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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (6)
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Articles by Erik Hill in JoVE
إنشاء فيروس ابشتاين بار النمو وتحولت خطوط الخليوي Lymphoblastoid
Joyce Hui-Yuen1,2, Shane McAllister1,2, Siva Koganti2, Erik Hill2, Sumita Bhaduri-McIntosh1,2,3,4
1Stony Brook Children's Hospital, State University of New York at Stony Brook, 2Department of Pediatrics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, 3Department of Molecular Genetics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, 4Department of Microbiology, State University of New York at Stony Brook
نحن تصف طريقة لتحويل خطوط الخلايا المولدة باستخدام باء فيروس ابشتاين بار. نوضح أيضا فحص الرواية التي يمكن أن تحدد الخلايا B المتجهة إلى الخضوع لتحول في أقرب وقت بعد ثلاثة أيام من العدوى.
Other articles by Erik Hill on PubMed
Analytical Biochemistry. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16626617
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16754872
There are three known high-affinity targets for cocaine: the dopamine transporter (DAT), the serotonin transporter (SERT), and the norepinephrine transporter (NET). Decades of studies support the dopamine (DA) hypothesis that the blockade of DAT and the subsequent increase in extracellular DA primarily mediate cocaine reward and reinforcement. Contrary to expectations, DAT knockout (DAT-KO) mice and SERT or NET knockout mice still self-administer cocaine and/or display conditioned place preference (CPP) to cocaine, which led to the reevaluation of the DA hypothesis and the proposal of redundant reward pathways. To study the role of DAT in cocaine reward, we have generated a knockin mouse line carrying a functional DAT that is insensitive to cocaine. In these mice, cocaine suppressed locomotor activity, did not elevate extracellular DA in the nucleus accumbens, and did not produce reward as measured by CPP. This result suggests that blockade of DAT is necessary for cocaine reward in mice with a functional DAT. This mouse model is unique in that it is specifically designed to differentiate the role of DAT from the roles of NET and SERT in cocaine-induced biochemical and behavioral effects.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17131045
We have generated a fully functional dopamine transporter (DAT) mutant (dmDATx7) with all cysteines removed except the two cysteines in extracellular loop 2 (EL2). Random mutagenesis at either or both EL2 cysteines did not produce any functional transporter mutants, suggesting that the two cysteines cannot be replaced by any other amino acids. The cysteine-specific reagent MTSEA-biotin labeled dmDATx7 only after a DTT treatment which reduces disulfide bond. Since there are no other cysteines in dmDATx7, the MTSEA-biotin labeling must be on the EL2 cysteines made available by the DTT treatment. This result provides the first direct evidence that the EL2 cysteines form a disulfide bond. Interestingly, the DTT treatment had little effect on transport activity suggesting that the disulfide bond is not necessary for the uptake function of DAT. Our results and previous results are consistent with the notion that the disulfide bond between EL2 cysteines is required for DAT biosynthesis and/or its delivery to the cell surface.
Neuropharmacology. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18824182
The transporters of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin are molecular targets of cocaine, amphetamine, and therapeutic antidepressants. The residues involved in binding these drugs are unknown. We have performed several rounds of random and site-directed mutagenesis in the mouse norepinephrine transporter and screened for mutants with altered sensitivity to cocaine inhibition of substrate uptake. We have identified a triple mutation that retains close to wild-type transport function but displays a 37-fold decrease in cocaine sensitivity and 24-fold decrease in desipramine sensitivity. In contrast, the mutant's sensitivities to amphetamine, methamphetamine, and methylphenidate are only slightly changed. Our data reveal critical residues contributing to the potent uptake inhibitions by these important drugs. Furthermore, this drug-resistant triple mutant can be used to generate a unique knock-in mouse line to study the role of norepinephrine transporter in the addictive effects of cocaine and the therapeutic effects of desipramine.
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19855831
Cocaine methiodide (CM), a charged cocaine analog, cannot pass the blood brain barrier. It has been assumed the effects of systemic CM represent cocaine actions in peripheral tissues. However, the IC(50) values of CM have not been clearly determined for the major cocaine targets: dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters, and sodium channels. Using cells transfected with individual transporters from mice and synaptosomes from mouse striatum tissues, we observed that the inhibition IC(50) values for monoamine uptake by CM were 31-fold to 184-fold higher compared to cocaine at each of the transporters. In dorsal root ganglion neurons, cocaine inhibited sodium channels with an apparent IC(50) of 75 microM, while CM showed no observable effect at concentrations up to 3 mM. These results indicate that an equal dose of CM will not produce an equivalent peripheral effect of cocaine.
Interaction of Tyrosine 151 in Norepinephrine Transporter with the 2β Group of Cocaine Analog RTI-113
Neuropharmacology. Jul-Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21420984
Cocaine binds and inhibits dopamine transporter (DAT), norepinephrine transporter (NET) and serotonin transporter. The residues forming cocaine binding sites are unknown. RTI-113, a cocaine analog, is 100× more potent at inhibiting DAT than inhibiting NET. Here we show that removing the hydroxyl group from residue Tyr151 in NET by replacing it with Phe, the corresponding residue in DAT, increased the sensitivity of NET to RTI-113, while the reverse mutation in DAT decreased the sensitivity of DAT to RTI-113. In contrast, RTI-31, another cocaine analog having the same structure as RTI-113 but with the phenyl group at the 2β position replaced by a methyl group, inhibits the transporter mutants equally well whether a hydroxyl group is present at the residue or not. The data suggest that this residue contributes to cocaine binding site and is close to the 2β position of cocaine analogs. These results are consistent with our previously proposed cocaine-DAT binding model where cocaine initially binds to a site that does not overlap with, but is close to, the dopamine-binding site. Computational modeling and molecular docking yielded a binding model that explains the observed changes in RTI-113 inhibition potencies.