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In JoVE (1)
- IGY التكنولوجيا : استخراج الأجسام المضادة من صفار البيض الدجاج بواسطة البولي ايثيلين جلايكول (PEG) الأمطار
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Articles by Diana Pauly in JoVE
IGY التكنولوجيا : استخراج الأجسام المضادة من صفار البيض الدجاج بواسطة البولي ايثيلين جلايكول (PEG) الأمطار
Diana Pauly1, Pablo A. Chacana2, Esteban G. Calzado3, Björn Brembs4, Rüdiger Schade5
1Center for Biological Security, Robert Koch-Institute, 2CICVyA - INTA Castelar, Instituto de Virología, 3Center of Molecular Immunology, Ciudad de la Habana, Cuba, 4Department of Biology, Chemistry, Pharmacy, Institute of Biology-Neurobiology, Free University of Berlin, 5Institut of Pharmacology, Charité-University Medicine of Berlin
يصف هذا البروتوكول في مجال استخراج وبخاصة من مجموع IGY من صفار البيض عن طريق الترسيب البولي ايثيلين جلايكول ، ويعطي معلومات عامة حول التكنولوجيا IGY.
Other articles by Diana Pauly on PubMed
Simultaneous Quantification of Five Bacterial and Plant Toxins from Complex Matrices Using a Multiplexed Fluorescent Magnetic Suspension Assay
The Analyst. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19768210
Proteotoxins such as ricin, abrin, botulinum neurotoxins type A and B (BoNT/A, BoNT/B) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) are regarded as potential biological warfare agents which could be used for bioterrorism attacks on the food chain. In this study we used a novel immunisation strategy to generate high-affinity monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against native ricin, BoNT/A, and BoNT/B. The antibodies were used along with antibodies against SEB and abrin to establish a highly sensitive magnetic and fluorescent multiplex bead array with excellent sensitivities between 2 ng/L and 546 ng/L from a minimal sample volume of 50 microL. The assay was validated using 20 different related analytes and the assay precision was determined. Advancing the existing bead array technology, the novel magnetic and fluorescent microbeads proved amenable to enrichment procedures, by further increasing sensitivity to 0.3-85 ng/L, starting from a sample volume of 500 microL. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied for the simultaneous identification of the target toxins spiked into complex food matrices like milk, baby food and yoghurt. On the basis of our results, the assay appears to be a good tool for large-scale screening of samples from the food supply chain.
Multiplex Detection of Microbial and Plant Toxins by Immunoaffinity Enrichment and Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/ionization Mass Spectrometry
Analytical Chemistry. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20199054
Plant and microbial toxins such as ricin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), and the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are considered as potential biological warfare agents. Specific screening methods are, therefore, required that enable unambiguous and sensitive identification of these biohazards, particularly for the occurrence of the toxins in complex sample matrixes. The present study describes a combination of a multiplex-immunoaffinity purification approach, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-based detection for the simultaneous identification of ricin, SEB, BoNT/A, and BoNT/B. The method comprises an affinity enrichment step, using specific monoclonal antibodies for each of the four toxins which have been selected from a pool of antibodies. The selected antibodies allow for specific and simultaneous capture of ricin, SEB, BoNT/A, BoNT/B, and the corresponding BoNT complexes. These were subsequently identified by MALDI time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), following tryptic digest. The sensitivity of the technique was approximately 500 fmol for each of the toxins. These toxins were detectable within 8 h, even when present in complex matrixes such as milk or juice. Furthermore, the MALDI-based multiplex assay allowed for the discrimination of closely related BoNT sero- and subtypes, including a real case of food-borne botulism in Germany.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20363798
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the most toxic substance known to man and the causative agent of botulism. Due to its high toxicity and the availability of the producing organism Clostridium botulinum, BoNT is regarded as a potential biological warfare agent. Because of the mild pasteurization process, as well as rapid product distribution and consumption, the milk supply chain has long been considered a potential target of a bioterrorist attack. Since, to our knowledge, no empirical data on the inactivation of BoNT in milk during pasteurization are available at this time, we investigated the activities of BoNT type A (BoNT/A) and BoNT/B, as well as their respective complexes, during a laboratory-scale pasteurization process. When we monitored milk alkaline phosphatase activity, which is an industry-accepted parameter of successfully completed pasteurization, our method proved comparable to the industrial process. After heating raw milk spiked with a set amount of BoNT/A or BoNT/B or one of their respective complexes, the structural integrity of the toxin was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and its functional activity by mouse bioassay. We demonstrated that standard pasteurization at 72 degrees C for 15 s inactivates at least 99.99% of BoNT/A and BoNT/B and at least 99.5% of their respective complexes. Our results suggest that if BoNTs or their complexes were deliberately released into the milk supply chain, standard pasteurization conditions would reduce their activity much more dramatically than originally anticipated and thus lower the threat level of the widely discussed "BoNT in milk" scenario.
Pentaplexed Quantitative Real-time PCR Assay for the Simultaneous Detection and Quantification of Botulinum Neurotoxin-producing Clostridia in Food and Clinical Samples
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20435756
Botulinum neurotoxins are produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum and are divided into seven distinct serotypes (A to G) known to cause botulism in animals and humans. In this study, a multiplexed quantitative real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of the human pathogenic C. botulinum serotypes A, B, E, and F was developed. Based on the TaqMan chemistry, we used five individual primer-probe sets within one PCR, combining both minor groove binder- and locked nucleic acid-containing probes. Each hydrolysis probe was individually labeled with distinguishable fluorochromes, thus enabling discrimination between the serotypes A, B, E, and F. To avoid false-negative results, we designed an internal amplification control, which was simultaneously amplified with the four target genes, thus yielding a pentaplexed PCR approach with 95% detection probabilities between 7 and 287 genome equivalents per PCR. In addition, we developed six individual singleplex real-time PCR assays based on the TaqMan chemistry for the detection of the C. botulinum serotypes A, B, C, D, E, and F. Upon analysis of 42 C. botulinum and 57 non-C. botulinum strains, the singleplex and multiplex PCR assays showed an excellent specificity. Using spiked food samples we were able to detect between 10(3) and 10(5) CFU/ml, respectively. Furthermore, we were able to detect C. botulinum in samples from several cases of botulism in Germany. Overall, the pentaplexed assay showed high sensitivity and specificity and allowed for the simultaneous screening and differentiation of specimens for C. botulinum A, B, E, and F.
Toxins. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22069699
Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis.