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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (65)
- Journal of Endotoxin Research
- Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
- American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Molecular Medicine (Cambridge, Mass.)
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Nature Medicine
- Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research : the Official Journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research
- Journal of Immunological Methods
- Academic Emergency Medicine : Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
- Medical Hypotheses
- Journal of Leukocyte Biology
- Nature Medicine
- Journal of Lipid Research
- Critical Care Medicine
- Journal of Leukocyte Biology
- The Journal of Infectious Diseases
- Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
- Medical Hypotheses
- The Journal of Nutrition
- Current Opinion in Pharmacology
- Viral Immunology
- Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
- The Journal of Experimental Medicine
- Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
- Journal of Leukocyte Biology
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Novartis Foundation Symposium
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Journal of the American College of Surgeons
- Critical Care Medicine
- PloS One
- Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi = Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Hepatology
- Critical Care Medicine
- Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi = Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Hepatology
- Critical Care Medicine
- International Immunopharmacology
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
- International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
- Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
- Journal of Molecular Medicine (Berlin, Germany)
- American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
- Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
- Critical Care Medicine
- Molecular Medicine (Cambridge, Mass.)
- Thrombosis and Haemostasis
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
- Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
- Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- PloS One
- Biochemical Pharmacology
- BMC Gastroenterology
- Molecular Medicine (Cambridge, Mass.)
- Current Molecular Medicine
- Molecular Medicine (Cambridge, Mass.)
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Articles by Haichao Wang in JoVE
Het gebruik van dierlijk model van Sepsis op nieuwe kruidentherapieën Evalueer
Wei Li, Shu Zhu, Yusong Zhang, Jianhua Li, Andrew E. Sama, Ping Wang, Haichao Wang
The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore – LIJ Health System
Sepsis verwijst naar een systemic inflammatory response syndrome als gevolg van een bacteriële infectie, en kan worden gesimuleerd door een chirurgische techniek genoemd cecal ligatie en punctie (CLP). Hier beschrijven we een methode om CLP-geïnduceerde diermodel te gebruiken om geneeskrachtige kruiden te screenen op therapeutische middelen.
Other articles by Haichao Wang on PubMed
Journal of Endotoxin Research. 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12697092
HMGB1 is an abundant nuclear and cytoplasmic protein present in mammalian cells. It is traditionally known as a DNA binding protein involved in maintenance of nucleosome structure and regulation of gene transcription. Beyond these intracellular roles, we recently discovered that HMGB1 is released from activated macrophages and functions as a late mediator of lethal endotoxemia. Addition of HMGB1 to macrophage cultures activates cytokine release. When released into the extracellular milieu, HMGB1 causes systemic inflammatory responses including acute lung injury, epithelial barrier dysfunction, and death. Passive immunization with anti-HMGB1 antibodies confers significant protection against lethality induced by LPS administration and sepsis caused by cecal perforation in mice. Truncation of HMGB1 into individual structural domains revealed that the HMGB1 A box, a DNA-binding motif, specifically antagonizes the activity of HMGB1 and rescues mice from lethal sepsis caused by cecal perforation. Thus, strategies that target HMGB1 with specific antibodies or antagonists have potential for treating lethal systemic inflammatory diseases characterized by excessive HMGB1 release.
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). Jun, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12069185
Hemoglobin is an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS)-binding protein that synergistically increases the release of proinflammatory cytokines from the innate immune system in response to LPS. It has been suggested that this activity of hemoglobin facilitates the recognition of Gram-negative bacteria in a wound, thereby maximizing immune efficiency. This synergy may be important to the pathogenesis of a broad spectrum of clinical conditions because elevated hemoglobin levels frequently are observed in patients after the transfusion of red cells, trauma, cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, hemolysis, in addition to other disorders. To determine the molecular basis of the specific hemoglobin-LPS synergy, in this article we tested the effects of globin itself on macrophage responses to LPS. Paradoxically, these studies revealed that globin suppressed tumor necrosis factor (TNF) synthesis in LPS-stimulated murine and human macrophage cultures. LPS comigrated with globin on non-denaturing electrophoretic gels, giving direct evidence for binding. Globin specifically inhibited LPS activity in the standard Limulus assay but did not inhibit interleukin-1beta-mediated TNF synthesis. Iron supplementation of macrophage cultures significantly increased interleukin-1beta-induced TNF release. Intraperitoneal administration of globin protected mice against both LPS-induced lethality and experimentally induced bacterial infection. Thus, the heme-iron moiety of hemoglobin, and not the binding of LPS to globin, enhanced macrophage responses to LPS.
