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In JoVE (1)
- Preparation of Synaptoneurosomes from Mouse Cortex using a Discontinuous Percoll-Sucrose Density Gradient
Other Publications (12)
- The Biochemical Journal
- Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
- Neurobiology of Aging
- PLoS Biology
- The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
- International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
- International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
- Science Signaling
- Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : JAD
- PloS One
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Articles by Cara J. Westmark in JoVE
Preparation of Synaptoneurosomes from Mouse Cortex using a Discontinuous Percoll-Sucrose Density Gradient
Pamela R. Westmark1, Cara J. Westmark1, Athavi Jeevananthan2, James S. Malter1
1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Waisman Center for Developmental Disabilities, University of Wisconsin, 2Department of Biochemistry, Waisman Center for Developmental Disabilities, University of Wisconsin
A method to prepare translationally active, intact synaptoneurosomes (SNs) from mouse brain cortex is described. The method uses a discontinuous Percoll-sucrose density gradient allowing for the quick preparation of active SNs.
Other articles by Cara J. Westmark on PubMed
The Biochemical Journal. Mar, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11853545
Transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA), isolated from the cytoplasmic 7 S ribonucleoprotein complex of Xenopus oocytes, is phosphorylated when incubated with [gamma-(32)P]ATP. This modification is due to a trace kinase activity that remains associated with the factor through several steps of purification. The kinase can use either ATP or GTP, and will phosphorylate casein and phosvitin to the exclusion of TFIIIA. The kinase is reactive with a ten-amino-acid peptide that is a specific substrate for protein kinase CK2 (CK2; formerly casein kinase II). In addition, inhibition of phosphorylation by heparin and stimulation by spermidine indicate that the activity can be ascribed to CK2. Phospho amino acid analysis established that serine is the sole phosphoryl acceptor in TFIIIA. There are four consensus sites for CK2 in TFIIIA; all contain serine residues at the putative site of phosphorylation. TFIIIA immunoprecipitated from oocytes, which were incubated with [(32)P]orthophosphate, is also phosphorylated exclusively on serine residues. Only the cyanogen bromide fragment, which was derived from the N-terminal end of TFIIIA, is labelled in vivo. A recognition sequence for CK2, located at Ser(16) in the beta-turn of the first zinc-finger domain, is the only protein kinase consensus sequence present in this peptide. Assays in vitro with site-specific mutants of TFIIIA established that Ser(16) is the preferred site of phosphorylation, with some secondary modification at Ser(314).
Oncogene. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15543229
RhoB is a small GTP-binding protein that is involved in apoptotic signal transduction. We have cloned the mouse RhoB mRNA including a 1377 nucleotide 3'-untranslated region (UTR) that contains six AU-rich elements (AREs) as well as several uridine-rich stretches. There is 94% homology overall between the mouse and rat RhoB genes and 92% homology between the mouse and a putative human clone. Ultraviolet light (UVL) induces RhoB production through regulated changes in gene transcription and mRNA stabilization although the latter mechanism is unknown. We observed that UVL increased the half-life of RhoB mRNA from 63 min to 3.3 h in NIH/3T3 cells and from 87 min to 2.7 h in normal human keratinocyte cells. In vitro mobility shift assays demonstrated that HuR bound the 3'-UTR of RhoB at three distinct locations (nucleotides 1342-1696, 1765-1920 and 1897-1977) suggesting a regulatory role for this RNA-binding protein. HuR immunoprecipitations were positive for RhoB mRNA indicating an in vivo association, and Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence demonstrated that HuR rapidly partitions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm after UVL. Therefore, we propose a model in which UVL induces stress-activated signal transduction leading to nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling of HuR and subsequent stabilization of RhoB mRNA.
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16319714
HuR is a ubiquitously expressed AU-rich element (ARE)-binding protein that interacts with and stabilizes selective early response gene (ERG) mRNAs after cell activation or stress. To date, approximately 20 mRNAs have been unambiguously defined as HuR ligands. Given the discordance between the large number of ERG mRNAs and those few defined as ligands, we applied in vitro selection to isolate a broad range of HuR mRNA ligands using postseizure mouse hippocampal tissue. Selected mRNAs were converted into cDNA libraries and sequenced. Using this approach, we have identified over 600 novel, putative HuR mRNA ligands. These genes code for a variety of proteins, including transcription factors, signaling molecules, and kinases, but many have unknown function. Consistent with the means of their selection, several of these HuR ligands are differentially expressed in hippocampus after seizure. These results demonstrate a biochemical approach to identify and characterize the diverse repertoire of ligands for HuR and other regulatory mRNA-binding proteins.
