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In JoVE (1)
- Avidity-based Extracellular Interaction Screening (AVEXIS) for the Scalable Detection of Low-affinity Extracellular Receptor-Ligand Interactions
Other Publications (20)
- Trends in Immunology
- Developmental Cell
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Journal of Virology
- Development (Cambridge, England)
- PLoS Biology
- Genome Research
- Molecular BioSystems
- Genome Biology
- Current Biology : CB
- BMC Biology
- Biochemical Society Transactions
- Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP
- Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- Development (Cambridge, England)
- PLoS Biology
- Nature Communications
- Analytical Biochemistry
Articles by Gavin J. Wright in JoVE
Avidity-based Extracellular Interaction Screening (AVEXIS) for the Scalable Detection of Low-affinity Extracellular Receptor-Ligand Interactions
Jason S. Kerr, Gavin J. Wright
Cell Surface Signalling Laboratory, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
AVEXIS is a high throughput protein interaction assay developed to systematically screen for novel extracellular receptor-ligand pairs involved in cellular recognition processes. It is specifically designed to detect transient protein interactions that are difficult to identify using other high throughput approaches.
Other articles by Gavin J. Wright on PubMed
Trends in Immunology. Jun, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12072366
OX2 (now designated CD200) is a membrane protein expressed by a broad range of cell types. It is the ligand for a receptor restricted to myeloid cells, with the potential to deliver inhibitory signals. This is indicated by the CD200-deficient mouse model, in which myeloid cells are more activated when stimulated immunologically than cells from normal mice. The unusual tissue distribution of CD200 indicates where myeloid cells can be restrictively controlled through cell-cell contact. Recent data on CD200 will be reviewed in the context of other proteins that might have similar roles, in particular, the interaction between CD47 and SIRPalpha (CD172a).
Mind Bomb is a Ubiquitin Ligase That is Essential for Efficient Activation of Notch Signaling by Delta
Developmental Cell. Jan, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12530964
Lateral inhibition, mediated by Notch signaling, leads to the selection of cells that are permitted to become neurons within domains defined by proneural gene expression. Reduced lateral inhibition in zebrafish mib mutant embryos permits too many neural progenitors to differentiate as neurons. Positional cloning of mib revealed that it is a gene in the Notch pathway that encodes a RING ubiquitin ligase. Mib interacts with the intracellular domain of Delta to promote its ubiquitylation and internalization. Cell transplantation studies suggest that mib function is essential in the signaling cell for efficient activation of Notch in neighboring cells. These observations support a model for Notch activation where the Delta-Notch interaction is followed by endocytosis of Delta and transendocytosis of the Notch extracellular domain by the signaling cell. This facilitates intramembranous cleavage of the remaining Notch receptor, release of the Notch intracellular fragment, and activation of target genes in neighboring cells.
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Sep, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12960329
CD200 (OX2) is a broadly distributed cell surface glycoprotein that interacts with a structurally related receptor (CD200R) expressed on rodent myeloid cells and is involved in regulation of macrophage function. We report the first characterization of human CD200R (hCD200R) and define its binding characteristics to hCD200. We also report the identification of a closely related gene to hCD200R, designated hCD200RLa, and four mouse CD200R-related genes (termed mCD200RLa-d). CD200, CD200R, and CD200R-related genes were closely linked in humans and mice, suggesting that these genes arose by gene duplication. The distributions of the receptor genes were determined by quantitative RT-PCR, and protein expression was confirmed by a set of novel mAbs. The distribution of mouse and human CD200R was similar, with strongest labeling of macrophages and neutrophils, but also other leukocytes, including monocytes, mast cells, and T lymphocytes. Two mCD200 receptor-like family members, designated mCD200RLa and mCD200RLb, were shown to pair with the activatory adaptor protein, DAP12, suggesting that these receptors would transmit strong activating signals in contrast to the apparent inhibitory signal delivered by triggering the CD200R. Despite substantial sequence homology with mCD200R, mCD200RLa and mCD200RLb did not bind mCD200, and presently have unknown ligands. The CD200 receptor gene family resembles the signal regulatory proteins and killer Ig-related receptors in having receptor family members with potential activatory and inhibitory functions that may play important roles in immune regulation and balance. Because manipulation of the CD200-CD200R interaction affects the outcome of rodent disease models, targeting of this pathway may have therapeutic utility.
