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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (18)
- Microbes and Infection / Institut Pasteur
- Nature Medicine
- Nature Immunology
- Cellular Microbiology
- Microbes and Infection / Institut Pasteur
- European Journal of Immunology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Nature Immunology
- Nature Medicine
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Current Opinion in Immunology
- European Journal of Immunology
- Journal of Virology
- PLoS Pathogens
- Advances in Immunology
Articles by Florian Winau in JoVE
Seven Steps to Stellate Cells
Patrick Maschmeyer, Melanie Flach, Florian Winau
Immune Disease Institute, Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine at Children's Hospital, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School
Here we describe a method for the isolation of hepatic stellate cells from mouse liver. For stellate cell purification, mouse livers are digested in situ and in vitro by pronase-collagenase treatment prior to density gradient centrifugation. This technique yields highly pure hepatic stellate cells.
Other articles by Florian Winau on PubMed
Microbes and Infection / Institut Pasteur. Feb, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11880051
Emil von Behring is the father of serum therapy. We present an overview of the development of this important tool in the treatment of diphtheria. In a historical context Behring's work reflects the scientific spirit of fin de siècle Berlin.
Nature Medicine. Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12872166
Protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis involves major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I)- and CD1-restricted CD8 T cells, but the mechanisms underlying antigen delivery to antigen-presenting molecules remain enigmatic. Macrophages, the primary host cells for mycobacteria, are CD1-negative. Here we show that M. tuberculosis phagosomes are secluded from the cytosolic MHC-I processing pathway and that mycobacteria-infected cells lose their antigen-presenting capacity. We also show that mycobacteria induce apoptosis in macrophages, causing the release of apoptotic vesicles that carry mycobacterial antigens to uninfected antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Inhibition of apoptosis reduced transfer of antigens to bystander cells and activation of CD8 T cells. Uninfected dendritic cells, which engulfed extracellular vesicles, were indispensable for subsequent cross-presentation of antigens, through MHC-I and CD1b, to T cells from mycobacteria-sensitized donors. This new 'detour' pathway for presentation of antigens from a phagosome-contained pathogen shows the functional significance of infection-induced apoptosis in the activation of CD8 T cells specific for both protein and glycolipid antigens in tuberculosis.
Nature Immunology. Feb, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14716313
Lipids from Mycobacterium tuberculosis are presented through CD1 proteins to T lymphocytes in humans, but the accessory molecules required for antigen loading and presentation remain unidentified. Here we show that fibroblasts deficient in sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs) transfected with CD1b failed to activate lipid-specific T cells. However, the T cell response was restored when fibroblasts were reconstituted with SAP-C but not other SAPs. Lipid antigen and SAP-C colocalized in lysosomal compartments, and liposome assays showed that SAP-C efficiently extracts antigen from membranes. Coprecipitation demonstrated direct molecular interaction between SAP-C and CD1b. We propose a model in which SAP-C exposes lipid antigens from intralysosomal membranes for loading onto CD1b. Thus, SAP-C represents a missing link in antigen presentation of lipids through CD1b to human T cells.
Cellular Microbiology. Jul, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15186397
Intracellular bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis primarily infect macrophages. Within these host cells, the pathogens are confined to phagosomes and their antigens are secluded from the classical MHC I presentation pathway. Moreover, macrophages fail to express certain antigen presenting molecules like CD1 proteins. As a result of this intracellular lifestyle, the pathways for the induction of MHC I- and CD1-restricted CD8 T cells by such microorganisms remain elusive. Based on recent findings in tuberculosis and salmonellosis, we propose a new detour pathway for CD8 T cell activation against intracellular bacteria through apoptotic blebs from infected macrophages. Pathogen-derived antigens including proteins and lipids are delivered from infected cells to non-infected dendritic cells. Subsequently, these professional antigen presenting cells display microbial antigens through MHC I and CD1 to T cells. Thus, cross-priming mediated by apoptotic vesicles is not just a matter of antigen distribution, but an intrinsic immunological function due to the nature of phagosomally located intracellular bacteria. We consider infection-induced apoptosis the conditio sine qua non for antigen-specific CD8 T cell activation by phagosome-enclosed pathogens. This important new function of cell death in antibacterial immunity requires consideration for rational vaccine design.
