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In JoVE (1)
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Articles by Collin Luk in JoVE
Hücreler NRCC Patch-klemp Chips kültür ve Elektrofizyoloji
Christophe Py1, Marzia Martina2, Robert Monette2, Tanya Comas2, Mike W. Denhoff1, Collin Luk3, Naweed I. Syed3, Geoff Mealing2
1Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, 2Institute for Biological Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, 3Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary
Biz hücreler ile kaplanmış orta yüklenen astarlanmalıdır Kanada Ulusal Araştırma Konseyi, sterilize edilir,, fabrikasyon ve elektrofizyolojik kayıtlar için kullanılan düzlemsel patch-klemp cips göstermektedir.
Other articles by Collin Luk on PubMed
An Identified Central Pattern-generating Neuron Co-ordinates Sensory-motor Components of Respiratory Behavior in Lymnaea
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16420419
Defining the attributes of individual central pattern-generating (CPG) neurons underlying various rhythmic behaviors are fundamental to our understanding of how the brain controls motor programs, such as respiration and locomotion. To this end, we have explored a simple invertebrate preparation in which the neuronal basis of respiratory rhythmogenesis can be investigated from the whole animal to a single cell level. An identified dopaminergic neuron, termed right pedal dorsal 1 (RPeD1), is a component of the CPG network which controls hypoxia-driven, aerial respiration in the fresh water snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Using intact, semi-intact and isolated brain preparations, we have discovered that in addition to its role as a respiratory CPG neuron, RPeD1 co-ordinates sensory-motor input from the pneumostome (the respiratory orifice) at the water/air interface to initiate respiratory rhythm generation. An additional, novel role of RPeD1 was also found. Specifically, direct intracellular stimulation of RPeD1 induced pneumostome openings, in the absence of motor neuronal activity. To determine further the role of RPeD1 in the respiratory behavior of intact animals, either its axon was severed or the soma selectively killed. Many components of the respiratory behavior in the intact animals were found to be perturbed following RPeD1 axotomy or 'somatomy' (soma removed). Taken together, the data presented provide a direct demonstration that RPeD1 is a multifunctional CPG neuron, which also serves many additional roles in the control of breathing behavior, ranging from co-ordination of mechanosensory input to the motor control of the respiratory orifice.
Peripheral Oxygen-sensing Cells Directly Modulate the Output of an Identified Respiratory Central Pattern Generating Neuron
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17610573
Breathing is an essential homeostatic behavior regulated by central neuronal networks, often called central pattern generators (CPGs). Despite ongoing advances in our understanding of the neural control of breathing, the basic mechanisms by which peripheral input modulates the activities of the central respiratory CPG remain elusive. This lack of fundamental knowledge vis-à-vis the role of peripheral influences in the control of the respiratory CPG is due in large part to the complexity of mammalian respiratory control centres. We have therefore developed a simpler invertebrate model to study the basic cellular and synaptic mechanisms by which a peripheral chemosensory input affects the central respiratory CPG. Here we report on the identification and characterization of peripheral chemoreceptor cells (PCRCs) that relay hypoxia-sensitive chemosensory information to the known respiratory CPG neuron right pedal dorsal 1 in the mollusk Lymnaea stagnalis. Selective perfusion of these PCRCs with hypoxic saline triggered bursting activity in these neurons and when isolated in cell culture these cells also demonstrated hypoxic sensitivity that resulted in membrane depolarization and spiking activity. When cocultured with right pedal dorsal 1, the PCRCs developed synapses that exhibited a form of short-term synaptic plasticity in response to hypoxia. Finally, osphradial denervation in intact animals significantly perturbed respiratory activity compared with their sham counterparts. This study provides evidence for direct synaptic connectivity between a peripheral regulatory element and a central respiratory CPG neuron, revealing a potential locus for hypoxia-induced synaptic plasticity underlying breathing behavior.
