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In JoVE (1)
- Locked Nucleic Acid Flow Cytometry-fluorescence in situ Hybridization (LNA flow-FISH): a Method for Bacterial Small RNA Detection
Other Publications (20)
- Current Opinion in Biotechnology
- Current Microbiology
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- Journal of Clinical Microbiology
- Journal of Clinical Microbiology
- Current Microbiology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Genome Research
- Journal of the American Chemical Society
- Emerging Infectious Diseases
- Emerging Infectious Diseases
- Journal of Clinical Microbiology
- Molecular BioSystems
- Molecular and Cellular Probes
- ACS Nano
- Microbiology (Reading, England)
- Environmental Microbiology Reports
- Analytica Chimica Acta
- The ISME Journal
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Articles by Gary J. Vora in JoVE
Locked Nucleic Acid Flow Cytometry-fluorescence in situ Hybridization (LNA flow-FISH): a Method for Bacterial Small RNA Detection
Kelly L. Robertson, Gary J. Vora
Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory
A novel high-throughput method is described that enables the detection and relative quantitation of small RNA and mRNA expression from single bacterial cells using locked nucleic acid probes and flow cytometry-fluorescence in situ hybridization.
Other articles by Gary J. Vora on PubMed
Current Opinion in Biotechnology. Jun, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12180094
Recent years have witnessed a logarithmic growth in the number of applications involving DNA microarrays. Extrapolation of their use for infectious diagnostics and biodefense-related diagnostics seems obvious. Nevertheless, the application of DNA microarrays to biodefense-related diagnostics will depend on solving a set of substantial, yet approachable, technical and logistical problems that encompass diverse topics from amplification efficiency to bioinformatics.
Current Microbiology. Mar, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12567246
The chlamydial glycolipid exoantigen, GLXA, is associated with the bacterial membrane, intracellular inclusion, and can also be found secreted into the microenvironment of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of GLXA in chlamydial pathogenesis. Pretreatment of HeLa 229 cells with affinity-purified GLXA resulted in a significant enhancement of chlamydial infectivity as determined by inclusion body enumeration. The GLXA-mediated enhancement was shown to be time- and dose-dependent and, more importantly, GLXA-specific, as the effect was abrogated by anti-GLXA antibody. In vitro neutralization assays on HEp-2 cells revealed that an anti-anti-idiotypic antibody to GLXA effectively reduced the infectivity of C. trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, and C. psittaci. In vivo, the co-inoculation of GLXA at the time of C. trachomatis serovar K intravaginal challenge of C3H/HeJ mice resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of shed organisms on days 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Taken together, these observations suggest that GLXA, both organism bound and secreted, is important in facilitating the initiation of infection.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15128566
DNA microarray-based screening and diagnostic technologies have long promised comprehensive testing capabilities. However, the potential of these powerful tools has been limited by front-end target-specific nucleic acid amplification. Despite the sensitivity and specificity associated with PCR amplification, the inherent bias and limited throughput of this approach constrain the principal benefits of downstream microarray-based applications, especially for pathogen detection. To begin addressing alternative approaches, we investigated four front-end amplification strategies: random primed, isothermal Klenow fragment-based, phi29 DNA polymerase-based, and multiplex PCR. The utility of each amplification strategy was assessed by hybridizing amplicons to microarrays consisting of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes specific for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and by quantitating their sensitivities for the detection of O157:H7 in laboratory and environmental samples. Although nearly identical levels of hybridization specificity were achieved for each method, multiplex PCR was at least 3 orders of magnitude more sensitive than any individual random amplification approach. However, the use of Klenow-plus-Klenow and phi29 polymerase-plus-Klenow tandem random amplification strategies provided better sensitivities than multiplex PCR. In addition, amplification biases among the five genetic loci tested were 2- to 20-fold for the random approaches, in contrast to >4 orders of magnitude for multiplex PCR. The same random amplification strategies were also able to detect all five diagnostic targets in a spiked environmental water sample that contained a 63-fold excess of contaminating DNA. The results presented here underscore the feasibility of using random amplification approaches and begin to systematically address the versatility of these approaches for unbiased pathogen detection from environmental sources.
