been indicated as a candidate for being a molecular component of the olfactory Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel. In this study, we have analysed mice lacking Best2. We compared the electrophysiological responses of the olfactory epithelium to odorant stimulation, as well as the properties of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents in wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice for Best2. Our results confirm that Best2 is expressed in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons, while odorant responses and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents were not significantly different between WT and KO mice. Thus, Best2 does not appear to be the main molecular component of the olfactory channel. Further studies are required to determine the function of Best2 in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons.
Journal of Clinical Orthodontics : JCO. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20831102
Calcium Concentration Jumps Reveal Dynamic Ion Selectivity of Calcium-activated Chloride Currents in Mouse Olfactory Sensory Neurons and TMEM16b-transfected HEK 293T Cells
The Journal of Physiology. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20837642
Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels play relevant roles in several physiological processes, including olfactory transduction, but their molecular identity is still unclear. Recent evidence suggests that members of the transmembrane 16 (TMEM16, also named anoctamin) family form Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in several cell types. In vertebrate olfactory transduction, TMEM16b/anoctamin2 has been proposed as the major molecular component of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels. However, a comparison of the functional properties in the whole-cell configuration between the native and the candidate channel has not yet been performed. In this study, we have used the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique to measure functional properties of the native channel in mouse isolated olfactory sensory neurons and compare them with those of mouse TMEM16b/anoctamin2 expressed in HEK 293T cells. We directly activated channels by rapid and reproducible intracellular Ca(2+) concentration jumps obtained from photorelease of caged Ca(2+) and determined extracellular blocking properties and anion selectivity of the channels. We found that the Cl(-) channel blockers niflumic acid, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB) and DIDS applied at the extracellular side of the membrane caused a similar inhibition of the two currents. Anion selectivity measured exchanging external ions and revealed that, in both types of currents, the reversal potential for some anions was time dependent. Furthermore, we confirmed by immunohistochemistry that TMEM16b/anoctamin2 largely co-localized with adenylyl cyclase III at the surface of the olfactory epithelium. Therefore, we conclude that the measured electrophysiological properties in the whole-cell configuration are largely similar, and further indicate that TMEM16b/anoctamin2 is likely to be a major subunit of the native olfactory Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current.
European Journal of Orthodontics. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20926556
The aim of this study was to investigate, over a period of approximately 3 years, the reactions to orthodontic loading of a type V titanium miniscrew. In this retrospective study, conducted in a private practice, the records of 300 miniscrews inserted in 132 consecutive patients (80 females, 60.6 percent) by the same surgeon were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 23.2 years. Three types of miniscrews (type A: diameter 1.5 mm, length 9 mm; type B: diameter 1.5 mm, length 11 mm; and type C: diameter 1.3 mm, length 11 mm) were used. The clinical variables evaluated included the loading time and location of the miniscrew in relation to the gingiva and root. The success rates with different variables were compared using chi-square or Fisher's exact test where appropriate. A cumulative survival rate of 81 percent (243/300) was found using Kaplan-Meier analysis, with an optimum success rate for the 1.3 mm wide miniscrew inserted in the attached gingiva, with immediate loading applied. Cox proportional hazard regression showed significant differences between success rate and the following parameters: gender, loading time, gingival or bone localization, and diameter of the miniscrews. Considering the clinically controllable parameters, and within the limits of this retrospective study, 1.3 mm diameter miniscrews inserted in attached gingiva and immediately loaded had the most favourable prognosis.
Functional and Fixed Orthodontics-induced Growth of an Aplastic Condyle in a Young Patient: a Case Report
International Orthodontics / Collège Européen D'orthodontie. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21269897
Condylar aplasia is a condition characterized by the complete lack of a condyle. It is a rare disease, most often associated with more complex syndromes such as Hemifacial Microsomia, Treacher-Collins and Goldenhar. In this article, we present the case of a young female patient (4.3 years) with an aplastic left condyle. She received early two-phase treatment: first, a functional appliance to stimulate condylar growth and, second, fixed multibracket therapy and Class II elastics to improve the occlusal relationship. Functional therapy lasted many years due to non-compliance. Intermediate radiographic controls (at 8.6 years and at 10.4 years) showed no improvement in the growth of the aplastic condyle. The growing process started during fixed orthodontic therapy (beginning at 10.6 years). At the end of treatment, when the patient was 14, the size of the left condyle was similar to that of the controlateral. Below, we describe and discuss the treatment.
The Cellular Prion Protein is Expressed in Olfactory Sensory Neurons of Adult Mice but Does Not Affect the Early Events of the Olfactory Transduction Pathway
Chemical Senses. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21680753
A conformational conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is now recognized as the causal event of fatal neurodegenerative disorders, known as prion diseases. In spite of long-lasting efforts, however, the physiological role of PrP(C) remains unclear. It has been reported that PrP(C) is expressed in various areas of the olfactory system, including the olfactory epithelium, but its precise localization in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) is still debated. Here, using immunohistochemistry tools, we have reinvestigated the expression and localization of PrP(C) in the olfactory epithelium of adult congenic mice expressing different PrP(C) amounts, that is, wild-type, PrP-knockout, and transgenic PrP(C)-overexpressing animals. We found that PrP(C) was expressed in OSNs, in which, however, it was unevenly distributed, being detectable at low levels in cell bodies, dendrites and apical layer, and more abundantly in axons. We also studied the involvement of PrP(C) in the response of the olfactory epithelium to odorants, by comparing the electro-olfactograms of the 3 mouse lines subjected to different stimulation protocols. We found no significant difference between the 3 PrP genotypes, supporting previous reports that exclude a direct action of PrP(C) in the early signal transduction activity of the olfactory epithelium.
Experimental Physiology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 21890523
In vertebrate olfactory transduction, a Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) efflux greatly amplifies the odorant response. The binding of odorants to receptors in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons activates a transduction cascade that involves the opening of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels and the entry of Ca(2+) into the cilia. The Ca(2+) activates a Cl(-) current that, in the presence of a maintained elevated intracellular Cl(-) concentration, produces an efflux of Cl(-) ions and amplifies the depolarization. In this review, we summarize evidence supporting the hypothesis that anoctamin 2/TMEM16B is the main, or perhaps the only, constituent of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels involved in olfactory transduction. Indeed, studies from several laboratories have shown that anoctamin 2/TMEM16B is expressed in the ciliary layer of the olfactory epithelium, that there are remarkable functional similarities between currents in olfactory sensory neurons and in HEK 293 cells transfected with anoctamin 2/TMEM16B, and that knockout mice for anoctamin 2/TMEM16B did not show any detectable Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current. Finally, we discuss the involvement of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in the transduction process of vomeronasal sensory neurons and the physiological role of these channels in olfaction.