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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (13)
- Research in Microbiology
- Journal of Bacteriology
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- Journal of Bacteriology
- Journal of Bacteriology
- Veterinary Microbiology
- Research in Microbiology
- Journal of Bacteriology
- FEMS Microbiology Letters
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- PloS One
- FEMS Microbiology Letters
- Molecular Microbiology
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Articles by Frederic Berthiaume in JoVE
Bakteriyel Yapışma Memeli Epitel Hücreleri üzerine In Vitro Testi
Jason Letourneau, Cynthia Levesque, Frederic Berthiaume, Mario Jacques, Michael Mourez
Universite de Montreal, Groupe de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses du Porc GREMIP, Faculte de medecine veterinaire
Bu protokol, kültür hücreleri üzerine yapıştırılır birimler oluşturan bakteri kolonisi sayısının sayma oluşan basit bir bakteriyel yapışma testtir. Testin sağlam, adhesin bağımsız olarak okudu ve çeşitli varyasyonlar bakteriyel patogenezi üzerinde çalışan çoğu laboratuvarlarda kullanılır.
Other articles by Frederic Berthiaume on PubMed
Influence of Environmental Cues on Transcriptional Regulation of Foo and Clp Coding for F165(1) and CS31A Adhesins in Escherichia Coli
Research in Microbiology. Jul-Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15249065
F165(1) (foo) and CS31A (clp) are bacterial adhesins synthesized by Escherichia coli strains associated with diarrhea and septicemia in piglets and calves. They belong to the P-regulatory family and as such are subject to a phase variation control mediated by Lrp (leucine responsive regulatory protein) and regulators homologous to PapI. Analysis of expression of transcriptional fusions between the fooB or fooI promoters and lacZ showed that Lrp is an activator of foo and fooI transcription, whereas it represses clp transcription. Furthermore, foo phase variation leads to a large majority of phase-ON cells, whereas clp phase variation leads to a majority of phase-OFF cells. We compared the influence of several environmental cues on foo and clp expression, with special attention to the effects of leucine and alanine known to be mediated by Lrp. Inhibition or significant repression of foo and clp transcription was observed at low temperature, in LB medium, and in the presence of glucose, alanine, or leucine. Glucose repression of foo but not of clp was totally relieved by addition of cAMP. Osmolarity and pH had little effect. Alanine but not leucine, and LB medium inhibited foo and clp phase variation, locking cells in the OFF phase. Low temperature inhibited clp phase variation and altered the switch frequency of foo phase variation, leading to more phase-OFF cells. Glucose altered the phase variation of both operons, increasing the number of phase-OFF cells in the population. The regulation pattern of foo and clp is consistent with F165(1) and CS31A production in low nutrient environments, even at moderately acidic pH or high osmolarity.
Journal of Bacteriology. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15576806
The foo operon encodes F165 1 fimbriae that belong to the P-regulatory family and are synthesized by septicemic Escherichia coli. Using an Lrp-deficient host and the lrp gene cloned under the arabinose pBAD promoter, we demonstrated that foo was transcribed proportionally to the amount of Lrp synthesized. L-leucine and L-alanine decreased drastically the steady-state transcription of foo and modified phase variation, independently of the presence of FooI. Specific mutations in the C-terminal region of Lrp reduced or abolished the repressive effect of these amino acids, indicating that they modulate F165 1 by affecting Lrp.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16332846
A small-oligonucleotide microarray prototype was designed with probes specific for the universal 16S rRNA and cpn60 genes of several pathogens that are usually encountered in wastewaters. In addition to these two targets, wecE-specific oligonucleotide probes were included in the microarray to enhance its discriminating power within the Enterobacteriaceae family. Universal PCR primers were used to amplify variable regions of 16S rRNA, cpn60, and wecE genes directly in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genomic DNA mixtures (binary); E. coli, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Yersinia enterocolitica genomic DNA mixtures (ternary); or wastewater total DNA. Amplified products were fluorescently labeled and hybridized on the prototype chip. The detection sensitivity for S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was estimated to be on the order of 0.1% (10(4) S. enterica genomes) of the total DNA for the combination of PCR followed by microarray hybridization. The sensitivity of the prototype could be increased by hybridizing amplicons generated by PCR targeting genes specific for a bacterial subgroup, such as wecE genes, instead of universal taxonomic amplicons. However, there was evidence of PCR bias affecting the detection limits of a given pathogen as increasing amounts of a different pathogen were spiked into the test samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using DNA microarrays in the detection of waterborne pathogens within mixed populations but also raise the problem of PCR bias in such experiments.
