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In JoVE (2)
- Cerebral Blood Oxygenation Measurement Based on Oxygen-dependent Quenching of Phosphorescence
- Synthesis and Calibration of Phosphorescent Nanoprobes for Oxygen Imaging in Biological Systems
Other Publications (8)
Articles by Emmanuel Roussakis in JoVE
Cerebral Blood Oxygenation Measurement Based on Oxygen-dependent Quenching of Phosphorescence
Sava Sakadžić1, Emmanuel Roussakis2, Mohammad A. Yaseen1, Emiri T. Mandeville3, Vivek J. Srinivasan1, Ken Arai3, Svetlana Ruvinskaya1, Weicheng Wu1, Anna Devor1,4, Eng H. Lo3, Sergei A. Vinogradov2, David A. Boas1
1Optics Division, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania, 3Neuroprotection Research Laboratory, Departments of Radiology and Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 4Departments of Neurosciences and Radiology, University of California
We present an experimental procedure for measuring the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in cerebral vasculature based on oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence. Animal preparation and imaging procedures were outlined for both large field of view CCD-based imaging of pO2 in rats and 2-photon excitation based imaging of pO2 in mice.
Synthesis and Calibration of Phosphorescent Nanoprobes for Oxygen Imaging in Biological Systems
Louise E. Sinks, Emmanuel Roussakis, Tatiana V. Esipova, Sergei A. Vinogradov
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania
We present principles of oxygen measurements by phosphorescence quenching and review design of porphyrin-based dendritic nanosensors for oxygen imaging in biological systems.
Other articles by Emmanuel Roussakis on PubMed
Cell Calcium. Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16236357
Two new, visible-excited and red-emitting fluorescent Ca(2+) indicators were synthesized and the spectral profiles of their free and Ca(2+) bound forms were studied. The fluorescent properties of these probes are due to the extended conjugation of the chromeno[3',2':3,4]pyrido[1,2a][1,3]benzimidazole chromophore incorporated in their BAPTA-type, Ca(2+) chelating structure. The compounds, namely ICPBC and its N-dodecyl analog C12-ICPBC exhibit Ca(2+) dissociation constants of 7.7 and 18.0 microM, respectively. The fluorescence spectra of the probes showed a clear shift in excitation wavelength maxima upon Ca(2+) binding along with a large Stokes shift and changes in fluorescence intensity, indicating their potential use as Ca(2+) indicators. The ability of ICPBC to trace high calcium spikes was tested in the human HepG2 cell line with positive results.
Quercetin Exhibits a Specific Fluorescence in Cellular Milieu: a Valuable Tool for the Study of Its Intracellular Distribution
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17385883
The elaboration of novel techniques for flavonoid intracellular tracing would elucidate the compounds' absorption and bioavailability and assist molecular and pharmacological approaches, as they are promising candidates for drug development. This study exploited the properties of quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone), found in high concentrations in the majority of edible plants. Through the use of UV-vis spectroscopy, confocal microscopy, and HPLC-ESI-MS, native quercetin, at physiologically relevant concentrations, was found to exhibit a specific fluorescence (488 nmex/500-540 nmem) upon internalization. This fluorescence shift is due to a non-covalent binding to intracellular targets (probably proteins) and compatible with the settings applied in confocal microscopy. This property provides a valuable, selective alternative technique for quercetin tracing in cellular systems, permitting the quantitative evaluation of its transit at pharmacologically relevant concentrations and the validation of a number of already described molecular functions.
Cell Calcium. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18243303
A new fluorescent Zn2+ indicator, namely, ICPBCZin was synthesized and the spectral profile of its free and Zn2+ bound forms was studied. The newly synthesized zinc indicator incorporates as chromophore the chromeno [3',2':3,4]pyrido[1,2a] [1,3]benzimidazole moiety and belongs to the dicarboxylate-type of zinc probes. The compound is excited with visible light, exhibits high selectivity for zinc in the presence of calcium and other common biological ions, and its Zn2+ dissociation constant is 4.0 nM. Fluorescence spectra studies of ICPBCZin indicated a clear shift in its emission wavelength maxima upon Zn2+ binding, as it belongs to the class of Photoinduced Charge Transfer (PCT) indicators, along with changes in fluorescence intensity that enable the compound to be used as a ratiometric, visible-excitable Zn2+ probe.
