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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (10)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
- Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
- Journal of Orthopaedic Research : Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
- European Journal of Applied Physiology
- The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
- European Journal of Applied Physiology
- Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
- The Journal of Physiology
- Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Articles by Arun Jayaraman in JoVE
Methods to Quantify Pharmacologically Induced Alterations in Motor Function in Human Incomplete SCI
Christopher K. Thompson1,2, Arun Jayaraman1, Catherine Kinnaird1, T. George Hornby1,3
1Sensory Motor Performance Program, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, 2Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, 3Department of Physical Therapy, University of Illinois at Chicago
This video demonstrates modulation of reflex activity, volitional strength and ambulation through clinical and quantitative assessments in individuals with motor incomplete SCI as a result of acute oral administration of a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).
Other articles by Arun Jayaraman on PubMed
4E-binding Proteins, the Suppressors of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4E, Are Down-regulated in Cells with Acquired or Intrinsic Resistance to Rapamycin
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11847216
To determine whether inhibition of either the ribosomal p70 S6 kinase or eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E pathways downstream of the mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, contributes to rapamycin-induced growth arrest, clones of Rh30 rhabdomyosarcoma cells were selected for rapamycin resistance. Expression of c-Myc and anchorage-independent growth were enhanced in resistant cells. Resistance was unstable in each of three clones characterized. In resistant cells, as compared with parental cells, approximately 10-fold less 4E-binding protein (4E-BP) was bound to eIF4E, and total cellular 4E-BP was markedly reduced. Levels of eIF4E were unchanged. Steady-state levels of 4E-BP transcript remained unaltered, but the rate of 4E-BP synthesis was reduced in resistant cells. In cells that reverted to rapamycin sensitivity, levels of total 4E-BP returned to those of parental cells. Compared with parental cells, resistant clones had either similar or lower levels and activity of ribosomal p70 S6 kinase, but c-Myc levels were elevated in both resistant and revertant clones. Several colon carcinoma cell lines with intrinsic rapamycin resistance were found to have low 4E-BP:eIF4E ratios. In stable clones of HCT8 carcinoma engineered to overexpress 4E-BP, rapamycin sensitivity increased markedly (>1000-fold) as 4E-BP expression increased. These results suggest that the 4E-BP:eIF4E ratio is an important determinant of rapamycin resistance and controls certain aspects of the malignant phenotype.
Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.). Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15467457
It is thought that G(1) cyclin/CDK mediated phosphorylation of pocket proteins from mid G(1) to mitosis is reversed via dephosphorylation in mitosis. We examined the mechanisms involved in the unexpectedly rapid dephosphorylation of the pocket proteins induced via inhibition of cellular protein synthesis by cycloheximide (CHX) as well as direct inhibition of CDKs by flavopiridol. CHX and flavopiridol-induced dephosphorylation of pocket proteins is attributable to inactivation of D-type cyclin/CDKs and G(1)/S CDKs, respectively, which unmasks a phosphatase activity that targets the three pocket proteins apparently throughout the cell cycle. Treatment of cells with phosphatase inhibitors at concentrations selective for PP2A inhibition prevents CHX and flavopiridol-mediated dephosphorylation of pocket proteins in vivo. Also, ectopic expression of SV40 small t antigen, which inhibits PP2A via disruption of trimeric PP2A holoenzymes, delays CHX-induced pocket protein dephosphorylation. Moreover, dephosphorylation of p130 and p107 in cell extracts is inhibited by concentrations of okadaic acid known to inhibit PP2A, but not PP1. Finally, the PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2A/C) specifically interacts with both p130 and p107 in quiescent cells as well as cells progressing throughout the cell cycle. Together, these results demonstrate that the overall phosphorylation state of pocket proteins is determined, at least in part, by a dynamic equilibrium between CDKs and PP2A, or a closely related PP2A-like enzyme. These findings have important implications, as cell cycle or checkpoint-dependent inhibition of CDK activities counteracted by an active PP2A should have imminent effects on the phosphorylation state and activities of pocket proteins.