Use of Oligonucleotide Microarrays for Rapid Detection and Serotyping of Acute Respiratory Disease-associated Adenoviruses
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Jul, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15243087
The cessation of the adenovirus vaccination program for military trainees has resulted in several recent acute respiratory disease (ARD) outbreaks. In the absence of vaccination, rapid detection methods are necessary for the timely implementation of measures to prevent adenovirus transmission within military training facilities. To this end, we have combined a fluorogenic real-time multiplex PCR assay with four sets of degenerate PCR primers that target the E1A, fiber, and hexon genes with a long oligonucleotide microarray capable of identifying the most common adenovirus serotypes associated with adult respiratory tract infections (serotypes 3, 4, 7, 16, and 21) and a representative member of adenovirus subgroup C (serotype 6) that is a common cause of childhood ARD and that often persists into adulthood. Analyses with prototype strains demonstrated unique hybridization patterns for representative members of adenovirus subgroups B(1), B(2), C, and E, thus allowing serotype determination. Microarray-based sensitivity assessments revealed lower detection limits (between 1 and 100 genomic copies) for adenovirus serotype 4 (Ad4) and Ad7 cell culture lysates, clinical nasal washes, and throat swabs and purified DNA from clinical samples. When adenovirus was detected from coded clinical samples, the results obtained by this approach demonstrated an excellent concordance with those obtained by the more established method of adenovirus identification as well as by cell culture with fluorescent-antibody staining. Finally, the utility of this method was further supported by its ability to detect adenoviral coinfections, contamination, and, potentially, recombination events. Taken together, the results demonstrate the usefulness of the simple and rapid diagnostic method developed for the unequivocal identification of ARD-associated adenoviral serotypes from laboratory or clinical samples that can be completed in 1.5 to 4.0 h.
Detection and Genotyping of Entamoeba Histolytica, Entamoeba Dispar, Giardia Lamblia, and Cryptosporidium Parvum by Oligonucleotide Microarray
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Jul, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15243091
Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are the most frequently identified protozoan parasites causing waterborne disease outbreaks. The morbidity and mortality associated with these intestinal parasitic infections warrant the development of rapid and accurate detection and genotyping methods to aid public health efforts aimed at preventing and controlling outbreaks. In this study, we describe the development of an oligonucleotide microarray capable of detecting and discriminating between E. histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, G. lamblia assemblages A and B, and C. parvum types 1 and 2 in a single assay. Unique hybridization patterns for each selected protozoan were generated by amplifying six to eight diagnostic sequences/organism by multiplex PCR; fluorescent labeling of the amplicons via primer extension; and subsequent hybridization to a set of genus-, species-, and subtype-specific covalently immobilized oligonucleotide probes. The profile-based specificity of this methodology not only permitted for the unequivocal identification of the six targeted species and subtypes, but also demonstrated its potential in identifying related species such as Cryptosporidium meleagridis and Cryptosporidium muris. In addition, sensitivity assays demonstrated lower detection limits of five trophozoites of G. lamblia. Taken together, the specificity and sensitivity of the microarray-based approach suggest that this methodology may provide a promising tool to detect and genotype protozoa from clinical and environmental samples.
Cell Surface Display of the Chlamydial Glycolipid Exoantigen (GLXA) Demonstrated by Antibody-dependent Complement-mediated Cytotoxicity
Current Microbiology. Jul, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15297924
The chlamydial species are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens critical to human health. Their developmental cycle is associated with the formation and release of the broadly conserved glycolipid exoantigen (GLXA), which has been implicated in the chlamydial elementary body-host cell interaction. This study examines the potential surface display of this glycolipid by chlamydiae-infected cells and the ability of the GLXA they secrete to associate with the plasma membranes of uninfected cells, a prerequisite for exerting influence on them. The sequential incubation of anti-GLXA antibody and complement with Chlamydia trachomatis serovar K or C. pneumoniae AR-39-infected HeLa 229 or macrophage cells resulted in significant cellular cytotoxicity, which preceded the formation of mature elementary bodies. For uninfected cells, co-incubation of GLXA, purified from supernatants of either C. trachomatis or C. pneumoniae-infected HeLa 229 cells, followed by the successive addition of mouse anti-GLXA antibody and complement, yielded similar levels of cellular cytotoxicity. Thus, GLXA indeed is displayed on the surface of infected cells and, therefore, if antibody of appropriate specificity were present, this GLXA could serve to target these infected cells for elimination. Furthermore, released GLXA can associate with uninfected cells and therefore would be positioned to influence their behavior, especially in the context of infection.
