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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (12)
- Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
- Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
- Free Radical Biology & Medicine
- Epilepsy Research
- Epilepsy Research
- Human Brain Mapping
- Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue = Chinese Critical Care Medicine = Zhongguo Weizhongbing Jijiuyixue
- Human Brain Mapping
- PloS One
- Nature Chemical Biology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Epilepsy Research
Articles by Cheng Luo in JoVE
Micropunching Lithography for Generating Micro- and Submicron-patterns on Polymer Substrates
Anirban Chakraborty, Xinchuan Liu, Cheng Luo
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington
A micropunching lithography approach is developed to generate micro- and submicron-patterns on top, sidewall and bottom surfaces of polymer substrates. It overcomes the obstacles of patterning conducting polymers and generating sidewall patterns. This method allows rapid fabrication of multiple features and is free of aggressive chemistry.
Other articles by Cheng Luo on PubMed
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12791172
To obtain the information of ligand-receptor binding between the S protein of SARS-CoV and CD13, identify the possible interacting domains or motifs related to binding sites, and provide clues for studying the functions of SARS proteins and designing anti-SARS drugs and vaccines.
Identification of Probable Genomic Packaging Signal Sequence from SARS-CoV Genome by Bioinformatics Analysis
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12791173
To predict the probable genomic packaging signal of SARS-CoV by bioinformatics analysis. The derived packaging signal may be used to design antisense RNA and RNA interfere (RNAi) drugs treating SARS.
Lipoamide Protects Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells from Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction
Free Radical Biology & Medicine. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18258206
alpha-Lipoic acid (LA) has been widely studied as an agent for preventing and treating various diseases associated with oxidative disruption of mitochondrial functions. To investigate a related mitochondrial antioxidant, we compared the effects of lipoamide (LM), the neutral amide of LA, with LA for measures of oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in a human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line. Acrolein, a major component of cigarette smoke and a product of lipid peroxidation, was used to induce oxidative mitochondrial damage in RPE cells. Overall, using comparable concentrations, LM was more effective than LA at preventing acrolein-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Relative to LA, LM improved ATP levels, membrane potentials, and activities of mitochondrial complexes I, II, and V and dehydrogenases that had been decreased by acrolein exposure. LM reduced acrolein-induced oxidant generation, calcium levels, protein oxidation, and DNA damage to a greater degree than LA. And, total antioxidant capacity, glutathione content, glutathione S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase activities and expression of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 were increased by LM relative to LA. These results suggest that LM is a more potent mitochondrial-protective agent and antioxidant than LA in protecting RPE from oxidative damage.
EEG-fMRI Study on the Interictal and Ictal Generalized Spike-wave Discharges in Patients with Childhood Absence Epilepsy
Epilepsy Research. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19836209
Absence epilepsy is characterized clinically by the impairment of consciousness and 3 Hz generalized spike-wave discharges (GSWDs) on EEG. Clinical absence can be observed with ictal GSWDs, but interictal GSWD bursts are usually clinically silent. Simultaneous EEG and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (EEG-fMRI) has been successfully used to link the changes in regional neuronal activity to the occurrence of GSWDs.
Epilepsy Research. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20674274
Simultaneous electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) is considered as a powerful and non-invasive method that allows definition of the irritative zone. However, the complex interictal epileptic discharge (IED) may be present in some patients, and sometimes no active foci can be localized using General Linear Model (GLM) which is a widely adopted tool in EEG-fMRI study. The purpose of this study is to develop a new scheme to improve the detectability and localize the canonical HRF localizable foci.
Human Brain Mapping. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21520351
The basal ganglia, a brain structure related to motor control, is implicated in the modulation of epileptic discharges generalization in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). Using group independent component analysis (ICA) on resting-state fMRI data, this study identified a resting state functional network that predominantly consisted of the basal ganglia in both healthy controls and patients with IGE. In order to gain a better understanding of the basal ganglia network(BGN) in IGE patients, we compared the BGN functional connectivity of controls with that of epilepsy patients, either with interictal epileptic discharges (with-discharge period, WDP) or without epileptic discharge (nondischarge period, NDP) while scanning. Compared with controls, functional connectivity of BGN in IGE patients demonstrated significantly more integration within BGN except cerebellum and supplementary motor area (SMA) during both periods. Compared with the NDP group, the increased functional connectivity was found in bilateral caudate nucleus and the putamen, and decreases were observed in the bilateral cerebellum and SMA in WDP group. In accord with the proposal that the basal ganglia modulates epileptic discharge activity, the results showed that the modulation enhanced the integration in BGN of patients, and modulation during WDP was stronger than that during NDP. Furthermore, reduction of functional connectivity in cerebellum and SMA, the abnormality might be further aggravated during WDP, was consistent with the behavioral manifestations with disturbed motor function in IGE. These resting-state fMRI findings in the current study provided evidence confirming the role of the BGN as an important modulator in IGE. Hum Brain Mapp, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue = Chinese Critical Care Medicine = Zhongguo Weizhongbing Jijiuyixue. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22153007
To examine the expression of circulating microRNA-92a (miR-92a) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and the impact of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on such expression.