The Periplasmic Folding of a Cysteineless Autotransporter Passenger Domain Interferes with Its Outer Membrane Translocation
Journal of Bacteriology. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16707702
Autotransporters are single polypeptides consisting of an outer membrane translocation domain mediating the translocation of a passenger domain. The periplasmic folding state of the passenger domain is controversial. By comparisons of passenger domains differing in their folding properties, our results suggest that periplasmic folding of passenger domains interferes with translocation.
Proteolytic Processing is Not Essential for Multiple Functions of the Escherichia Coli Autotransporter Adhesin Involved in Diffuse Adherence (AIDA-I)
Journal of Bacteriology. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17041044
The Escherichia coli adhesin involved in diffuse adherence (AIDA-I), like many other autotransporter proteins, is released in the periplasm as a proprotein undergoing proteolytic processing after its translocation across the outer membrane. The proprotein is cleaved into a membrane-embedded fragment, AIDAc, and an extracellular fragment, the mature AIDA-I adhesin. The latter remains noncovalently associated with the outer membrane and can be released by heat treatment. The mechanism of cleavage of the proprotein and its role in the functionality of AIDA-I are not understood. Here, we show that cleavage is independent of the amount of AIDA-I in the outer membrane, suggesting an intramolecular autoproteolytic mechanism or a cleavage mediated by an unknown protease. We show that the two fragments, mature AIDA-I and AIDAc, can be cosolubilized and copurified in a folded and active conformation. We observed that the release by heat treatment results from the unfolding of AIDA-I and that the interaction of AIDA-I with AIDAc seems to be disturbed only by denaturation. We constructed an uncleavable point mutant of AIDA-I, where a serine of the cleavage site was changed into a leucine, and showed that adhesion, autoaggregation, and biofilm formation mediated by the mutant are indistinguishable from the wild-type levels. Lastly, we show that both proteins can mediate the invasion of cultured epithelial cells. Taken together, our experiments suggest that the proteolytic processing of AIDA-I plays a minor role in the functionality of this protein.
Contribution of AIDA-I to the Pathogenicity of a Porcine Diarrheagenic Escherichia Coli and to Intestinal Colonization Through Biofilm Formation in Pigs
Veterinary Microbiology. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17140750
In order to evaluate the role of the AIDA-I of porcine diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strain PD20 serogroup O143 (AIDA-I(+), STb(+)), a mutant strain PD20M (AIDA-I(-), STb(+)) was generated from strain PD20 by an allelic exchange procedure. In addition, the full-length aidA gene was reintroduced into strain PD20M to generate the complemented strain PD20C (pTaidA, AIDA-I(+), STb(+)). A non-pathogenic E. coli strain PD71 was used as negative control. Each strain was inoculated to newborn pigs via stomach tube. Severity of diarrhea was evaluated clinically and intestinal colonization was assessed by histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) including immunogold electron microscopy (IGEM). The adhesion pattern to HeLa cells, bacterial auto-aggregation and biofilm formation were evaluated in vitro. Pigs infected with strains PD20 or PD20C developed diarrhea 16 and 28h after inoculation, respectively, in contrast to pigs infected with strains PD20M or PD71. Histology, IHC, TEM and IGEM examinations showed heavy bacterial colonization with biofilm formation in the large intestine, and marked in vivo expression of AIDA-I protein in pigs infected with strains PD20 or PD20C in contrast to pigs infected with strains PD20M or PD71. The in vitro assays showed marked diffuse adherence to HeLa cells, enhanced bacterial auto-aggregation and significant biofilm formation (p<0.05) by the AIDA-I(+) strains, when compared to AIDA-I(-) strains. These results demonstrate that expression of AIDA-I is essential for intestinal colonization and in vitro bacterial autoaggregation and biofilm formation. Thus, AIDA-I may be considered a significant virulence determinant in development of diarrhea caused by porcine diarrheagenic AIDA-I(+)E. coli PD20 in piglets.
Research in Microbiology. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17446047
Autotransporters are simple systems that Gram-negative bacteria employ to secrete proteins to their surfaces or into the extracellular milieu. They consist of an N-terminal passenger domain and a C-terminal domain that is thought to insert into the outer membrane and mediate the secretion of the passenger domain. Despite the apparent simplicity of these secretion systems, their mechanism of translocation is still not completely understood. To study this mechanism, we used the AIDA-I autotransporter adhesin of Escherichia coli. We introduced mutations at several sites in a junction region of the passenger domain, close to the membrane-embedded domain. We observed that the mutations dramatically affected the biogenesis of AIDA-I. The same mutations, however, did not affect the translocation of a chimeric construct where MalE, the E. coli periplasmic maltose binding protein, replaced most of the passenger domain of AIDA-I. Our results emphasize the function of this region in the biogenesis of AIDA-I and suggest that it plays its role by interacting with and/or promoting folding of native passenger domains.
O-linked Glycosylation Ensures the Normal Conformation of the Autotransporter Adhesin Involved in Diffuse Adherence
Journal of Bacteriology. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17951390
The Escherichia coli adhesin involved in diffuse adherence (AIDA-I) is one of the few glycosylated proteins found in Escherichia coli. Glycosylation is mediated by a specific heptosyltransferase encoded by the aah gene, but little is known about the role of this modification and the mechanism involved. In this study, we identified several peptides of AIDA-I modified by the addition of heptoses by use of mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing of proteolytic fragments of AIDA-I. One threonine and 15 serine residues were identified as bearing heptoses, thus demonstrating for the first time that AIDA-I is O-glycosylated. We observed that unglycosylated AIDA-I is expressed in smaller amounts than its glycosylated counterpart and shows extensive signs of degradation upon heat extraction. We also observed that unglycosylated AIDA-I is more sensitive to proteases and induces important extracytoplasmic stress. Lastly, as was previously shown, we noted that glycosylation is required for AIDA-I to mediate adhesion to cultured epithelial cells, but purified mature AIDA-I fused to GST was found to bind in vitro to cells whether or not it was glycosylated. Taken together, our results suggest that glycosylation is required to ensure a normal conformation of AIDA-I and may be only indirectly necessary for its cell-binding function.
FEMS Microbiology Letters. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18279334
Escherichia coli heat-STb is an important cause of diarrhea in piglets. STb was shown to interact specifically with sulfatide (3'-sulfogalactosyl-ceramide) present on the surface of epithelial cells of piglet jejunum. Basic data are lacking on STb binding to sulfatide in solution and more precisely on the possible inhibition of this interaction. Using surface plasmon resonance technology, we compare binding of STb to sulfatide and other glycoshingolipids previously shown, with a multiplate-binding assay, to also interact to various degrees with the enterotoxin. In addition, inhibition of STb-sulfatide binding was studied using free galactose, galactose-sulfate residues and a polymer of sulfated galactans known as carragenan. We determined a dissociation constant of 2.4+/-0.61 nM for the STb-sulfatide interaction. These data indicated that STb was binding to sulfatide with greater affinity than previously determined using radiolabeled toxin. Much lower affinities were observed for lactoceramide and glucoceramide. The binding of STb to sulfatide was clearly inhibited by lambda-carragenan but not by galactose, 4-SO(4)-galactose or 6-SO(4)-galactose. Inhibition of STb binding to its receptor was achieved using lambda-carragenan at picomolar concentrations. Then, using IPEC-J2 cells in culture and flow cytometry, we showed that lambda-carragenan was able to inhibit the permeabilization process associated with STb.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20123991
Bacteria mostly live as multicellular communities, although they are unicellular organisms, yet the mechanisms that tie individual bacteria together are often poorly understood. The adhesin involved in diffuse adherence (AIDA-I) is an adhesin of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains. AIDA-I also mediates bacterial auto-aggregation and biofilm formation and thus could be important for the organization of communities of pathogens. Using purified protein and whole bacteria, we provide direct evidence that AIDA-I promotes auto-aggregation by interacting with itself. Using various biophysical and biochemical techniques, we observed a conformational change in the protein during AIDA-AIDA interactions, strengthening the notion that this is a highly specific interaction. The self-association of AIDA-I is of high affinity but can be modulated by sodium chloride. We observe that a bile salt, sodium deoxycholate, also prevents AIDA-I oligomerization and bacterial auto-aggregation. Thus, we propose that AIDA-I, and most likely other similar autotransporters such as antigen 43 (Ag43) and TibA, organize bacterial communities of pathogens through a self-recognition mechanism that is sensitive to the environment. This could permit bacteria to switch between multicellular and unicellular lifestyles to complete their infection.
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20596529
Messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) are used to transport mRNAs along neuronal dendrites to their site of translation. Numerous mRNA-binding and regulatory proteins within mRNPs finely regulate the fate of bound-mRNAs. Their specific combination defines different types of mRNPs that in turn are related to specific synaptic functions. One of these mRNA-binding proteins, Staufen2 (Stau2), was shown to transport dendritic mRNAs along microtubules. Its knockdown expression in neurons was shown to change spine morphology and synaptic functions. To further understand the molecular mechanisms by which Stau2 modulates synaptic function in neurons, it is important to identify and characterize protein co-factors that regulate the fate of Stau2-containing mRNPs. To this end, a proteomic approach was used to identify co-immunoprecipitated proteins in Staufen2-containing mRNPs isolated from embryonic rat brains. The proteomic approach identified mRNA-binding proteins (PABPC1, hnRNP H1, YB1 and hsc70), proteins of the cytoskeleton (alpha- and beta-tubulin) and RUFY3 a poorly characterized protein. While PABPC1 and YB1 associate with Stau2-containing mRNPs through RNAs, hsc70 is directly bound to Stau2 and this interaction is regulated by ATP. PABPC1 and YB1 proteins formed puncta in dendrites of embryonic rat hippocampal neurons. However, they poorly co-localized with Stau2 in the large dendritic complexes suggesting that they are rather components of Stau2-containing mRNA particles. All together, these results represent a further step in the characterization of Stau2-containing mRNPs in neurons and provide new tools to study and understand how Stau2-containing mRNPs are transported, translationally silenced during transport and/or locally expressed according to cell needs.
Growth-phase-dependent Expression of the Operon Coding for the Glycosylated Autotransporter Adhesin AIDA-I of Pathogenic Escherichia Coli
FEMS Microbiology Letters. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20831592
The adhesin involved in diffuse adherence (AIDA-I) is an autotransporter found in pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli causing diarrhea in humans and pigs. The AIDA-I protein is glycosylated by a specific enzyme, the AIDA-associated heptosyltransferase (Aah). The aah gene is immediately upstream of the aidA gene, suggesting that they form an operon. However, the mechanisms of regulation of the aah and aidA genes are unknown. Using a clinical E. coli isolate expressing AIDA-I, we identified two putative promoters 149 and 128 nucleotides upstream of aah. Using qRT-PCR, we observed that aah and aidA are transcribed in a growth-dependent fashion, mainly at the start of the stationary phase. Western blotting confirmed that protein expression follows the same pattern. Using a fusion to a reporter gene, we observed that the regulation of the isolated aah promoter matched this transcription and expression pattern. Lastly, we found glucose to be a repressor and nutrient starvation to be an inducer. Taken together, our results suggest that, in the strain and the conditions we studied, aah-aidA is transcribed as a bicistronic message from a promoter upstream of aah, with maximal expression under conditions of nutrient limitation such as high cell density.
A Structural Motif is the Recognition Site for a New Family of Bacterial Protein O-glycosyltransferases
Molecular Microbiology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22304382
The Escherichia coli Adhesin Involved in Diffuse Adherence (AIDA-I) is a multifunctional protein that belongs to the family of monomeric autotransporters. This adhesin can be glycosylated by the AIDA-associated heptosyltransferase (Aah). Glycosylation appears to be restricted to the extracellular domain of AIDA-I, which comprises imperfect repeats of a 19-amino-acid consensus sequence and is predicted to form a β-helix. Here, we show that Aah homologues can be found in many Gram-negative bacteria, including Citrobacter rodentium. We demonstrated that an AIDA-like protein is glycosylated in this species by the Aah homologue. We then investigated the substrate recognition mechanism of the E. coli Aah heptosyltransferase. We found that a peptide corresponding to one repeat of the 19-amino-acid consensus is sufficient for recognition and glycosylation by Aah. Mutagenesis studies suggested that, unexpectedly, Aah recognizes a structural motif typical of β-helices, but not a specific sequence. In agreement with this finding, we observed that the extracellular domain of the Bordetella pertussis pertactin, a β-helical polypeptide lacking the 19-amino-acid consensus sequence, could be glycosylated by Aah. Overall, our findings suggest that Aah represents the prototype of a new large family of bacterial protein O-glycosyltransferases that modify various substrates recognized through a structural motif.