HMGB-1, a DNA-binding Protein with Cytokine Activity, Induces Brain TNF and IL-6 Production, and Mediates Anorexia and Taste Aversion
Cytokine. May, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12126646
High-mobility group protein-1 (HMG-1 also termed HMGB-1), a DNA-binding protein, regulates gene transcription and stabilizes nucleosome formation. HMG-1 was recently implicated as a cytokine, because it is a late-acting mediator of endotoxin lethality that induces the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from monocytes. Here it is shown that administration of HMG-1 into the cerebral ventricles decreases food intake (food intake=4.6g/mouse in controls vs 1.6g/mouse after 1 microg HMG-1 i.c.v.; P <0.05). Intracerebroventricular HMG-1 induced an increased in TNF and IL-6 expression in the brain, and mediated taste aversion with potencies equivalent to LPS. In a model of endotoxemia, passive immunization with anti-HMG-1 antibodies attenuated the development of hypophagia, indicating that HMG-1 is a mediator of sickness behaviour associated with endotoxemia.
Nature. Jan, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12508119
Excessive inflammation and tumour-necrosis factor (TNF) synthesis cause morbidity and mortality in diverse human diseases including endotoxaemia, sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Highly conserved, endogenous mechanisms normally regulate the magnitude of innate immune responses and prevent excessive inflammation. The nervous system, through the vagus nerve, can inhibit significantly and rapidly the release of macrophage TNF, and attenuate systemic inflammatory responses. This physiological mechanism, termed the 'cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway' has major implications in immunology and in therapeutics; however, the identity of the essential macrophage acetylcholine-mediated (cholinergic) receptor that responds to vagus nerve signals was previously unknown. Here we report that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subunit is required for acetylcholine inhibition of macrophage TNF release. Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve inhibits TNF synthesis in wild-type mice, but fails to inhibit TNF synthesis in alpha7-deficient mice. Thus, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subunit is essential for inhibiting cytokine synthesis by the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.
American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Apr, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12620891
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, a DNA binding protein that stabilizes nucleosomes and facilitates transcription, was recently identified as a late mediator of endotoxin lethality. High serum HMGB1 levels in patients with sepsis are associated with increased mortality, and administration of HMGB1 produces acute inflammation in animal models of lung injury and endotoxemia. Neutrophils occupy a critical role in mediating the development of endotoxemia-associated acute lung injury, but previously it was not known whether HMGB1 could influence neutrophil activation. In the present experiments, we demonstrate that HMGB1 increases the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB and enhances the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in human neutrophils. These proinflammatory effects of HMGB1 in neutrophils appear to involve the p38 MAPK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt, and ERK1/2 pathways. The mechanisms of HMGB1-induced neutrophil activation are distinct from endotoxin-induced signals, because HMGB1 leads to a different profile of gene expression, pattern of cytokine expression, and kinetics of p38 activation compared with LPS. These findings indicate that HMGB1 is an effective stimulus of neutrophil activation that can contribute to development of a proinflammatory phenotype in diseases characterized by excessively high levels of HMGB1.
IFN-gamma Induces High Mobility Group Box 1 Protein Release Partly Through a TNF-dependent Mechanism
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Apr, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12646658
We recently discovered that a ubiquitous protein, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), is released by activated macrophages, and functions as a late mediator of lethal systemic inflammation. To elucidate mechanisms underlying the regulation of HMGB1 release, we examined the roles of other cytokines in induction of HMGB1 release in macrophage cell cultures. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor, macrophage-inflammatory protein 1beta, and IL-6 each failed to significantly induce the release of HMGB1 even at supraphysiological levels (up to 200 ng/ml). IFN-gamma, an immunoregulatory cytokine known to mediate the innate immune response, dose-dependently induced the release of HMGB1, TNF, and NO, but not other cytokines such as IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, or IL-6. Pharmacological suppression of TNF activity with neutralizing Abs, or genetic disruption of TNF expression (TNF knockout) partially (50-60%) inhibited IFN-gamma-mediated HMGB1 release. AG490, a specific inhibitor for Janus kinase 2 of the IFN-gamma signaling pathway, dose-dependently attenuated IFN-gamma-induced HMGB1 release. These data suggest that IFN-gamma plays an important role in the regulation of HMGB1 release through a TNF- and Janus kinase 2-dependent mechanism.