Microarray-based Detection of Genetic Heterogeneity, Antimicrobial Resistance, and the Viable but Nonculturable State in Human Pathogenic Vibrio Spp
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16354840
The morbidity and mortality associated with Vibrio-mediated waterborne diseases necessitates the development of sensitive detection technologies that are able to elucidate the identity, potential pathogenicity, susceptibility, and viability of contaminating bacteria in a timely manner. For this purpose, we have designed a single multiplex PCR assay to simultaneously amplify 95 diagnostic regions (encompassing species/serogroup-specific, antimicrobial resistance, and known toxin markers) and combined it with a long oligonucleotide microarray to create a platform capable of rapidly detecting and discriminating the major human pathogenic species from the genus Vibrio: V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and V. mimicus. We were able to validate this strategy by testing 100 geographically and temporally distributed isolates and observed an excellent concordance between species- and serotype-level microarray-based identification and traditional typing methods. In addition to accurate identification, the microarray simultaneously provided evidence of antibiotic resistance genes and mobile genetic elements, such as sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim constins and class I integrons, and common toxin (ctxAB, rtxA, hap, hlyA, tl, tdh, trh, vvhA, vlly, and vmhA) and pathogenicity (tcpA, type III secretion system) genes that are associated with pathogenic Vibrio. The versatility of this method was further underscored by its ability to detect the expression of known toxin and virulence genes from potentially harmful viable but nonculturable organisms. The results suggest that this molecular identification method provides rapid and definitive information that would be of value in epidemiological, environmental, and health risk assessment surveillance.
Genome Research. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16481660
The exponential growth of pathogen nucleic acid sequences available in public domain databases has invited their direct use in pathogen detection, identification, and surveillance strategies. DNA microarray technology has offered the potential for the direct DNA sequence analysis of a broad spectrum of pathogens of interest. However, to achieve the practical attainment of this potential, numerous technical issues, especially nucleic acid amplification, probe specificity, and interpretation strategies of sequence detection, need to be addressed. In this report, we demonstrate an approach that combines the use of a custom-designed Affymetrix resequencing Respiratory Pathogen Microarray (RPM v.1) with methods for microbial nucleic acid enrichment, random nucleic acid amplification, and automated sequence similarity searching for broad-spectrum respiratory pathogen surveillance. Successful proof-of-concept experiments, utilizing clinical samples obtained from patients presenting adenovirus or influenza virus-induced febrile respiratory illness (FRI), demonstrate the ability of this approach for correct species- and strain-level identification with unambiguous statistical interpretation at clinically relevant sensitivity levels. Our results underscore the feasibility of using this approach to expedite the early surveillance of diseases, and provide new information on the incidence of multiple pathogens.
Journal of the American Chemical Society. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16608355
We report enhancement in the fluorescent signal of the carbocyanine dye Cy5 by using an engineered virus as a scaffold to attach >40 Cy5 reporter molecules at fixed locations on the viral capsid. Although cyanine dye loading is often accompanied by fluorescence quenching, our results demonstrate that organized spatial distribution of Cy5 reporter molecules on the capsid obviates this commonly encountered problem. In addition, we observe energy transfer from the virus to adducted dye molecules, resulting in a highly fluorescent viral nanoparticle. We have used this enhanced fluorescence for the detection of DNA-DNA hybridization. When compared with the most often used detection methods in a microarray-based genotyping assay for Vibrio cholerae O139, these viral nanoparticles markedly increased assay sensitivity, thus demonstrating their applicability for existing DNA microarray protocols.