Antidepressant Fluoxetine Suppresses Neuronal Growth from Both Vertebrate and Invertebrate Neurons and Perturbs Synapse Formation Between Lymnaea Neurons
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20377614
Current treatment regimes for a variety of mental disorders involve various selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as Fluoxetine (Prozac). Although these drugs may 'manage' the patient better, there has not been a significant change in the treatment paradigm over the years and neither have the outcomes improved. There is also considerable debate as to the effectiveness of various selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and their potential side-effects on neuronal architecture and function. In this study, using mammalian cortical neurons, a dorsal root ganglia cell line (F11 cells) and identified Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, we provide the first direct and unequivocal evidence that clinically relevant concentrations of Fluoxetine induce growth cone collapse and neurite retraction of both serotonergic and non-serotonergic neurons alike in a dose-dependent manner. Using intracellular recordings and calcium imaging techniques, we further demonstrate that the mechanism underlying Fluoxetine-induced effects on neurite retraction from Lymnaea neurons may involve lowering of intracellular calcium and a subsequent retardation of growth cone cytoskeleton. Using soma-soma synapses between identified presynaptic and postsynaptic Lymnaea neurons, we provide further direct evidence that clinically used concentrations of Fluoxetine also block synaptic transmission and synapse formation between cholinergic neurons. Our study raises alarms over potentially devastating side-effects of this antidepressant drug on neurite outgrowth and synapse formation in a developing/regenerating brain. Our data also demonstrate that drugs such as Fluoxetine may not just affect communication between serotonergic neurons but that the detrimental effects are widespread and involve neurons of various phenotypes from both vertebrate and invertebrate species.
A Novel Silicon Patch-clamp Chip Permits High-fidelity Recording of Ion Channel Activity from Functionally Defined Neurons
Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20648547
We report on a simple and high-yield manufacturing process for silicon planar patch-clamp chips, which allow low capacitance and series resistance from individually identified cultured neurons. Apertures are etched in a high-quality silicon nitride film on a silicon wafer; wells are opened on the backside of the wafer by wet etching and passivated by a thick deposited silicon dioxide film to reduce the capacitance of the chip and to facilitate the formation of a high-impedance cell to aperture seal. The chip surface is suitable for culture of neurons over a small orifice in the substrate with minimal leak current. Collectively, these features enable high-fidelity electrophysiological recording of transmembrane currents resulting from ion channel activity in cultured neurons. Using cultured Lymnaea neurons we demonstrate whole-cell current recordings obtained from a voltage-clamp stimulation protocol, and in current-clamp mode we report action potentials stimulated by membrane depolarization steps. Despite the relatively large size of these neurons, good temporal and spatial control of cell membrane voltage was evident. To our knowledge this is the first report of recording of ion channel activity and action potentials from neurons cultured directly on a planar patch-clamp chip. This interrogation platform has enormous potential as a novel tool to readily provide high-information content during pharmaceutical assays to investigate in vitro models of disease, as well as neuronal physiology and synaptic plasticity.
Biomedical Microdevices. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20694518
We present a polymer microchip capable of monitoring neuronal activity with a fidelity never before obtained on a planar patch-clamp device. Cardio-respiratory neurons Left Pedal Dorsal 1 (LPeD1) from mollusc Lymnaea were cultured on the microchip's polyimide surface for 2 to 4 hours. Cultured neurons formed high resistance seals (gigaseals) between the cell membrane and the surface surrounding apertures etched in the polyimide. Gigaseal formation was observed without applying external force, such as suction, on neurons. The formation of gigaseals, as well as the low access resistance and shunt capacitance values of the polymer microchip resulted in high-fidelity recordings. On-chip culture of neurons permitted, for the first time on a polymeric patch-clamp device, the recording of high fidelity physiological action potentials. Microfabrication of the hybrid poly(dimethylsiloxane)-polyimide (PDMS-PI) microchip is discussed, including a two-layer PDMS processing technique resulting in minimized shrinking variations.
A Novel Approach Reveals Temporal Patterns of Synaptogenesis Between the Isolated Growth Cones of Lymnaea Neurons
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21039963
All brain functions, ranging from motor behaviour to cognition, depend on precise developmental patterns of synapse formation between the growth cones of both pre- and postsynaptic neurons. While the molecular evidence for the presence of 'pre-assembled' elements of synaptic machinery prior to physical contact is beginning to emerge, the precise timing of functional synaptogenesis between the growth cones has not yet been defined. Moreover, it is unclear whether an initial assembly of various synaptic molecules located at the extrasomal regions (e.g. growth cones) can indeed result in fully mature and consolidated synapses in the absence of somata signalling. Such evidence is difficult to obtain both in vivo and in vitro because the extrasomal sites are often challenging, if not impossible, to access for electrophysiological analysis. Here we demonstrate a novel approach to precisely define various steps underlying synapse formation between the isolated growth cones of individually identifiable pre- and postsynaptic neurons from the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis. We show for the first time that isolated growth cones transformed into 'growth balls' have an innate propensity to develop specific and multiple synapses within minutes of physical contact. We also demonstrate that a prior 'synaptic history' primes the presynaptic growth ball to form synapses quicker with subsequent partners. This is the first demonstration that isolated Lymnaea growth cones have the necessary machinery to form functional synapses.