Human Herpesvirus 8 K14 Protein Mimics CD200 in Down-regulating Macrophage Activation Through CD200 Receptor
Journal of Virology. Jul, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15220441
Many viral proteins limit host immune defenses, and their genes often originate from their hosts. CD200 (OX2) is a broadly distributed cell surface glycoprotein that interacts with a receptor on myeloid cells (CD200R) that is implicated in locally preventing macrophage activation. Distant, but recognizable, homologues of CD200 have been identified in many herpesviruses and poxviruses. Here, we show that the product of the K14 open reading frame from human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) interacts with human CD200R and is expressed at the surfaces of infected cells solely during the lytic cycle. Despite sharing only 40% primary sequence identity, K14 and CD200 interacted with CD200R with an almost identical and low affinity (K(D) = 0.5 microM), in contrast to other characterized viral homologue interactions. Cells expressing CD200 or K14 on the cell surface were able to inhibit secretion by activated macrophages of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, an effect that could be specifically relieved by addition of monoclonal antibodies and soluble monomeric CD200 protein. We conclude that CD200 delivers local down-modulatory signals to myeloid cells through direct cell-cell contact and that the K14 viral homologue closely mimics this.
Delta Proteins and MAGI Proteins: an Interaction of Notch Ligands with Intracellular Scaffolding Molecules and Its Significance for Zebrafish Development
Development (Cambridge, England). Nov, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15509766
Delta proteins activate Notch through a binding reaction that depends on their extracellular domains; but the intracellular (C-terminal) domains of the Deltas also have significant functions. All classes of vertebrates possess a subset of Delta proteins with a conserved ATEV* motif at their C termini. These ATEV Deltas include Delta1 and Delta4 in mammals and DeltaD and DeltaC in the zebrafish. We show that these Deltas associate with the membrane-associated scaffolding proteins MAGI1, MAGI2 and MAGI3, through a direct interaction between the C termini of the Deltas and a specific PDZ domain (PDZ4) of the MAGIs. In cultured cells and in subsets of cells in the intact zebrafish embryo, DeltaD and MAGI1 are co-localized at the plasma membrane. The interaction and the co-localization can be abolished by injection of a morpholino that blocks the mRNA splicing reaction that gives DeltaD its terminal valine, on which the interaction depends. Embryos treated in this way appear normal with respect to some known functions of DeltaD as a Notch ligand, including the control of somite segmentation, neurogenesis, and hypochord formation. They do, however, show an anomalous distribution of Rohon-Beard neurons in the dorsal neural tube, suggesting that the Delta-MAGI interaction may play some part in the control of neuron migration.
PLoS Biology. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17535112
The somites of the vertebrate embryo are clocked out sequentially from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) at the tail end of the embryo. Formation of each somite corresponds to one cycle of oscillation of the somite segmentation clock--a system of genes whose expression switches on and off periodically in the cells of the PSM. We have previously proposed a simple mathematical model explaining how the oscillations, in zebrafish at least, may be generated by a delayed negative feedback loop in which the products of two Notch target genes, her1 and her7, directly inhibit their own transcription, as well as that of the gene for the Notch ligand DeltaC; Notch signalling via DeltaC keeps the oscillations of neighbouring cells in synchrony. Here we subject the model to quantitative tests. We show how to read temporal information from the spatial pattern of stripes of gene expression in the anterior PSM and in this way obtain values for the biosynthetic delays and molecular lifetimes on which the model critically depends. Using transgenic lines of zebrafish expressing her1 or her7 under heat-shock control, we confirm the regulatory relationships postulated by the model. From the timing of somite segmentation disturbances following a pulse of her7 misexpression, we deduce that although her7 continues to oscillate in the anterior half of the PSM, it governs the future somite segmentation behaviour of the cells only while they are in the posterior half. In general, the findings strongly support the mathematical model of how the somite clock works, but they do not exclude the possibility that other oscillator mechanisms may operate upstream from the her7/her1 oscillator or in parallel with it.