Emerging Infectious Diseases. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16704813
Identification of genetic variations of influenza viruses is essential for epidemic and pandemic outbreak surveillance and determination of vaccine strain selection. In this study, we combined a random amplification strategy with high-density resequencing microarray technology to demonstrate simultaneous detection and sequence-based typing of 25 geographically distributed human influenza virus strains collected in 2004 and 2005. In addition to identification, this method provided primary sequence information, which suggested that distinct lineages of influenza viruses co-circulated during the 2004-2005 season, and simultaneously identified and typed all component strains of the trivalent FluMist intranasal vaccine. The results demonstrate a novel, timely, and unbiased method for the molecular epidemiologic surveillance of influenza viruses.
Emerging Infectious Diseases. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16707047
Despite the success of the adenovirus vaccine administered to US military trainees, acute respiratory disease (ARD) surveillance still detected breakthrough infections (respiratory illnesses associated with the adenovirus serotypes specifically targeted by the vaccine). To explore the role of adenoviral co-infection (simultaneous infection by multiple pathogenic adenovirus species) in breakthrough disease, we examined specimens from patients with ARD by using 3 methods to detect multiple adenoviral species: a DNA microarray, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a multiplex PCR assay. Analysis of 52 samples (21 vaccinated, 31 unvaccinated) collected from 1996 to 2000 showed that all vaccinated samples had co-infections. Most of these co-infections were community-acquired serotypes of species B1 and E. Unvaccinated samples primarily contained only 1 species (species E) associated with adult respiratory illness. This study highlights the rarely reported phenomenon of adenoviral co-infections in a clinically relevant environment suitable for the generation of new recombinational variants.
Virulence Gene- and Pandemic Group-specific Marker Profiling of Clinical Vibrio Parahaemolyticus Isolates
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17301274
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic bacterium capable of causing food- and waterborne gastroenteritis, wound infections, and septicemia in humans. The organism has recently received increasing attention, as the emergence of a new clone, V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6, has resulted in the first documented pandemic spread of V. parahaemolyticus. We used microarray analyses to explore the presence of known virulence factors and genetic markers thought to be specific for V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 and its clonal derivatives. Analyses of 48 human clinical isolates collected between 1997 and 2005 revealed that the V. parahaemolyticus chromosome 2 type III secretion system is not specifically associated with pandemic strains and can be found in tdh-negative (i.e., Kanagawa-negative) clinical isolates. These results highlight the genetic dynamism of V. parahaemolyticus and aid in refining the genetic definition of the pandemic group members.
Transcript and Proteomic Analyses of Wild-type and Gpa2 Mutant Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Strains Suggest a Role for Glycolytic Carbon Source Sensing in Pseudohyphal Differentiation
Molecular BioSystems. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17700863
In response to limited nitrogen and abundant carbon sources, diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains undergo a filamentous transition in cell growth as part of pseudohyphal differentiation. Use of the disaccharide maltose as the principal carbon source, in contrast to the preferred nutrient monosaccharide glucose, has been shown to induce a hyper-filamentous growth phenotype in a strain deficient for GPA2 which codes for a Galpha protein component that interacts with the glucose-sensing receptor Gpr1p to regulate filamentous growth. In this report, we compare the global transcript and proteomic profiles of wild-type and Gpa2p deficient diploid yeast strains grown on both rich and nitrogen starved maltose media. We find that deletion of GPA2 results in significantly different transcript and protein profiles when switching from rich to nitrogen starvation media. The results are discussed with a focus on the genes associated with carbon utilization, or regulation thereof, and a model for the contribution of carbon sensing/metabolism-based signal transduction to pseudohyphal differentiation is proposed.
Molecular and Cellular Probes. Oct-Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18675897
One of the factors limiting the use of DNA microarray technology for the detection of pathogenic organisms from clinical and environmental matrices has been inadequate assay sensitivity. To assess the effectiveness of post-hybridization secondary detection steps to enhance the sensitivity of DNA microarray-based pathogen detection, we evaluated a panel of 11 commercial and novel hybridization detection and signal amplification methods (direct labeling, indirect aminoallyl labeling, antibody, DNA dendrimers, viral particles, internally fluorescent nanoparticles, tyramide signal amplification, resonance light scattering nanoparticles and quantum dots) using a multiplex PCR and spotted long oligonucleotide microarray for Vibrio cholerae. Quantitative parameters such as sensitivity, signal intensity, background, assay complexity, time and cost were assessed and provide comparative criteria to be considered for DNA microarray experimental design. While the most important parameter is likely to vary based on the assay, when weighted equally, the findings suggest that recognition element- and dye-functionalized viral particles provide the most attractive option for microarray detection and signal amplification.