Microbes and Infection / Institut Pasteur. Jul, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15207826
In 2004, we celebrate the 150th anniversary of the birth of Paul Ehrlich, considered the founder of immunology. His life and work can be divided into three creative periods: first, he developed histological staining, then he accomplished his ground-breaking work on immunology, and eventually invented chemotherapy. Paul Ehrlich can be perceived as a man whose success was not the consequence of a will to power, but of his substantial interest in science.
European Journal of Immunology. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15739167
Heat shock proteins (HSP) not only function as chaperones for denatured proteins but also for antigenic peptides, thus inducing protective T cell responses. Here we show that vaccination with peptide-loaded HSP70 causes initial interferon-gamma production by murine CD8 T cells but no T cell expansion. These CD8 T cells lacked cytotoxic activity in vitro and in vivo, which was not due to apoptosis. Restimulation with peptide-pulsed dendritic cells both bypassed the proliferative block and suspended the non-protective state of CD8 T lymphocytes in an infection model with the bacterial pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. Cotransfer of antigen-specific CD4 T cells circumvented the proliferative arrest of CD8 T cells. Our data suggest that HSP vaccines induce CD8 T cell unresponsiveness unless proficient help is provided. Assuming that this model reflects the antigenically experienced human condition where immunological space is restricted and any T cell response possibly leads to suppression of heterologous reactions, our findings bear implications for rational vaccination protocols including those for immunocompromised patients.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16230343
Nature Immunology. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16239917
Immunity. Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16413927
CD8 T lymphocytes are important effectors in protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We recently characterized the detour pathway of CD8 T cell activation in tuberculosis mediated by apoptotic vesicles from infected cells that transport mycobacterial antigens to dendritic cells (DCs). Here we demonstrate that apoptotic vesicles from mycobacteria-infected macrophages stimulate CD8 T cells in vivo. Homing of DCs to draining lymph nodes was critically required for effective crosspriming. Subsequent fate of vesicle-associated antigens in recipient DCs was characterized by endosomal mechanisms predominating over proteasomal processing. In addition, vesicle processing depended on the presence of saposins to disintegrate apoptotic membranes. Apoptotic vesicles displayed potent adjuvant activity by stimulating through Toll-like receptors (TLR). Ultimately, vaccination with vesicles from infected cells induced protection against M. tuberculosis infection. Taken together, we propose the detour pathway to represent a genuine immunological mechanism mediating crosspriming of CD8 T cells in vivo and protection against tuberculosis.
Nature Medicine. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16951684
Helicobacter pylori infection causes gastric pathology such as ulcer and carcinoma. Because H. pylori is auxotrophic for cholesterol, we have explored the assimilation of cholesterol by H. pylori in infection. Here we show that H. pylori follows a cholesterol gradient and extracts the lipid from plasma membranes of epithelial cells for subsequent glucosylation. Excessive cholesterol promotes phagocytosis of H. pylori by antigen-presenting cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, and enhances antigen-specific T cell responses. A cholesterol-rich diet during bacterial challenge leads to T cell-dependent reduction of the H. pylori burden in the stomach. Intrinsic alpha-glucosylation of cholesterol abrogates phagocytosis of H. pylori and subsequent T cell activation. We identify the gene hp0421 as encoding the enzyme cholesterol-alpha-glucosyltransferase responsible for cholesterol glucosylation. Generation of knockout mutants lacking hp0421 corroborates the importance of cholesteryl glucosides for escaping phagocytosis, T cell activation and bacterial clearance in vivo. Thus, we propose a mechanism regulating the host-pathogen interaction whereby glucosylation of a lipid tips the scales towards immune evasion or response.