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16731211
(1) To quantify skeletal muscle size in lower-extremity muscles of people after incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), (2) to assess differences in muscle size between involved lower limbs, (3) to determine the impact of ambulatory status (using wheelchair for community mobility vs not using a wheelchair for community mobility) on muscle size after incomplete SCI, and (4) to determine if differential atrophy occurs among individual muscles after incomplete SCI.
Relative Contributions of Muscle Activation and Muscle Size to Plantarflexor Torque During Rehabilitation After Immobilization
Journal of Orthopaedic Research : Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16779833
Muscle atrophy is clearly related to a loss of muscle torque, but the reduction in muscle size cannot entirely account for the decrease in muscle torque. Reduced neural input to muscle has been proposed to account for much of the remaining torque deficits after disuse or immobilization. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the relative contributions of voluntary muscle activation failure and muscle atrophy to loss of plantarflexor muscle torque after immobilization. Nine subjects (ages 19-23) years with unilateral ankle malleolar fractures were treated by open reduction-internal fixation and 7 weeks of cast immobilization. Subjects participated in 10 weeks of rehabilitation that focused on both strength and endurance of the plantarflexors. Magnetic resonance imaging, isometric plantarflexor muscle torque and activation (interpolated twitch technique) measurements were performed at 0, 5, and 10 weeks of rehabilitation. Following immobilization, voluntary muscle activation (56.8 +/- 16.3%), maximal cross-sectional area (CSA) (35.3 +/- 7.6 cm(2)), and peak torque (26.2 +/- 12.7 N-m) were all significantly decreased ( p < 0.0056) compared to the uninvolved limb (98.0 +/- 2.3%, 48.0 +/- 6.8 cm(2), and 105.2 +/- 27.0 N-m, respectively). During 10 weeks of rehabilitation, muscle activation alone accounted for 56.1% of the variance in torque ( p < 0.01) and muscle CSA alone accounted for 35.5% of the variance in torque ( p < 0.01). Together, CSA and muscle activation accounted for 61.5% of the variance in torque ( p < 0.01). The greatest gains in muscle activation were made during the first 5 weeks of rehabilitation. Both increases in voluntary muscle activation and muscle hypertrophy contributed to the recovery in muscle strength following immobilization, with large gains in activation during the first 5 weeks of rehabilitation. In contrast, muscle CSA showed fairly comparable gains throughout both the early and later phase of rehabilitation.
European Journal of Applied Physiology. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16841201
Metabolic factors have been proposed to explain strength deficits observed in skeletal muscle with immobilization that are not completely accounted for by changes in muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and neural adaptations. The aim of this study was to quantify changes in the resting inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentration from the medial gastrocnemius muscle during immobilization, reloading and rehabilitation. Additionally, we assessed the contributions of CSA, muscle activation and Pi concentration to plantar flexor torque during rehabilitation following immobilization. Eight persons with a surgically stabilized ankle fracture participated. Subjects were immobilized for 6-8 weeks and subsequently participated in 10 weeks of rehabilitation. Localized (31)P-Magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, isometric torque and activation testing were performed on the immobilized and uninvolved limbs. At 6 weeks of immobilization, significant differences were noted between the immobilized and uninvolved limbs for the Pi concentration and the Pi/PCr ratio (P < 0.05). From 6 weeks of immobilization to 3-5 days of reloading, the increase in Pi concentration (15%, P = 0.26) and Pi/PCr (20%, P = 0.29) was not significant. During rehabilitation, the relative contributions of CSA, muscle activation and Pi concentration to plantarflexor torque were 32, 44 and 40%, respectively. Together, CSA, muscle activation and Pi concentration accounted for 76% of the variance in torque (P < 0.01). In summary, our findings suggest that immobilization, independent of reloading, leads to a significant increase in the resting Pi concentration of human skeletal muscle. Additionally, alterations in resting Pi concentration may contribute to strength deficits with immobilization not accounted for by changes in muscle CSA or neural adaptations.