Combining Chemoselective Ligation with Polyhistidine-driven Self-assembly for the Modular Display of Biomolecules on Quantum Dots
ACS Nano. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20099912
One of the principle hurdles to wider incorporation of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in biology is the lack of facile linkage chemistries to create different types of functional QD--bioconjugates. A two-step modular strategy for the presentation of biomolecules on CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs is described here which utilizes a chemoselective, aniline-catalyzed hydrazone coupling chemistry to append hexahistidine sequences onto peptides and DNA. This specifically provides them the ability to ratiometrically self-assemble to hydrophilic QDs. The versatility of this labeling approach was highlighted by ligating proteolytic substrate peptides, an oligoarginine cell-penetrating peptide, or a DNA-probe to cognate hexahistidine peptidyl sequences. The modularity allowed subsequently self-assembled QD constructs to engage in different types of targeted bioassays. The self-assembly and photophysical properties of individual QD conjugates were first confirmed by gel electrophoresis and Forster resonance energy transfer analysis. QD-dye-labeled peptide conjugates were then used as biosensors to quantitatively monitor the proteolytic activity of caspase-3 or elastase enzymes from different species. These sensors allowed the determination of the corresponding kinetic parameters, including the Michaelis constant (K(M)) and the maximum proteolytic activity (V(max)). QDs decorated with cell-penetrating peptides were shown to be successfully internalized by HEK 293T/17 cells, while nanocrystals displaying peptide--DNA conjugates were utilized as fluorescent probes in hybridization microarray assays. This modular approach for displaying peptides or DNA on QDs may be extended to other more complex biomolecules such as proteins or utilized with different types of nanoparticle materials.
Microbiology (Reading, England). Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20447992
The discovery of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) has been mainly limited to laboratory model systems and human pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we begin to explore the ncRNA diversity in four recently sequenced environmental Vibrio species (Vibrio alginolyticus 40B, Vibrio communis 1DA3, Vibrio mimicus VM573 and Vibrio campbellii BAA-1116) by performing in silico searches using Infernal and Rfam for the identification of putative ncRNA-encoding genes. This search method resulted in the identification of 31-38 putative ncRNA genes per species and the total ncRNA catalogue spanned an assortment of regulatory mechanisms (riboswitches, cis-encoded ncRNAs, trans-encoded ncRNAs, modulators of protein activity, ribonucleoproteins, transcription termination ncRNAs and unknown). We chose to experimentally validate the identifications for V. campbellii BAA-1116 using a microarray-based expression profiling strategy. Transcript hybridization to tiled probes targeting annotated V. campbellii BAA-1116 intergenic regions revealed that 21 of the 38 predicted ncRNA genes were expressed in mid-exponential-phase cultures grown in nutrient-rich medium. The microarray findings were confirmed by testing a subset of three highly expressed (6S, tmRNA and TPP-2) and three moderately expressed (CsrB, GcvB and purine) ncRNAs via reverse transcription PCR. Our findings provide new information on the diversity of ncRNA in environmental vibrios while simultaneously promoting a more accurate annotation of genomic intergenic regions.
Comparative Genomic Analyses Identify the Vibrio Harveyi Genome Sequenced Strains BAA-1116 and HY01 As Vibrio Campbellii
Environmental Microbiology Reports. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20686623
Three notable members of the Harveyi clade, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, are best known as marine pathogens of commercial and medical import. In spite of this fact, the discrimination of Harveyi clade members remains difficult due to genetic and phenotypic similarities, and this has led to misidentifications and inaccurate estimations of a species' involvement in certain environments. To begin to understand the underlying genetics that complicate species level discrimination, we compared the genomes of Harveyi clade members isolated from different environments (seawater, shrimp, corals, oysters, finfish, humans) using microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA). Surprisingly, we found that the only two V. harveyi strains that have had their genomes sequenced (strains BAA-1116 and HY01) have themselves been misidentified. Instead of belonging to the species harveyi, they are actually members of the species campbellii. In total, 28% of the strains tested were found to be misidentified and 42% of these appear to comprise a novel species. Taken together, our findings correct a number of species misidentifications while validating the ability of both CGH and MLSA to distinguish closely related members of the Harveyi clade.