CD1 Antigen Presentation by Human Dendritic Cells As a Target for Herpes Simplex Virus Immune Evasion
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17056550
In contrast to MHC molecules, which present peptides, the CD1 molecules have been discovered to present lipid Ags to T cells. CD1-restricted T lymphocytes have been recently associated with resistance to virus infection. The mechanisms underlying activation of CD1-restricted T cells in the course of virus infection are not defined. In this study, we wanted to investigate the interaction of HSV with the antiviral CD1 Ag presentation system in human dendritic cells (DC). In response to low titers of HSV, the surface expression of CD1b and CD1d on human DC was up-regulated. These phenotypic changes enhanced the capacity of infected DC to stimulate proliferation of CD1-restricted T lymphocytes. High titers of HSV, however, lead to strong down-regulation of all surface CD1 molecules. This modulation of surface expression was associated with intracellular accumulation, colocalization with viral proteins, and disruption of the CD1 recycling machinery. Finally, even at low titers HSV interfered with the capacity of infected DC to stimulate the release of important cytokines by CD1d-restricted NKT cells. Thus, we demonstrate both the existence of a CD1 pathway allowing human DC to react to viral infection, as well as its blockage by a human herpesvirus.
Immunity. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17239632
Here we identified Ito cells (hepatic stellate cells, HSC), known for storage of vitamin A and participation in hepatic fibrosis, as professional liver-resident antigen-presenting cells (APC). Ito cells efficiently presented antigens to CD1-, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I-, and MHC-II-restricted T cells. Ito cells presented lipid antigens to CD1-restricted T lymphocytes such as natural killer T (NKT) cells and promoted homeostatic proliferation of liver NKT cells through interleukin-15. Moreover, Ito cells presented antigenic peptides to CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells and mediated crosspriming of CD8(+) T cells. Peptide-specific T cells were activated by transgenic Ito cells presenting endogenous neoantigen. Upon bacterial infection, Ito cells elicited antigen-specific T cells and mediated protection. In contrast to other liver cell types that have been implicated in induction of immunological tolerance, our data identify Ito cells as professional intrahepatic APCs activating T cells and eliciting a multitude of T cell responses specific for protein and lipid antigens.
Current Opinion in Immunology. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18068343
Stellate cells are star-shaped cells located in the liver and mediate a multitude of primarily non-immunological functions. They play a pivotal role in the metabolism of vitamin A and store 80% of total body retinol. Upon activation, stellate cells differentiate to myofibroblasts for production of extracellular matrix, leading to liver fibrosis. Moreover, activated stellate cells regulate liver blood flow through vasoconstriction implicated in portal hypertension. Earlier work demonstrated stellate cell derived secretion of chemokines and cytokines such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), suggesting an association with immunological processes. Indeed, recent evidence indicated that hepatic stellate cells perform potent APC function for stimulation of NKT cells as well as CD8 and CD4 T cells. Additionally, stellate cell mediated antigen presentation induced protective immunity against bacterial infection. Current experiments reveal that the presenting ability of stellate cells is the key to antigen-dependent T cell instruction by vitamin A derived retinoic acid. Finally, future studies will show whether in the firmament of immunology stellate cells will represent fixed or falling stars.
European Journal of Immunology. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18253929
The nonpolymorphic CD1 molecules present lipid antigens to T cells. In myeloid DC humans express five different CD1 proteins (CD1a-e; the corresponding CD1 genes are designated CD1A-E). A role for CD1d-restricted NKT cells in the control of virus infections has been delineated from clinical observations, mouse models and viral evasion mechanisms targeting CD1d. How NKT cells are activated by virus infections is unclear. We found that human myeloid DC differentially regulate CD1 antigen presentation in response to viral danger signals. Stimulation with type I IFN, viral TLR ligands or viruses strongly enhanced the number of CD1D transcripts in human myeloid DC but diminished the abundance of CD1A, CD1B and CD1E mRNA. These changes on the transcriptional level were mirrored by altered cellular distribution and increased surface expression of CD1d. As a consequence NKT cells were activated and showed a Th1-like response. Moreover, NKT cell activation in PBMC exposed to viral danger signals was dependent on human plasmacytoid DC which produce large amounts of IFN-alpha. In conclusion, our data indicate that viral danger signals trigger NKT cell activation by enhancing CD1d de novo synthesis through increasing the abundance of CD1D mRNA in human myeloid DC.