Human Brain Mapping. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20814964
The brain exhibits temporally coherent networks (TCNs) involving numerous cortical and sub-cortical regions both during the rest state and during the performance of cognitive tasks. TCNs represent the interactions between different brain areas, and understanding such networks may facilitate electroencephalography (EEG) source estimation. We propose a new method for examining TCNs using scalp EEG in conjunction with data obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In this approach, termed NEtwork based SOurce Imaging (NESOI), multiple TCNs derived from fMRI with independent component analysis (ICA) are used as the covariance priors of the EEG source reconstruction using Parametric Empirical Bayesian (PEB). In contrast to previous applications of PEB in EEG source imaging with smoothness or sparseness priors, TCNs play a fundamental role among the priors used by NESOI. NESOI achieves an efficient integration of the high temporal resolution EEG and TCN derived from the high spatial resolution fMRI. Using synthetic and real data, we directly compared the performance of NESOI with other distributed source inversion methods, with and without the use of fMRI priors. Our results indicated that NESOI is a potentially useful approach for EEG source imaging.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22242146
Examining the spontaneous activity to understand the neural mechanism of brain disorder is a focus in recent resting-state fMRI. In the current study, to investigate the alteration of brain functional connectivity in partial epilepsy in a systematical way, two levels of analyses (functional connectivity analysis within resting state networks (RSNs) and functional network connectivity (FNC) analysis) were carried out on resting-state fMRI data acquired from the 30 participants including 14 healthy controls(HC) and 16 partial epilepsy patients. According to the etiology, all patients are subdivided into temporal lobe epilepsy group (TLE, included 7 patients) and mixed partial epilepsy group (MPE, 9 patients). Using group independent component analysis, eight RSNs were identified, and selected to evaluate functional connectivity and FNC between groups. Compared with the controls, decreased functional connectivity within all RSNs was found in both TLE and MPE. However, dissociating patterns were observed within the 8 RSNs between two patient groups, i.e, compared with TLE, we found decreased functional connectivity in 5 RSNs increased functional connectivity in 1 RSN, and no difference in the other 2 RSNs in MPE. Furthermore, the hierarchical disconnections of FNC was found in two patient groups, in which the intra-system connections were preserved for all three subsystems while the lost connections were confined to intersystem connections in patients with partial epilepsy. These findings may suggest that decreased resting state functional connectivity and disconnection of FNC are two remarkable characteristics of partial epilepsy. The selective impairment of FNC implicated that it is unsuitable to understand the partial epilepsy only from global or local perspective. We presumed that studying epilepsy in the multi-perspective based on RSNs may be a valuable means to assess the functional changes corresponding to specific RSN and may contribute to the understanding of the neuro-pathophysiological mechanism of epilepsy.
Nature Chemical Biology. Apr, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22327402
Human thymine DNA glycosylase (hTDG) efficiently excises 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC), a key oxidation product of 5-methylcytosine in genomic DNA, in a recently discovered cytosine demethylation pathway. We present here the crystal structures of the hTDG catalytic domain in complex with duplex DNA containing either 5caC or a fluorinated analog. These structures, together with biochemical and computational analyses, reveal that 5caC is specifically recognized in the active site of hTDG, supporting the role of TDG in mammalian 5-methylcytosine demethylation.
Quorum-sensing Agr Mediates Bacterial Oxidation Response Via an Intramolecular Disulfide Redox Switch in the Response Regulator AgrA
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jun, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22586129
Oxidation sensing and quorum sensing significantly affect bacterial physiology and host-pathogen interactions. However, little attention has been paid to the cross-talk between these two seemingly orthogonal signaling pathways. Here we show that the quorum-sensing agr system has a built-in oxidation-sensing mechanism through an intramolecular disulfide switch possessed by the DNA-binding domain of the response regulator AgrA. Biochemical and mass spectrometric analysis revealed that oxidation induces the intracellular disulfide bond formation between Cys-199 and Cys-228, thus leading to dissociation of AgrA from DNA. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that the disulfide bond formation generates a steric clash responsible for the abolished DNA binding of the oxidized AgrA. Mutagenesis studies further established that Cys-199 is crucial for oxidation sensing. The oxidation-sensing role of Cys-199 is further supported by the observation that the mutant Staphylococcus aureus strain expressing AgrAC199S is more susceptible to H(2)O(2) owing to repression of the antioxidant bsaA gene under oxidative stress. Together, our results show that oxidation sensing is a component of the quorum-sensing agr signaling system, which serves as an intrinsic checkpoint to ameliorate the oxidation burden caused by intense metabolic activity and potential host immune response.
White Matter Impairment in the Basal Ganglia-thalamocortical Circuit of Drug-naïve Childhood Absence Epilepsy
Epilepsy Research. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22227509
PURPOSE: It is unknown whether white matter abnormalities exist in childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), a syndrome of idiopathic epilepsy (IGE). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can noninvasively quantify white matter integrity. This study used DTI to investigate abnormal changes in white matter of untreated CAE patients. METHODS: Subjects included nine patients with untreated CAE and nine age-and sex-matched healthy controls. Diffusion tensor imaging parameters were voxel based and statistically compared between patients and controls. The correlations between DTI parameters in regions of interest (ROIs) and age of seizure onset or duration of epilepsy were analyzed. RESULTS: Untreated CAE patients had a significantly higher fractional anisotropy (FA) value in the bilateral thalamus, anterior corpus callosum and upper brainstem, while also displaying a lower FA value in prefrontal white matter, anterior cingulate, and bilateral posterior limbs of the internal capsule compared to control subjects. An increase in mean diffusivity (MD) value was observed in parietal lobe white matter, prefrontal white matter, and posterior cerebellar hemispheres, in addition to subcortical structures including bilateral putamen and posterior limb of internal capsule. MD significant correlations between ROI diffusion parameters and the duration of the disease or the age of onset. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed white matter integrity impairment in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit of drug-naïve CAE patients. These abnormalities in white matter may be related to increased cortical excitability and cause cognitive, linguistic, and behavioral/emotional deficits both during and between seizures.