Genome Research. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18296487
Extracellular protein-protein interactions are essential for both intercellular communication and cohesion within multicellular organisms. Approximately a fifth of human genes encode membrane-tethered or secreted proteins, but they are largely absent from recent large-scale protein interaction datasets, making current interaction networks biased and incomplete. This discrepancy is due to the unsuitability of popular high-throughput methods to detect extracellular interactions because of the biochemical intractability of membrane proteins and their interactions. For example, cell surface proteins contain insoluble hydrophobic transmembrane regions, and their extracellular interactions are often highly transient, having half-lives of less than a second. To detect transient extracellular interactions on a large scale, we developed AVEXIS (avidity-based extracellular interaction screen), a high-throughput assay that overcomes these technical issues and can detect very transient interactions (half-lives
Signal Initiation in Biological Systems: the Properties and Detection of Transient Extracellular Protein Interactions
Molecular BioSystems. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19593473
Individual cells within biological systems frequently coordinate their functions through signals initiated by specific extracellular protein interactions involving receptors that bridge the cellular membrane. Due to their biochemical nature, these membrane-embedded receptor proteins are difficult to manipulate and their interactions are characterised by very weak binding strengths that cannot be detected using popular high throughput assays. This review will provide a general outline of the biochemical attributes of receptor proteins focussing in particular on the biophysical properties of their transient interactions. Methods that are able to detect these weak extracellular binding events and especially those that can be used for identifying novel interactions will be compared. Finally, I discuss the feasibility of constructing a complete and accurate extracellular protein interaction map, and the methods that are likely to be useful in achieving this goal.
Genome Biology. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19765300
The vast number of precise intercellular connections within vertebrate nervous systems is only partly explained by the comparatively few known extracellular guidance cues. Large families of neural orphan receptor proteins have been identified and are likely to contribute to these recognition processes but due to the technical difficulty in identifying novel extracellular interactions of membrane-embedded proteins, their ligands remain unknown.
Developmentally Regulated Impediments to Skin Reinnervation by Injured Peripheral Sensory Axon Terminals
Current Biology : CB. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19962310
The structural plasticity of neurites in the central nervous system (CNS) diminishes dramatically after initial development, but the peripheral nervous system (PNS) retains substantial plasticity into adulthood. Nevertheless, functional reinnervation by injured peripheral sensory neurons is often incomplete [1-6]. To investigate the developmental control of skin reinnervation, we imaged the regeneration of trigeminal sensory axon terminals in live zebrafish larvae following laser axotomy. When axons were injured during early stages of outgrowth, regenerating and uninjured axons grew into denervated skin and competed with one another for territory. At later stages, after the establishment of peripheral arbor territories, the ability of uninjured neighbors to sprout diminished severely, and although injured axons reinitiated growth, they were repelled by denervated skin. Regenerating axons were repelled specifically by their former territories, suggesting that local inhibitory factors persist in these regions. Antagonizing the function of several members of the Nogo receptor (NgR)/RhoA pathway improved the capacity of injured axons to grow into denervated skin. Thus, as in the CNS, impediments to reinnervation in the PNS arise after initial establishment of axon arbor structure.
BMC Biology. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20525357
Monoclonal antibodies with high affinity and selectivity that work on wholemount fixed tissues are valuable reagents to the cell and developmental biologist, and yet isolating them remains a long and unpredictable process. Here we report a rapid and scalable method to select and express recombinant mouse monoclonal antibodies that are essentially equivalent to those secreted by parental IgG-isotype hybridomas.
Biochemical Society Transactions. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20658977
Protein interactions are highly diverse in their biochemical nature, varying in affinity and are often dependent on the surrounding biochemical environment. Given this heterogeneity, it seems unlikely that any one method, and particularly those capable of screening for many protein interactions in parallel, will be able to detect all functionally relevant interactions that occur within a living cell. One major class of interactions that are not detected by current popular high-throughput methods are those that occur in the extracellular environment, especially those made by membrane-embedded receptor proteins. In the present article, we discuss some of our recent research in the development of a scalable assay to identify this class of protein interaction and some of the findings from its application in the construction of extracellular protein interaction networks.
