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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (12)
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- European Journal of Immunology
- Clinical Immunology (Orlando, Fla.)
- Clinical Immunology (Orlando, Fla.)
- Cytometry. Part A : the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
- PloS One
- Journal of Leukocyte Biology
- Journal of Autoimmunity
- Molecular Immunology
- Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)
- European Journal of Immunology
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Articles by David H. Wagner in JoVE
Isolering och karakterisering av Hoechst Låg CD45 Negativa Mus Lung mesenkymala stamceller
Kelsey S. Chow1,2, DuHyun Jun1,2, Karen M. Helm3, David H. Wagner1,2,4, Susan M. Majka1,2,3
1Charles C. Gates Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Biology Program, University of Colorado Denver, 2Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, 3Cancer Center, University of Colorado Denver, 4Webb Waring Institute, University of Colorado Denver
I den här artikeln visar vi isolering av murina mesenkymala bosatt lung stamceller (lungor MSC), deras expansion, karakterisering och analys av immunmodulerande egenskaper.
Other articles by David H. Wagner on PubMed
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Mar, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11891296
Juvenile diabetes (type 1) is an autoimmune disease in which CD4(+) T cells play a major role in pathogenesis characterized by insulitis and beta cell destruction leading to clinical hyperglycemia. To date, no marker for autoimmune T cells has been described, although it was previously demonstrated that autoimmune mice have a large population of CD4(+) cells that express CD40. We show here that established, diabetogenic T cell clones of either the Th1 or Th2 phenotype are CD40-positive, whereas nondiabetogenic clones are CD40-negative. CD40 functionally signals T cell clones, inducing rapid activation of the transcription factor NFkappaB. We show that autoimmune diabetes-prone nonobese diabetic mice have high levels of CD40(+)CD4(+) T cells in the thymus, spleen, and importantly, in the pancreas. Finally, as demonstrated by adoptive transfers, CD4(+)CD40(+) cells infiltrate the pancreatic islets causing beta-cell degranulation and ultimately diabetes.
Cutting Edge: CD40-induced Expression of Recombination Activating Gene (RAG) 1 and RAG2: a Mechanism for the Generation of Autoaggressive T Cells in the Periphery
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Apr, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12646605
It has been speculated that autoimmune diseases are caused by failure of central tolerance. However, this remains controversial. We have suggested that CD40 expression identifies autoaggressive T cells in the periphery of autoimmune prone mice. In this study, we report that CD40 was cloned from autoaggressive T cells and that engagement induces expression and nuclear translocation of the recombinases, recombination activating gene (RAG) 1 and RAG2 in the autoaggressive, but not in the nonautoaggressive, peripheral T cell population. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CD40 engagement induces altered TCR Valpha, but not Vbeta, expression in these cells. Therefore, CD40-regulated expression of RAG1 and RAG2 in peripheral T cells may constitute a novel pathway for the generation of autoaggressive T cells.
European Journal of Immunology. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15114683
The generation of auto-aggressive T cells involves failure of central or peripheral tolerance. We previously demonstrated that peripheral CD4(lo)CD40(+) T cells give rise to pathogenic T cells in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) model. Here we show that peripheral CD4(+)CD40(+) T cells from diabetic or pre-diabetic NOD mice induce insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Consistent with breach of peripheral tolerance, CD4(lo)CD40(+) T cells expand with age in NOD mice but not in MHC-matched non-obese resistant (NOR) or BALB/c controls. Suggestive of a causal role for CD40 in autoimmunity, blocking CD40-CD154 interactions early during NOD development prevents autoaggressive T cell expansion while promoting increases in CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells. Importantly, CD40 signals promote expansion of V alpha 3.2(+) and V alpha 8.3(+) T cells. Furthermore, peripheral V alpha 3.2(+)CD40(+) T cells induce diabetes in NOD.scid recipients while V alpha 8.3(+) T cells or V alpha 3.2(+)-depleted T cell populations do not. This is the first demonstration that primary T cells transfer disease with the kinetics of auto-aggressive T cell clones and that specific TCR V alpha expansion promotes diabetes.