The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18581666
To determine whether 9 weeks of locomotor training (LT) results in changes in muscle strength and alterations in muscle size and activation after chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI).
Impact of Treadmill Locomotor Training on Skeletal Muscle IGF1 and Myogenic Regulatory Factors in Spinal Cord Injured Rats
European Journal of Applied Physiology. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20213470
The objective of this study was to determine the impact of treadmill locomotor training on the expression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF1) and changes in myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) in rat soleus muscle following spinal cord injury (SCI). Moderate, midthoracic (T(8)) contusion SCIs were produced using a NYU (New York University) impactor. Animals were randomly assigned to treadmill training or untrained groups. Rats in the training group were trained starting at 1 week after SCI, for either 3 bouts of 20 min over 1.5 days or 10 bouts over 5 days. Five days of treadmill training completely prevented the decrease in soleus fiber size resulting from SCI. In addition, treadmill training triggered increases in IGF1, MGF and IGFBP4 mRNA expression, and a concurrent reduction of IGFBP5 mRNA in skeletal muscle. Locomotor training also caused an increase in markers of muscle regeneration, including small muscle fibers expressing embryonic myosin and Pax7 positive nuclei and increased expression of the MRFs, myogenin and MyoD. We concluded that treadmill locomotor training ameliorated muscle atrophy in moderate contusion SCI rats. Training-induced muscle regeneration and fiber hypertrophy following SCI was associated with an increase in IGF1, an increase in Pax7 positive nuclei, and upregulation of MRFs.
Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21333591
Muscle weakness develops rapidly after stroke, adversely affecting motor performance, and contributing to reduced functional ability. While the contributions of structural and functional alterations in skeletal muscle to post-stroke weakness have been well described, the relationship between motor pathway integrity, measured using both radiological and electrophysiological techniques, and post-stroke muscle weakness is not clear. This study sought to determine the role of corticospinal tract (CST) integrity on knee extensor weakness in chronic stroke survivors.
Central Excitability Contributes to Supramaximal Volitional Contractions in Human Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury
The Journal of Physiology. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21610138
Despite greater muscle fatigue in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) when compared to neurologically intact subjects using neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)protocols, few studies have investigated the extent of volitional fatigue in motor incomplete SCI. Using an established protocol of 20 repeated, intermittent, maximal volitional effort (MVE) contractions, we previously demonstrated that subjects with incomplete SCI unexpectedly demonstrated a 15% increase in peak knee extensor torques within the first five MVEs with minimal evidence of fatigue after 20 contraction. In the present study, we investigated potential segmental mechanisms underlying this supramaximal torque generation. Changes in twitch properties and maximum compound muscle action potentials (M-waves) were assessed prior to and following one, three and five MVEs, revealing a significant 17% increase only in maximum twitch torques after a single MVE. Despite this post-activation potentiation of the muscle, use of conventional NMES protocols to elicit repeated muscular contractions resulted in a significant decrease in evoked torque generation, suggesting limited the muscular contributions to the observed phenomenon. To evaluate potential central mechanisms underlying the augmented torques, non-linear responses to wide-pulse width (1 ms), low-intensity, variable-frequency (25–100 Hz) NMES were also tested prior to and following repeated MVEs.When variable-frequency NMES was applied following the repeated MVEs, augmented and prolonged torques were observed and accompanied by sustained quadriceps electromyographic activity often lasting > 2s after stimulus termination. Such data suggest a potential contribution of elevated spinal excitability to the reserve in volitional force generation in incomplete SCI.
Exposure to Acute Intermittent Hypoxia Augments Somatic Motor Function in Humans with Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury
Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 21821826
. Neural plasticity may contribute to motor recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI). In rat models of SCI with respiratory impairment, acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) strengthens synaptic inputs to phrenic motor neurons, thereby improving respiratory function by a mechanism known as respiratory long-term facilitation. Similar intermittent hypoxia-induced facilitation may be feasible in somatic motor pathways in humans.