Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (7)
Articles by Gretchen Mahler in JoVE
Isolation and Culture of Avian Embryonic Valvular Progenitor Cells
Gretchen Mahler, Russell Gould, Johnathan Butcher
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University
This article will provide a method for isolating and culturing quail or chicken HH14- valve endocardial cells and HH25 valve cushion mesenchymal cells.
Other articles by Gretchen Mahler on PubMed
Characterization of a Gastrointestinal Tract Microscale Cell Culture Analog Used to Predict Drug Toxicity
Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19418562
The lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the largest surface exposed to the external environment in the human body. One of the main functions of the small intestine is absorption, and intestinal absorption is a route used by essential nutrients, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals to enter the systemic circulation. Understanding the effects of digestion on a drug or chemical, how compounds interact with and are absorbed through the small intestinal epithelium, and how these compounds affect the rest of the body is critical for toxicological evaluation. Our goal is to create physiologically realistic in vitro models of the human GI tract that provide rapid, inexpensive, and accurate predictions of the body's response to orally delivered drugs and chemicals. Our group has developed an in vitro microscale cell culture analog (microCCA) of the GI tract that includes digestion, a mucus layer, and physiologically realistic cell populations. The GI tract microCCA, coupled with a multi-chamber silicon microCCA representing the systemic circulation, is described and challenged with acetaminophen. Proof of concept experiments showed that acetaminophen passes through and is metabolized by the in vitro intestinal epithelium and is further metabolized by liver cells, resulting in liver cell toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. The microCCA response is also consistent with in vivo measurements in mice. The system should be broadly useful for studies on orally delivered drugs or ingestion of chemicals with potential toxicity.
Characterization of Caco-2 and HT29-MTX Cocultures in an in Vitro Digestion/cell Culture Model Used to Predict Iron Bioavailability
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18715773
Cocultures of two human cell lines, Caco-2 and HT29-MTX mucus-producing cells, have been incorporated into an in vitro digestion/cell culture model used to predict iron bioavailability. A range of different foods were subjected to in vitro digestion, and iron bioavailability from digests was assessed with Caco-2, Caco-2 overlaid with porcine mucin, HT29-MTX or cocultures of Caco-2 and HT29-MTX at varying ratios. It was found that increasing the ratio of HT29-MTX cells decreased the amount of ferritin formed and resulted in an overall decline in the ability of the model to detect differences in iron bioavailability. At the physiologically relevant ratios of 90% Caco-2/10% HT29-MTX and 75% Caco-2/25% HT29-MTX, however, a mucus layer completely covered the cell monolayer and the in vitro digestion model was nearly as responsive to changes in sample iron bioavailability as pure Caco-2 cultures. The in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model correlates well with human iron bioavailability studies, but, as mucus appears to play a role in iron absorption, the addition of a physiologically realistic mucus layer and goblet-type cells to this model may give more accurate iron bioavailability predictions.
Transforming Growth Factor β, Bone Morphogenetic Protein, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Mediate Phenotype Maturation and Tissue Remodeling by Embryonic Valve Progenitor Cells: Relevance for Heart Valve Tissue Engineering
Tissue Engineering. Part A. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20629541
Despite years of research, limited understanding of heart valve cell and tissue biology remains a key impediment to valvular tissue engineering progress. Heart valves rapidly evolve structural and cellular composition naturally during embryonic development, which suggests that mimicking these signaling events could advance engineered valve tissue research. Many inductive factors participate in the initial endocardial to mesenchymal transformation event necessary to form the prevalvular cushion, but far less is known about the regulation of cushion remodeling into fibrous leaflets and the associated maturation of valvular progenitors into fibroblasts. In this study, we combine in vitro three-dimensional tissue-engineered models of embryonic valvular remodeling with in vivo analysis to determine the roles of three prominent growth factors during avian mitral valvulogenesis. We show that transforming growth factor-β3 (TGFβ3), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) are expressed in spatiotemporally distinct patterns and at significantly different levels within remodeling embryonic valves in vivo. We then establish dose-dependent functional roles for each growth factor in 3D cultured embryonic valve progenitor cells. TGFβ3 induced cell migration, invasion, and matrix condensation; BMP2 induced invasion. VEGFA inhibited invasion but increased migration. Finally, we determine that TGFβ3 induced myofibroblastic differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, whereas VEGFA and BMP2 did not. Collectively, these findings frame a naturally derived blueprint for controlling valvulogenic remodeling and phenotype maturation, which can be integrated into clinically needed regenerative strategies for heart valve disease and to accelerate the development of engineered tissue valves.