Neurobiology of Aging. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16672170
Overproduction of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and beta-amyloid likely contribute to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In an effort to understand neuronal APP gene regulation, we identified a 52 base element (52sce) immediately downstream from the stop codon that stabilizes APP mRNA. Deletion of this domain drastically destabilized APP mRNAs and reduced APP synthesis in vitro. Chimeric globin-APP mRNAs containing the globin coding sequence fused to the entire APP 3'-UTR, showed regulation similar to full-length APP mRNA. A variety of cytoplasmic lysates contain 52sce RNA binding activity, suggesting cis-trans interactions regulate the element's functionality. Finally, the overexpression of chimeric mRNAs, containing the GFP coding sequence and APP 3'-UTR, dramatically reduced endogenous APP steady-state levels in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and suggests a novel approach to reduce the amyloid burden in AD patients.
PLoS Biology. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17298186
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) facilitates synapse formation in the developing brain, while beta-amyloid (Abeta) accumulation, which is associated with Alzheimer disease, results in synaptic loss and impaired neurotransmission. Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is a cytoplasmic mRNA binding protein whose expression is lost in fragile X syndrome. Here we show that FMRP binds to the coding region of APP mRNA at a guanine-rich, G-quartet-like sequence. Stimulation of cortical synaptoneurosomes or primary neuronal cells with the metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist DHPG increased APP translation in wild-type but not fmr-1 knockout samples. APP mRNA coimmunoprecipitated with FMRP in resting synaptoneurosomes, but the interaction was lost shortly after DHPG treatment. Soluble Abeta40 or Abeta42 levels were significantly higher in multiple strains of fmr-1 knockout mice compared to wild-type controls. Our data indicate that postsynaptic FMRP binds to and regulates the translation of APP mRNA through metabotropic glutamate receptor activation and suggests a possible link between Alzheimer disease and fragile X syndrome.
The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18374404
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18784809
Alzheimer's disease and Fragile X syndrome both display synaptic phenotypes, and based on recent studies, likely share dendritic over expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and beta-amyloid (Abeta). In order to create a mouse model to specifically study the effects of APP and Abeta at synapses, we crossed Tg2576, which over-express human APP with the Swedish mutation (hAPPsw), with fmr-1 KO mice. The progeny, named FRAXAD, displayed increased mortality (23% by 30 days of age) compared to Tg2576 (3%) and WT and fmr-1 KO littermate controls (0%) consistent with a developmental defect. By 60 days of age, both the Tg2576 and FRAXAD mice approached a 40% mortality rate compared to 0% for WT and fmr-1 KO littermates. To understand the mechanism underlying increased mortality in APP over-expressing mice, we assessed seizure thresholds in response to pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). Both the Tg2576 and FRAXAD mice had a lower threshold to PTZ-induced seizures (average seizure score of >/=4.0) in comparison to nontransgenic littermates (average seizure score 1.9-2.9). Seizures are a major phenotype of AD, FXS, Down syndrome, autism and epilepsy, and these data suggested that developmental over-expression of dendritic APP or Abeta increased seizure susceptibility.
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19918329
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR(5)) regulates the translation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) mRNA. Under resting conditions, mRNA is bound to and translationally repressed by the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Upon group 1 mGluR activation, FMRP dissociates from the mRNA and translation ensues. APP levels are elevated in the dendrites of primary neuronal cultures as well as in synaptoneurosomes (SN) prepared from embryonic and juvenile fmr-1 knockout (KO) mice, respectively. In order to study the effects of APP and its proteolytic product Abeta on Fragile X syndrome (FXS) phenotypes, we created a novel mouse model (FRAXAD) that over-expresses human APPSwe/Abeta in an fmr-1 KO background. Herein, we assess (1) human APP(Swe) and Abeta levels as a function of age in FRAXAD mice, and (2) seizure susceptibility to pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) after mGluR(5) blockade. PTZ-induced seizure severity is decreased in FRAXAD mice pre-treated with the mGluR(5) antagonist MPEP. These data suggest that Abeta contributes to seizure incidence and may be an appropriate therapeutic target to lessen seizure pathology in FXS, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down syndrome (DS) patients.