Clinical Immunology (Orlando, Fla.). Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 16990051
Protection against the universe of pathogens requires a functional, diverse T cell repertoire. However, the price that is paid for an evolved, effective immune system includes the potential danger of generating autoaggressive T cells. Autoimmune diseases result from inherent breach of tolerance to self-antigens leading to disruption of the regulatory to autoaggressive T cell homeostatic balance. The immune system has evolved mechanisms to control those processes. For T cells, positive and negative selection in the thymus assures that only fully functional, non-self-reactive T cells will populate the periphery. Failure of this central tolerance would result in autoaggressive T cells escaping into the periphery. However, other means of escaping negative selection can occur in the periphery, i.e., TCR revision, or the altering of TCR expression after thymic egress. Here the potential benefits, i.e., expansion and re-shaping of the T cell repertoire as potentiated by TCR editing and revision are considered. Furthermore, the potential to develop autoaggressive TCR and thus enhance autoimmunity is considered.
Clinical Immunology (Orlando, Fla.). Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17560173
Human T1D pancreatic lymph nodes contain diabetes-autoantigen responsive T cells but identification of such T cells in the periphery has proven difficult. Here we describe a unique T cell subset defined by CD4(lo) and CD40 expression (T(CD40)) that is significantly expanded in peripheral blood of T1D but not control or T2D subjects. The HLA-DR3 and DR4 alleles are considered high risk factors for T1D and T(CD40) expansion occurs in T1D subjects carrying HLA DR3 or DR4 haplotypes but, T1D subjects who do not carry either DR3 or DR4 haplotypes still have an expanded percentage of T(CD40) cells. Non-autoimmune subjects, even DR3(+) and DR4(+), do not have elevated percentages of T(CD40) cells. The majority of T(CD40) cells in T1D carry a memory phenotype and a portion of those proliferates when exposed to diabetes-associated self-antigens. A greater number of memory T(CD40) cells express CXCR3 when compared to CD40(-) memory cells and that number is significantly expanded in T1D compared to control subjects. If only total CD4(+) T cells are compared no difference in CXCR3 is seen. Furthermore, T(CD40) cells produce a Th1, pro-inflammatory cytokine profile. In healthy controls, T(CD40) cells have equally Th1 and Th2 profiles.
Cytometry. Part A : the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18163472
Understanding cytokine profiles of disease states has provided researchers with great insight into immunologic signaling associated with disease onset and progression, affording opportunities for advancement in diagnostics and therapeutic intervention. Multiparameter flow cytometric assays support identification of specific cytokine secreting subpopulations. Bead-based assays provide simultaneous measurement for the production of ever-growing numbers of cytokines. These technologies demand appropriate analytical techniques to extract relevant information efficiently. We illustrate the power of an analytical workflow to reveal significant alterations in T-cell cytokine expression patterns in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and breast cancer. This workflow consists of population-level analysis, followed by donor-level analysis, data transformation such as stratification or normalization, and a return to population-level analysis. In the T1D study, T-cell cytokine production was measured with a cytokine bead array. In the breast cancer study, intracellular cytokine staining measured T cell responses to stimulation with a variety of antigens. Summary statistics from each study were loaded into a relational database, together with associated experimental metadata and clinical parameters. Visual and statistical results were generated with custom Java software. In the T1D study, donor-level analysis led to the stratification of donors based on unstimulated cytokine expression. The resulting cohorts showed statistically significant differences in poststimulation production of IL-10, IL-1 beta, IL-8, and TNF beta. In the breast cancer study, the differing magnitude of cytokine responses required data normalization to support statistical comparisons. Once normalized, data showed a statistically significant decrease in the expression of IFN gamma on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells when stimulated with tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) when compared with an infectious disease antigen stimulus, and a statistically significant increase in expression of IL-2 on CD8+ T cells. In conclusion, the analytical workflow described herein yielded statistically supported and biologically relevant findings that were otherwise unapparent.
