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In JoVE (1)
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Articles by Daniel Anacker in JoVE
Geração de Culturas Raft organotípicas de queratinócitos humanos primários
Daniel Anacker1, Cary Moody1,2
1Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, 2Lineberger Cancer Center, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill
Other articles by Daniel Anacker on PubMed
Small Capsid Protein PORF65 is Essential for Assembly of Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus Capsids
Journal of Virology. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18463150
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent for KS tumors, multicentric Castleman's disease, and primary effusion lymphomas. Like other herpesvirus capsids, the KSHV capsid is an icosahedral structure composed of six proteins. The capsid shell is made up of the major capsid protein, two triplex proteins, and the small capsid protein. The scaffold protein and the protease occupy the internal space. The assembly of KSHV capsids is thought to occur in a manner similar to that determined for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Our goal was to assemble KSHV capsids in insect cells using the baculovirus expression vector system. Six KSHV capsid open reading frames were cloned and the proteins expressed in Sf9 cells: pORF25 (major capsid protein), pORF62 (triplex 1), pORF26 (triplex 2), pORF17 (protease), pORF17.5 (scaffold protein), and also pORF65 (small capsid protein). When insect cells were coinfected with these baculoviruses, angular capsids that contained internal core structures were readily observed by conventional electron microscopy of the infected cells. Capsids were also readily isolated from infected cells by using rate velocity sedimentation. With immuno-electron microscopy methods, these capsids were seen to be reactive to antisera to pORF65 as well as to KSHV-positive human sera, indicating the correct conformation of pORF65 in these capsids. When either virus expressing the triplex proteins was omitted from the coinfection, capsids did not assemble; similar to observations made in HSV-1-infected cells. If the virus expressing the scaffold protein was excluded, large open shells that did not attain icosahedral structure were seen in the nuclei of infected cells. The presence of pORF65 was required for capsid assembly, in that capsids did not form if this protein was absent as judged by both by ultrastructural analysis of infected cells and rate velocity sedimentation experiments. Thus, a novel outcome of this study is the finding that the small capsid protein of KSHV, like the major capsid and triplex proteins, is essential for capsid shell assembly.
Differentially Conserved Staphylococcal SH3b_5 Cell Wall Binding Domains Confer Increased Staphylolytic and Streptolytic Activity to a Streptococcal Prophage Endolysin Domain
Gene. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19422893
Staphylococcal peptidoglycan hydrolases are a potential new source of antimicrobials. A large subset harbors C-terminal SH3b_5 cell wall binding domains. These C-terminal domains have been shown to be necessary for accurate cell wall recognition and subsequent staphylolytic activity for some endolysins. Over fifty proteins of staphylococcal or phage origin containing SH3b domains were aligned, yielding five highly repetitive groups of proteins. Representative C-termini from these five groups, and six staphylococcal proteins for which no homologues have been identified, were aligned, revealing two distinct SH3b_5 subgroups with overlapping but differentially conserved residues. A premise behind this research is that there may be unique cell wall binding properties conferred by these staphylococcal domains that could be exploited to specifically enhance anti-staphylococcal efficacy in heterologous protein fusion constructs. To identify functional differences between the two subgroups, the native Cpl-7 cell wall binding domains of the streptococcal LambdaSa2 endolysin were replaced by staphylococcal SH3b domains from both subgroups. SH3b domains from either lysostaphin (bacteriocin) or LysK (phage endolysin) resulted in a approximately 5x increase in staphylolytic activity conferred on the streptococcal endopeptidase domain, and surprisingly these same fusions maintained significant streptolytic activity suggesting that the staphylococcal SH3b domains are not always staphylococcal-specific. A comparison of the differences in lytic activity conferred on the LambdaSa2 endopeptidase domain by either LysK or lysostaphin SH3b domain differed by no more than a factor of two. Through the collection of peptidoglycan hydrolase sequences, three new putative intron-containing phage endolysin genes were identified in public data sets for the phages G1, X2 and 85.