Journal of Virology. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18287231
The betaherpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes several molecules that block antigen presentation by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. Humans also possess one other family of antigen-presenting molecules, the CD1 family; however, the effect of HCMV on CD1 expression is unknown. The majority of CD1 molecules are classified on the basis of homology as group 1 CD1 and are present almost exclusively on professional antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, which are a major target for HCMV infection and latency. We have determined that HCMV encodes multiple blocking strategies targeting group 1 CD1 molecules. CD1 transcription is strongly inhibited by the HCMV interleukin-10 homologue cmvIL-10. HCMV also blocks CD1 antigen presentation posttranscriptionally by the inhibition of CD1 localization to the cell surface. This function is not performed by a known HCMV MHC class I-blocking molecule and is substantially stronger than the blockage induced by herpes simplex virus type 1. Antigen presentation by CD1 is important for the development of the antiviral immune response and the generation of mature antigen-presenting cells. HCMV present in antigen-presenting cells thus blunts the immune response by the blockage of CD1 molecules.
Natural Killer T Cells Activated by a Lipopeptidophosphoglycan from Entamoeba Histolytica Are Critically Important to Control Amebic Liver Abscess
PLoS Pathogens. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19436711
The innate immune response is supposed to play an essential role in the control of amebic liver abscess (ALA), a severe form of invasive amoebiasis due to infection with the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. In a mouse model for the disease, we previously demonstrated that Jalpha18(-/-) mice, lacking invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, suffer from more severe abscess development. Here we show that the specific activation of iNKT cells using alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) induces a significant reduction in the sizes of ALA lesions, whereas CD1d(-/-) mice develop more severe abscesses. We identified a lipopeptidophosphoglycan from E. histolytica membranes (EhLPPG) as a possible natural NKT cell ligand and show that the purified phosphoinositol (PI) moiety of this molecule induces protective IFN-gamma but not IL-4 production in NKT cells. The main component of EhLPPG responsible for NKT cell activation is a diacylated PI, (1-O-[(28:0)-lyso-glycero-3-phosphatidyl-]2-O-(C16:0)-Ins). IFN-gamma production by NKT cells requires the presence of CD1d and simultaneously TLR receptor signalling through MyD88 and secretion of IL-12. Similar to alpha-GalCer application, EhLPPG treatment significantly reduces the severity of ALA in ameba-infected mice. Our results suggest that EhLPPG is an amebic molecule that is important for the limitation of ALA development and may explain why the majority of E. histolytica-infected individuals do not develop amebic liver abscess.
Advances in Immunology. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20510729
Saposins or sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs) are small, nonenzymatic glycoproteins that are ubiquitously present in lysosomes. SAPs comprise the five molecules saposins A-D and the GM2 activator protein. Saposins are essential for sphingolipid degradation and membrane digestion. On the one hand, they bind the respective hydrolases required to catabolize sphingolipid molecules; on the other hand, saposins can interact with intralysosomal membrane structures to render lipids accessible to their degrading enzymes. Thus, saposins bridge the physicochemical gap between lipid substrate and hydrophilic hydrolases. Accordingly, defects in saposin function can lead to lysosomal lipid accumulation. In addition to their specific functions in sphingolipid metabolism, saposins have membrane-perturbing properties. At the low pH of lysosomes, saposins get protonated and exhibit a high binding affinity for anionic phospholipids. Based on their universal principle to interact with membrane bilayers, we present the immunological functions of saposins with regard to lipid antigen presentation to CD1-restricted T cells, processing of apoptotic bodies for antigen delivery and cross-priming, as well as their potential antimicrobial impact.
Lysosomal Alpha-galactosidase Controls the Generation of Self Lipid Antigens for Natural Killer T Cells
Immunity. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20727792
Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are lipid-reactive, CD1d-restricted T lymphocytes important in infection, cancer, and autoimmunity. In addition to foreign antigens, NKT cells react with endogenous self lipids. However, in the face of stimulating self antigen, it remains unclear how overstimulation of NKT cells is avoided. We hypothesized that constantly degraded endogenous antigen only accumulates upon inhibition of alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-Gal-A) in lysosomes. Here, we show that alpha-Gal-A deficiency caused vigorous activation of NKT cells. Moreover, microbes induced inhibition of alpha-Gal-A activity in antigen-presenting cells. This temporary enzyme block depended on Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and ultimately triggered lysosomal lipid accumulation. Thus, we present TLR-dependent negative regulation of alpha-Gal-A as a mechanistic link between pathogen recognition and self lipid antigen induction for NKT cells.