High Distribution of CD40 and TRAF2 in Th40 T Cell Rafts Leads to Preferential Survival of This Auto-aggressive Population in Autoimmunity
PloS One. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18446238
CD40-CD154 interactions have proven critical in autoimmunity, with the identification of CD4(lo)CD40(+) T cells (Th40 cells) as harboring an autoaggressive T cell population shedding new insights into those disease processes. Th40 cells are present at contained levels in non-autoimmune individuals but are significantly expanded in autoimmunity. Th40 cells are necessary and sufficient in transferring type 1 diabetes in mouse models. However, little is known about CD40 signaling in T cells and whether there are differences in that signaling and subsequent outcome depending on disease conditions. When CD40 is engaged, CD40 and TNF-receptor associated factors, TRAFs, become associated with lipid raft microdomains. Dysregulation of T cell homeostasis is emerging as a major contributor to autoimmune disease and thwarted apoptosis is key in breaking homeostasis.
Disruption of the Homeostatic Balance Between Autoaggressive (CD4+CD40+) and Regulatory (CD4+CD25+FoxP3+) T Cells Promotes Diabetes
Journal of Leukocyte Biology. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18469093
Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) are well described, identifying autoaggressive effector T cells has proven more difficult. However, we identified CD4loCD40+ (Th40) cells as being necessary and sufficient for diabetes in the NOD mouse model. Importantly, these cells are present in pancreata of prediabetic and diabetic NOD mice, and Th40 cells but not CD4+CD40(-) T cells transfer progressive insulitis and diabetes to NOD.scid recipients. Nonobese-resistant (NOR) mice have the identical T cell developmental background as NOD mice, yet they are diabetes-resistant. The seminal issue is how NOR mice remain tolerant to diabetogenic self-antigens. We show here that autoaggressive T cells develop in NOR mice and are confined to the Th40 subset. However, NOR mice maintain Treg numbers equivalent to their Th40 numbers. NOD mice have statistically equal numbers of CD4+CD25+forkhead box P3+intrinsic Tregs compared with NOR or nonautoimmune BALB/c mice, and NOD Tregs are equally as suppressive as NOR Tregs. A critical difference is that NOD mice develop expanded numbers of Th40 cells. We suggest that a determinant factor for autoimmunity includes the Th40:Treg ratio. Mechanistically, NOD Th40 cells have low susceptibility to Fas-induced cell death and unlike cells from NOR and BALB/c mice, have predominantly low Fas expression. CD40 engagement of Th40 cells induces Fas expression but further confers resistance to Fas-mediated cell death in NOD mice. A second fundamental difference is that NOD Th40 cells undergo much more rapid homeostatic expansion than Th40 cells from NOR mice.
Journal of Autoimmunity. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18951762
Our goals in this study were to investigate conditions under which T cells from NOD mice express CD40 and to determine how CD40 on autoreactive CD4 T cells contributes to their pathogenicity in T1D. Using CD40-positive diabetogenic T cell clones and CD4 T cells from NOD mice, we examined expression of CD40 upon activation through the TCR and costimulation through either CD28 or CD40. Our results indicate that CD40 expression is increased upon activation with antigen/MHC and that activation of NOD CD4 T cells through TCR/CD40 rapidly induced CD40 expression. Furthermore, CD40 costimulation promoted T cell proliferation to the same extent as costimulation through TCR/CD28. Importantly, costimulation of CD4 T cells through CD40 also interfered with T cell homeostasis by altering regulation of CTLA-4 expression. Through CD40-CD154 blocking studies, we demonstrated that signaling between T cells through CD40 and its ligand contributes to activation of pathogenic T cells and that blocking CD40 on T cells abrogates their ability to transfer diabetes. Thus, costimulation through CD40 on NOD T cells contributes to their pathogenicity by providing additional pathways for activation and by inhibiting upregulation of CTLA-4 during T cell activation.