Construction of a Large Extracellular Protein Interaction Network and Its Resolution by Spatiotemporal Expression Profiling
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20802085
Extracellular interactions involving both secreted and membrane-tethered receptor proteins are essential to initiate signaling pathways that orchestrate cellular behaviors within biological systems. Because of the biochemical properties of these proteins and their interactions, identifying novel extracellular interactions remains experimentally challenging. To address this, we have recently developed an assay, AVEXIS (avidity-based extracellular interaction screen) to detect low affinity extracellular interactions on a large scale and have begun to construct interaction networks between zebrafish receptors belonging to the immunoglobulin and leucine-rich repeat protein families to identify novel signaling pathways important for early development. Here, we expanded our zebrafish protein library to include other domain families and many more secreted proteins and performed our largest screen to date totaling 16,544 potential unique interactions. We report 111 interactions of which 96 are novel and include the first documented extracellular ligands for 15 proteins. By including 77 interactions from previous screens, we assembled an expanded network of 188 extracellular interactions between 92 proteins and used it to show that secreted proteins have twice as many interaction partners as membrane-tethered receptors and that the connectivity of the extracellular network behaves as a power law. To try to understand the functional role of these interactions, we determined new expression patterns for 164 genes within our clone library by using whole embryo in situ hybridization at five key stages of zebrafish embryonic development. These expression data were integrated with the binding network to reveal where each interaction was likely to function within the embryo and were used to resolve the static interaction network into dynamic tissue- and stage-specific subnetworks within the developing zebrafish embryo. All these data were organized into a freely accessible on-line database called ARNIE (AVEXIS Receptor Network with Integrated Expression; www.sanger.ac.uk/arnie) and provide a valuable resource of new extracellular signaling interactions for developmental biology.
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20935258
Extracellular protein interactions are crucial to the development of multicellular organisms because they initiate signaling pathways and enable cellular recognition cues. Despite their importance, extracellular protein interactions are often under-represented in large scale protein interaction data sets because most high throughput assays are not designed to detect low affinity extracellular interactions. Due to the lack of a comprehensive data set, the evolution of extracellular signaling pathways has remained largely a mystery. We investigated this question using a combined data set of physical pairwise interactions between zebrafish extracellular proteins, mainly from the immunoglobulin superfamily and leucine-rich repeat families, and their spatiotemporal expression profiles. We took advantage of known homology between proteins to estimate the relative rates of changes of four parameters after gene duplication, namely extracellular protein interaction, expression pattern, and the divergence of extracellular and intracellular protein sequences. We showed that change in expression profile is a major contributor to the evolution of signaling pathways followed by divergence in intracellular protein sequence, whereas extracellular sequence and interaction profiles were relatively more conserved. Rapidly evolving expression profiles will eventually drive other parameters to diverge more quickly because differentially expressed proteins get exposed to different environments and potential binding partners. This allows homologous extracellular receptors to attain specialized functions and become specific to tissues and/or developmental stages.
Journal of Neurochemistry. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21155806
Recent studies have identified the leucine rich repeat protein LRRTM2 as a post-synaptic ligand of Neurexins. Neurexins also bind the post-synaptic adhesion molecules, Neuroligins. All three families of genes have been implicated in the etiologies of neurodevelopmental disorders, specifically autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. Does the binding promiscuity of Neurexins now suggest complex cooperativity or redundancy at the synapse? While recent studies in primary neuronal cultures and also systematic extracellular protein interaction screens suggest summative effects of these systems, we propose that studying these interactions in the developing zebrafish embryo or larvae may shed more light on their functions during synaptogenesis in vivo. These gene families have recently been extensively characterized in zebrafish, demonstrating high sequence conservation with the human genes. The simpler circuitry of the zebrafish, together with the characterization of the expression patterns down to single, identifiable neurons and the ability to knock-down or over-express multiple genes in a rapid way lend themselves to dissecting complex interaction pathways. Furthermore, the capability of performing high-throughput drug screens suggests that these small vertebrates may prove extremely useful in identifying pharmacological approaches to treating autism spectrum disorders.
Development (Cambridge, England). Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21653612
We describe the production and characterisation of two monoclonal antibodies, zdc2 and zdd2, directed against the zebrafish Notch ligands DeltaC and DeltaD, respectively. We use our antibodies to show that these Delta proteins can bind to one another homo- and heterophilically, and to study the localisation of DeltaC and DeltaD in the zebrafish nervous system and presomitic mesoderm (PSM). Our findings in the nervous system largely confirm expectations from previous studies, but in the PSM we see an unexpected pattern in which the localisation of DeltaD varies according to the level of expression of DeltaC: in the anterior PSM, where DeltaC is plentiful, the two proteins are colocalised in intracellular puncta, but in the posterior PSM, where DeltaC is at a lower level, DeltaD is seen mainly on the cell surface. Forced overexpression of DeltaC reduces the amount of DeltaD on the cell surface in the posterior PSM; conversely, loss-of-function mutation of DeltaC increases the amount of DeltaD on the cell surface in the anterior PSM. These findings suggest an explanation for a long-standing puzzle regarding the functions of the two Delta proteins in the somite segmentation clock--an explanation that is based on the proposition that they associate heterophilically to activate Notch.