Enhancement of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Microarray Performance Using Post-hybridization Signal Amplification
Analytica Chimica Acta. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20951861
Microarray performance depends upon the ability to screen samples against a vast array of probes with the appropriate sensitivity and selectivity. While these factors are significantly influenced by probe design, they are also subject to the particular detection methodology and reagents employed. Herein we describe the incorporation of super avidin-biotin system (SABS) and secondary enzymatic enhancement (SEE) as post-hybridization signal amplification techniques to improve the sensitivity of oligonucleotide microarrays. To these ends, we tested these methods on electrochemically interrogated arrays using both purified influenza A PCR products and randomly amplified genomic Francisella tularensis DNA as targets. While SABS treatment did not improve sensitivity for CombiMatrix ElectraSense(®) arrays using purified influenza A cDNA, chip sensitivity was improved 10-fold for randomly amplified targets. SEE improved performance to a greater degree and was able to lower the detection limits 10-fold for influenza A and 100-fold for F. tularensis DNA. These results indicate the promising capability of post-hybridization amplification techniques for enhancing microarray performance.
Genomic and Proteomic Analyses of the Coral Pathogen Vibrio Coralliilyticus Reveal a Diverse Virulence Repertoire
The ISME Journal. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21451583
Vibrio coralliilyticus has been implicated as an important pathogen of coral species worldwide. In this study, the nearly complete genome of Vibrio coralliilyticus strain P1 (LMG23696) was sequenced and proteases implicated in virulence of the strain were specifically investigated. The genome sequence of P1 (5,513,256 bp in size) consisted of 5222 coding sequences and 58 RNA genes (53 tRNAs and at least 5 rRNAs). Seventeen metalloprotease and effector (vgrG, hlyA and hcp) genes were identified in the genome and expressed proteases were also detected in the secretome of P1. As the VcpA zinc-metalloprotease has been considered an important virulence factor of V. coralliilyticus, a vcpA deletion mutant was constructed to evaluate the effect of this gene in animal pathogenesis. Both wild-type and mutant (ΔvcpA) strains exhibited similar virulence characteristics that resulted in high mortality in Artemia and Drosophila pathogenicity bioassays and strong photosystem II inactivation of the coral dinoflagellate endosymbiont (Symbiodinium). In contrast, the ΔvcpA mutant demonstrated higher hemolytic activity and secreted 18 proteins not secreted by the wild type. These proteins included four types of metalloproteases, a chitinase, a hemolysin-related protein RbmC, the Hcp protein and 12 hypothetical proteins. Overall, the results of this study indicate that V. coralliilyticus strain P1 has a diverse virulence repertoire that possibly enables this bacterium to be an efficient animal pathogen.
Locked Nucleic Acid and Flow Cytometry-fluorescence in Situ Hybridization for the Detection of Bacterial Small Noncoding RNAs
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22057868
We describe the development and testing of a high-throughput method that enables the detection of small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) from single bacterial cells using locked nucleic acid probes (LNA) and flow cytometry-fluorescence in situ hybridization (flow-FISH). The LNA flow-FISH method and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) were used to monitor the expression of three ncRNAs (6S, CsrB, and TPP-2) in Vibrio campbellii ATCC BAA-1116 cultures during lag phase, mid-log phase, and stationary phase. Both LNA flow-FISH and qRT-PCR revealed that CsrB and TPP-2 were highly expressed during lag phase but markedly reduced in mid-log phase and stationary phase, whereas 6S demonstrated no to little expression during lag phase but increased thereafter. Importantly, while LNA flow-FISH and qRT-PCR demonstrated similar overall expression trends, only LNA flow-FISH, which enabled the detection of ncRNAs in individual cells as opposed to the lysate-based ensemble measurements generated by qRT-PCR, was able to capture the cell-to-cell heterogeneity in ncRNA expression. As such, this study demonstrates a new method that simultaneously enables the in situ detection of ncRNAs and the determination of gene expression heterogeneity within an isogenic bacterial population.