Molecular Immunology. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20646763
The CD40-CD154 dyad is an intensely studied field as is glycosylation status and both impact immunological functions and autoimmune conditions. CD40 has several isoforms, is modified by glycosylation, and trimerizes to form the functional receptor. We described a CD4(+)CD40(+) T cell (Th40) subset which is expanded in autoimmunity and is necessary and sufficient in transferring type 1 diabetes. Glycosylation impacts immunological events and T cells from autoimmune mouse strains express 30-40% less GlcNAc-branched N-glycans than T cells from non-autoimmune strains, a decrease known to activate T cells. Here we demonstrate that several CD40 receptor constellations exist on CD4 T cells. However, rather than containing different isoforms of CD40 they contain different glycoforms of isoform I. The glycoform profile is dependent on availability of CD154 and autoimmune NOD mice express a high level of a less glycosylated form. Interestingly, CD40 stimulation induces some CD40 receptor constellations that contain TNF-receptors 1 and 2 and targeting of those alters CD40 signaling outcomes in NOD Th40 cells. CD40-stimulation in vivo of non-autoimmune BALB/c mice expands the Th40 population and alters the CD40 glycoform profile of those cells to appear more like that of autoimmune prone NOD mice. Further understanding the dynamics and composition of the different CD40 receptor constellations will provide important insights into treatment options in autoimmunity.
The Pathology of Bleomycin-induced Fibrosis is Associated with Loss of Resident Lung Mesenchymal Stem Cells That Regulate Effector T-cell Proliferation
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21312316
Tissue-resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are important regulators of tissue repair or regeneration, fibrosis, inflammation, angiogenesis, and tumor formation. Here, we define a population of resident lung MSCs (luMSCs) that function to regulate the severity of bleomycin injury via modulation of the T-cell response. Bleomycin-induced loss of these endogenous luMSCs and elicited fibrosis (pulmonary fibrosis), inflammation, and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Replacement of resident stem cells by administration of isolated luMSCs attenuated the bleomycin-associated pathology and mitigated the development of PAH. In addition, luMSC modulated a decrease in numbers of lymphocytes and granulocytes in bronchoalveolar fluid and demonstrated an inhibition of effector T-cell proliferation in vitro. Global gene expression analysis indicated that the luMSCs are a unique stromal population differing from lung fibroblasts in terms of proinflammatory mediators and profibrotic pathways. Our results demonstrate that luMSCs function to protect lung integrity after injury; however, when endogenous MSCs are lost, this function is compromised illustrating the importance of this novel population during lung injury. The definition of this population in vivo in both murine and human pulmonary tissue facilitates the development of a therapeutic strategy directed at the rescue of endogenous cells to facilitate lung repair during injury.
CD40 Engagement of CD4(+) CD40(+) T Cells in a Neo-self Antigen Disease Model Ablates CTLA-4 Expression and Indirectly Impacts Tolerance
European Journal of Immunology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22105491
Biomarkers defining pathogenic effector T (Teff) cells slowly have been forthcoming and towards this we identified CD4(+) T cells that express CD40 (CD4(+) CD40(+) ) as pathogenic in the NOD type 1 diabetes (T1D) model. CD4(+) CD40(+) T cells rapidly and efficiently transfer T1D to NOD.scid recipients. To study the origin of CD4(+) CD40(+) T cells and disease pathogenesis, we employed a dual transgenic model expressing OVA(323-339) peptide as a neo-self antigen on islet β cells and medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and a transgenic TCR recognizing the OVA(323-339) peptide. CD4(+) CD40(+) T cells and Treg cells each recognizing the cognate neo-antigen, rather than being deleted through central tolerance, drastically expanded in the thymus. In pancreatic lymph nodes of DO11.RIPmOVA mice, CD4(+) CD40(+) T cells and Treg cells are expanded in number compared with DO11 mice and importantly, Treg cells remain functional throughout the disease process. When exposed to neo-self antigen, CD4(+) CD40(+) T cells do not express the auto-regulatory CTLA-4 molecule while naïve CD4(+) CD40(+) T cells do. DO11.RIPmOVA mice develop autoimmune-type diabetes. CD40 engagement has been shown to prevent CTLA-4 expression and injecting anti-CD40 in DO11.RIPmOVA mice significantly exacerbates disease. These data suggest a unique means by which CD4(+) CD40(+) T cells thwart tolerance.