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21281685
The aortic valve regulates unidirectional flow of oxygenated blood to the myocardium and arterial system. The natural anatomical geometry and microstructural complexity ensures biomechanically and hemodynamically efficient function. The compliant cusps are populated with unique cell phenotypes that continually remodel tissue for long-term durability within an extremely demanding mechanical environment. Alteration from normal valve homeostasis arises from genetic and microenvironmental (mechanical) sources, which lead to congenital and/or premature structural degeneration. Aortic valve stenosis pathobiology shares some features of atherosclerosis, but its final calcification endpoint is distinct. Despite its broad and significant clinical significance, very little is known about the mechanisms of normal valve mechanobiology and mechanisms of disease. This is reflected in the paucity of predictive diagnostic tools, early stage interventional strategies, and stagnation in regenerative medicine innovation. Tissue engineering has unique potential for aortic valve disease therapy, but overcoming current design pitfalls will require even more multidisciplinary effort. This review summarizes the latest advancements in aortic valve research and highlights important future directions.
International Journal of Inflammation. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21792386
Heart valve disease is unique in that it affects both the very young and very old, and does not discriminate by financial affluence, social stratus, or global location. Research over the past decade has transformed our understanding of heart valve cell biology, yet still more remains unclear regarding how these cells respond and adapt to their local microenvironment. Recent studies have identified inflammatory signaling at nearly every point in the life cycle of heart valves, yet its role at each stage is unclear. While the vast majority of evidence points to inflammation as mediating pathological valve remodeling and eventual destruction, some studies suggest inflammation may provide key signals guiding transient adaptive remodeling. Though the mechanisms are far from clear, inflammatory signaling may be a previously unrecognized ally in the quest for controlled rapid tissue remodeling, a key requirement for regenerative medicine approaches for heart valve disease. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding inflammatory mediation of heart valve remodeling and suggests key questions moving forward.
Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today : Reviews. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22271678
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a highly prevalent problem with mostly unknown origins. Many cases of CHD likely involve an environmental exposure coupled with genetic susceptibility, but practical and ethical considerations make nongenetic causes of CHD difficult to assess in humans. The development of the heart is highly conserved across all vertebrate species, making animal models an excellent option for screening potential cardiac teratogens. This review will discuss exposures known to cause cardiac defects, stages of heart development that are most sensitive to teratogen exposure, benefits and limitations of animal models of cardiac development, and future considerations for cardiac developmental toxicity research. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 93:291-297, 2011. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nature Nanotechnology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22327877
The use of engineered nanoparticles in food and pharmaceuticals is expected to increase, but the impact of chronic oral exposure to nanoparticles on human health remains unknown. Here, we show that chronic and acute oral exposure to polystyrene nanoparticles can influence iron uptake and iron transport in an in vitro model of the intestinal epithelium and an in vivo chicken intestinal loop model. Intestinal cells that are exposed to high doses of nanoparticles showed increased iron transport due to nanoparticle disruption of the cell membrane. Chickens acutely exposed to carboxylated particles (50 nm in diameter) had a lower iron absorption than unexposed or chronically exposed birds. Chronic exposure caused remodelling of the intestinal villi, which increased the surface area available for iron absorption. The agreement between the in vitro and in vivo results suggests that our in vitro intestinal epithelium model is potentially useful for toxicology studies.