Nature. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22080952
Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum is central to the pathogenesis of malaria. Invasion requires a series of extracellular recognition events between erythrocyte receptors and ligands on the merozoite, the invasive form of the parasite. None of the few known receptor-ligand interactions involved are required in all parasite strains, indicating that the parasite is able to access multiple redundant invasion pathways. Here, we show that we have identified a receptor-ligand pair that is essential for erythrocyte invasion in all tested P. falciparum strains. By systematically screening a library of erythrocyte proteins, we have found that the Ok blood group antigen, basigin, is a receptor for PfRh5, a parasite ligand that is essential for blood stage growth. Erythrocyte invasion was potently inhibited by soluble basigin or by basigin knockdown, and invasion could be completely blocked using low concentrations of anti-basigin antibodies; importantly, these effects were observed across all laboratory-adapted and field strains tested. Furthermore, Ok(a-) erythrocytes, which express a basigin variant that has a weaker binding affinity for PfRh5, had reduced invasion efficiencies. Our discovery of a cross-strain dependency on a single extracellular receptor-ligand pair for erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum provides a focus for new anti-malarial therapies.
PLoS Biology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22180726
Cellular fusion is required in the development of several tissues, including skeletal muscle. In vertebrates, this process is poorly understood and lacks an in vivo-validated cell surface heterophilic receptor pair that is necessary for fusion. Identification of essential cell surface interactions between fusing cells is an important step in elucidating the molecular mechanism of cellular fusion. We show here that the zebrafish orthologues of JAM-B and JAM-C receptors are essential for fusion of myocyte precursors to form syncytial muscle fibres. Both jamb and jamc are dynamically co-expressed in developing muscles and encode receptors that physically interact. Heritable mutations in either gene prevent myocyte fusion in vivo, resulting in an overabundance of mononuclear, but otherwise overtly normal, functional fast-twitch muscle fibres. Transplantation experiments show that the Jamb and Jamc receptors must interact between neighbouring cells (in trans) for fusion to occur. We also show that jamc is ectopically expressed in prdm1a mutant slow muscle precursors, which inappropriately fuse with other myocytes, suggesting that control of myocyte fusion through regulation of jamc expression has important implications for the growth and patterning of muscles. Our discovery of a receptor-ligand pair critical for fusion in vivo has important implications for understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for myocyte fusion and its regulation in vertebrate myogenesis.
The Blood-stage Malaria Antigen PfRH5 is Susceptible to Vaccine-inducible Cross-strain Neutralizing Antibody
Nature Communications. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22186897
Current vaccine strategies against the asexual blood stage of Plasmodium falciparum are mostly focused on well-studied merozoite antigens that induce immune responses after natural exposure, but have yet to induce robust protection in any clinical trial. Here we compare human-compatible viral-vectored vaccines targeting ten different blood-stage antigens. We show that the full-length P. falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homologue 5 (PfRH5) is highly susceptible to cross-strain neutralizing vaccine-induced antibodies, out-performing all other antigens delivered by the same vaccine platform. We find that, despite being susceptible to antibody, PfRH5 is unlikely to be under substantial immune selection pressure; there is minimal acquisition of anti-PfRH5 IgG antibodies in malaria-exposed Kenyans. These data challenge the widespread beliefs that any merozoite antigen that is highly susceptible to immune attack would be subject to significant levels of antigenic polymorphism, and that erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum is a degenerate process involving a series of parallel redundant pathways.
A Benchmarked Protein Microarray-based Platform for the Identification of Novel Low Affinity Extracellular Protein Interactions
Analytical Biochemistry. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22342946
Low affinity extracellular protein interactions are critical for cellular recognition processes but existing methods to detect them are limited in scale making genome-wide interaction screens technically challenging. To address this, we report here the miniaturization of the AVEXIS (AVidity-based EXtracellular Interaction Screen) assay by using protein microarray technology. To achieve this, we have developed protein tags and sample preparation methods that enable the parallel purification of hundreds of recombinant proteins expressed in mammalian cells. We benchmarked the protein microarray-based assay against a set of known quantified receptor-ligand pairs and show that it is sensitive enough to detect even very weak interactions that are typical of this class of interactions. The increase in scale enables interaction screening against a dilution series of immobilized proteins on the microarray enabling the observation of saturation binding behaviors to show interaction specificity, and also the estimation of interaction affinities directly from the primary screen. These methodological improvements now permit screening for novel extracellular receptor-ligand interactions on a genome-wide scale.