Science Signaling. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20215645
Some forms of learning and memory and their electrophysiologic correlate, long-term potentiation (LTP), require dendritic translation. We demonstrate that Pin1 (protein interacting with NIMA 1), a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, is present in dendritic spines and shafts and inhibits protein synthesis induced by glutamatergic signaling. Pin1 suppression increased dendritic translation, possibly through eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and eIF4E binding proteins 1 and 2 (4E-BP1/2). Consistent with increased protein synthesis, hippocampal slices from Pin(-/-) mice had normal early LTP (E-LTP) but significantly enhanced late LTP (L-LTP) compared to wild-type controls. Protein kinase C zeta (PKCzeta) and protein kinase M zeta (PKMzeta) were increased in Pin1(-/-) mouse brain, and their activity was required to maintain dendritic translation. PKMzeta interacted with and inhibited Pin1 by phosphorylating serine 16. Therefore, glutamate-induced, dendritic protein synthesis is sequentially regulated by Pin1 and PKMzeta signaling.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : JAD. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20413855
Amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP) is overexpressed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Down syndrome (DS), autism, and fragile X syndrome. Seizures are a common phenotype in all of these neurological disorders, yet the underlying molecular mechanism(s) of seizure induction and propagation remain largely unknown. We demonstrate that AD (Tg2576) and DS (Ts65Dn) mice exhibit audiogenic seizures, which can be attenuated with antagonists to metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) or by passive immunization with anti-amyloid-beta antibody. Our data strongly implicates AbetaPP or a catabolite in seizure susceptibility and suggests that mGluR5 mediates this response.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22046307
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability and the leading known genetic cause of autism. Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which is absent or expressed at substantially reduced levels in FXS, binds to and controls the postsynaptic translation of amyloid β-protein precursor (AβPP) mRNA. Cleavage of AβPP can produce β-amyloid (Aβ), a 39-43 amino acid peptide mis-expressed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down syndrome (DS). Aβ is over-expressed in the brain of Fmr1(KO) mice, suggesting a pathogenic role in FXS. To determine if genetic reduction of AβPP/Aβ rescues characteristic FXS phenotypes, we assessed audiogenic seizures (AGS), anxiety, the ratio of mature versus immature dendritic spines and metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-mediated long-term depression (LTD) in Fmr1(KO) mice after removal of one App allele. All of these phenotypes were partially or completely reverted to normal. Plasma Aβ(1-42) was significantly reduced in full-mutation FXS males compared to age-matched controls while cortical and hippocampal levels were somewhat increased, suggesting that Aβ is sequestered in the brain. Evolving therapies directed at reducing Aβ in AD may be applicable to FXS and Aβ may serve as a plasma-based biomarker to facilitate disease diagnosis or assess therapeutic efficacy.
Time of Day Regulates Subcellular Trafficking, Tripartite Synaptic Localization, and Polyadenylation of the Astrocytic Fabp7 MRNA
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22279223
The astrocyte brain fatty acid binding protein (Fabp7) has previously been shown to have a coordinated diurnal regulation of mRNA and protein throughout mouse brain, and an age-dependent decline in protein expression within synaptoneurosomal fractions. Mechanisms that control time-of-day changes in expression and trafficking Fabp7 to the perisynaptic process are not known. In this study, we confirmed an enrichment of Fabp7 mRNA and protein in the astrocytic perisynaptic compartment, and observed a diurnal change in the intracellular distribution of Fabp7 mRNA in molecular layers of hippocampus. Northern blotting revealed a coordinated time-of-day-dependent oscillation for the Fabp7 mRNA poly(A) tail throughout murine brain. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein 1 (CPEB1) regulates subcellular trafficking and translation of synaptic plasticity-related mRNAs. Here we show that Fabp7 mRNA coimmunoprecipitated with CPEB1 from primary mouse astrocyte extracts, and its 3'UTR contains phylogenetically conserved cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (CPEs) capable of regulating translation of reporter mRNAs during Xenopus oocyte maturation. Given that Fabp7 expression is confined to astrocytes and neural progenitors in adult mouse brain, the synchronized cycling pattern of Fabp7 mRNA is a novel discovery among known CPE-regulated transcripts. These results implicate circadian, sleep, and/or metabolic control of CPEB-mediated subcellular trafficking and localized translation of Fabp7 mRNA in the tripartite synapse of mammalian brain.