From Understanding Cellular Function to Novel Drug Discovery: the Role of Planar Patch-clamp Array Chip Technology
Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22007170
All excitable cell functions rely upon ion channels that are embedded in their plasma membrane. Perturbations of ion channel structure or function result in pathologies ranging from cardiac dysfunction to neurodegenerative disorders. Consequently, to understand the functions of excitable cells and to remedy their pathophysiology, it is important to understand the ion channel functions under various experimental conditions - including exposure to novel drug targets. Glass pipette patch-clamp is the state of the art technique to monitor the intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons. However, this technique is labor intensive and has low data throughput. Planar patch-clamp chips, integrated into automated systems, offer high throughputs but are limited to isolated cells from suspensions, thus limiting their use in modeling physiological function. These chips are therefore not most suitable for studies involving neuronal communication. Multielectrode arrays (MEAs), in contrast, have the ability to monitor network activity by measuring local field potentials from multiple extracellular sites, but specific ion channel activity is challenging to extract from these multiplexed signals. Here we describe a novel planar patch-clamp chip technology that enables the simultaneous high-resolution electrophysiological interrogation of individual neurons at multiple sites in synaptically connected neuronal networks, thereby combining the advantages of MEA and patch-clamp techniques. Each neuron can be probed through an aperture that connects to a dedicated subterranean microfluidic channel. Neurons growing in networks are aligned to the apertures by physisorbed or chemisorbed chemical cues. In this review, we describe the design and fabrication process of these chips, approaches to chemical patterning for cell placement, and present physiological data from cultured neuronal cells.
Journal of Neural Engineering. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21540486
Planar patch-clamp chip technology has been developed to enhance the assessment of novel compounds for therapeutic efficacy and safety. However, this technology has been limited to recording ion channels expressed in isolated suspended cells, making the study of ion channel function in synaptic transmission impractical. Recently, we developed single- and dual-recording site planar patch-clamp chips and demonstrated their capacity to record ion channel activity from neurons established in culture. Such capacity provides the opportunity to record from synaptically connected neurons cultured on-chip. In this study we reconstructed, on-chip, a simple synaptic circuit between cultured pre-synaptic visceral dorsal 4 neurons and post-synaptic left pedal dorsal 1 neurons isolated from the mollusk Lymnaea stagnalis. Here we report the first planar patch-clamp chip recordings of synaptic phenomena from these paired neurons and pharmacologically demonstrate the cholinergic nature of this synapse. We also report simultaneous dual-site recordings from paired neurons, and demonstrate dedicated cytoplasmic perfusion of individual neurons via on-chip subterranean microfluidics. This is the first application of planar patch-clamp technology to examine synaptic communication.
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21749498
Short-term plasticity is thought to form the basis for working memory, the cellular mechanisms of which are the least understood in the nervous system. In this study, using in vitro reconstructed synapses between the identified Lymnaea neuron visceral dorsal 4 (VD4) and left pedal dorsal 1 (LPeD1), we demonstrate a novel form of short-term potentiation (STP) which is 'use'- but not time-dependent, unlike most previously defined forms of short-term synaptic plasticity. Using a triple-cell configuration we demonstrate for the first time that a single presynaptic neuron can reliably potentiate both inhibitory and excitatory synapses. We further demonstrate that, unlike previously described forms of STP, the synaptic potentiation between Lymnaea neurons does not involve postsynaptic receptor sensitization or presynaptic residual calcium. Finally, we provide evidence that STP at the VD4-LPeD1 synapse requires presynaptic calcium/calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMKII). Taken together, our study identifies a novel form of STP which may provide the basis for both short- and long-term potentiation, in the absence of any protein synthesis-dependent steps, and involve CaMKII activity exclusively in the presynaptic cell.