Chemical Communications (Cambridge, England). Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19082126
Total syntheses and spectral properties of fluorescent Pb(2+) indicators are reported.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20462225
Oxygen concentration distributions in biological systems can be imaged by the phosphorescence quenching method in combination with two-photon laser scanning microscopy. In this paper, we identified the excitation regime in which the signal of a two-photon-enhanced phosphorescent probe (Finikova, O. S.; Lebedev, A. Y.; Aprelev, A.; Troxler, T.; Gao, F.; Garnacho, C.; Muro, S.; Hochstrasser, R. M.; Vinogradov, S. A. ChemPhysChem 2008, 9, 1673-1679) is dependent quadratically on the excitation power (quadratic regime), and performed simulations that relate the photophysical properties of the probe to the imaging resolution. Further, we characterized polymersomes as a method of probe encapsulation and delivery. Photophysical and oxygen sensing properties of the probe were found unchanged when the probe is encapsulated in polymersomes. Polymersomes were found capable of sustaining high probe concentrations, thereby serving to improve the signal-to-noise ratios for oxygen detection compared to the previously employed probe delivery methods. Imaging of polymersomes loaded with the probe was used as a test-bed for a new method.
Two-photon High-resolution Measurement of Partial Pressure of Oxygen in Cerebral Vasculature and Tissue
Nature Methods. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20693997
Measurements of oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)) with high temporal and spatial resolution in three dimensions is crucial for understanding oxygen delivery and consumption in normal and diseased brain. Among existing pO(2) measurement methods, phosphorescence quenching is optimally suited for the task. However, previous attempts to couple phosphorescence with two-photon laser scanning microscopy have faced substantial difficulties because of extremely low two-photon absorption cross-sections of conventional phosphorescent probes. Here we report to our knowledge the first practical in vivo two-photon high-resolution pO(2) measurements in small rodents' cortical microvasculature and tissue, made possible by combining an optimized imaging system with a two-photon-enhanced phosphorescent nanoprobe. The method features a measurement depth of up to 250 microm, sub-second temporal resolution and requires low probe concentration. The properties of the probe allowed for direct high-resolution measurement of cortical extravascular (tissue) pO(2), opening many possibilities for functional metabolic brain studies.
Nature Medicine. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21642977
Uncovering principles that regulate energy metabolism in the brain requires mapping of partial pressure of oxygen (PO(2)) and blood flow with high spatial and temporal resolution. Using two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy (2PLM) and the oxygen probe PtP-C343, we show that PO(2) can be accurately measured in the brain at depths up to 300 μm with micron-scale resolution. In addition, 2PLM allowed simultaneous measurements of blood flow and of PO(2) in capillaries with less than one-second temporal resolution. Using this approach, we detected erythrocyte-associated transients (EATs) in oxygen in the rat olfactory bulb and showed the existence of diffusion-based arterio-venous shunts. Sensory stimulation evoked functional hyperemia, accompanied by an increase in PO(2) in capillaries and by a biphasic PO(2) response in the neuropil, consisting of an 'initial dip' and a rebound. 2PLM of PO(2) opens new avenues for studies of brain metabolism and blood flow regulation.
"Overshoot" of O₂ is Required to Maintain Baseline Tissue Oxygenation at Locations Distal to Blood Vessels
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21940458
In vivo imaging of cerebral tissue oxygenation is important in defining healthy physiology and pathological departures associated with cerebral disease. We used a recently developed two-photon microscopy method, based on a novel phosphorescent nanoprobe, to image tissue oxygenation in the rat primary sensory cortex in response to sensory stimulation. Our measurements showed that a stimulus-evoked increase in tissue pO₂ depended on the baseline pO₂ level. In particular, during sustained stimulation, the steady-state pO₂ at low-baseline locations remained at the baseline, despite large pO₂ increases elsewhere. In contrast to the steady state, where pO₂ never decreased below the baseline, transient decreases occurred during the "initial dip" and "poststimulus undershoot." These results suggest that the increase in blood oxygenation during the hemodynamic response, which has been perceived as a paradox, may serve to prevent a sustained oxygenation drop at tissue locations that are remote from the vascular feeding sources.