Molecular Medicine (Cambridge, Mass.). Jan-Feb, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12765338
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB), a ubiquitous DNA-binding protein, has been implicated as a proinflammatory cytokine and late mediator of lethal endotoxemia. HMGB1 is released by activated macrophages. It amplifies and extends the inflammatory response by inducing cytokine release and mediating acute lung injury, anorexia, and the inflammatory response to tissue necrosis. The kinetics of HMGB1 release provide a wide therapeutic window for endotoxemia because extracellular levels of HMGB1 begin to increase 12 to 24 h after exposure to inflammatory stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that a DNA-binding domain of HMGB1, the B box, recapitulates the cytokine activity of full length HMGB1 and efficiently activates macrophages to release tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and other proinflammatory cytokines. Truncation of the B box revealed that the TNF-stimulating activity localizes to 20 amino acids (HMGB1 amino acids 89 to 108). Passive immunization of mice with antibodies raised against B box conferred significant protection against lethal endotoxemia or sepsis, induced by cecal perforation. These results indicate that a proinflammatory domain of HMGB1 maps to the highly conserved DNA-binding B box, making this primary sequence a suitable target in the design of therapeutics.
Further Characterization of High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) As a Proinflammatory Cytokine: Central Nervous System Effects
Cytokine. Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14609567
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), an abundant, highly conserved cellular protein, is widely known as a nuclear DNA-binding protein. HMGB1 has been recently implicated as a proinflammatory cytokine because of its role as a late mediator of endotoxin lethality and ability to stimulate release of proinflammatory cytokines from monocytes. Production of central cytokines is a critical step in the pathway by which endotoxin and peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1beta (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), produce sickness behaviors and fever. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of HMGB1 has been shown to increase TNF expression in mouse brain and induce aphagia and taste aversion. Here we show that ICV injections of HMGB1 induce fever and hypothalamic IL-1 in rats. Furthermore, we show that intrathecal administration of HMGB1 produces mechanical allodynia (lowering of the response threshold to calibrated stimuli). Finally, while endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) administration elevates IL-1 and TNF mRNA in various brain regions, HMGB1 mRNA is unchanged. It remains possible that HMGB1 protein is released in brain in response to LPS. Nonetheless, these data suggest that HMGB1 may play a role as an endogenous pyrogen and support the concept that HMGB1 has proinflammatory characteristics within the central nervous system.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jan, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14695889
Despite significant advances in intensive care therapy and antibiotics, severe sepsis accounts for 9% of all deaths in the United States annually. The pathological sequelae of sepsis are characterized by a systemic inflammatory response, but experimental therapeutics that target specific early inflammatory mediators [tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1beta] have not proven efficacious in the clinic. We recently identified high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) as a late mediator of endotoxin-induced lethality that exhibits significantly delayed kinetics relative to TNF and IL-1beta. Here, we report that serum HMGB1 levels are increased significantly in a standardized model of murine sepsis, beginning 18 h after surgical induction of peritonitis. Specific inhibition of HMGB1 activity [with either anti-HMGB1 antibody (600 microg per mouse) or the DNA-binding A box (600 microg per mouse)] beginning as late as 24 h after surgical induction of peritonitis significantly increased survival (nonimmune IgG-treated controls = 28% vs. anti-HMGB1 antibody group = 72%, P < 0.03; GST control protein = 28% vs. A box = 68%, P < 0.03). Animals treated with either HMGB1 antagonist were protected against the development of organ injury, as evidenced by improved levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. These observations demonstrate that specific inhibition of endogenous HMGB1 therapeutically reverses lethality of established sepsis indicating that HMGB1 inhibitors can be administered in a clinically relevant time frame.
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research : the Official Journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15212706
High mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1, formerly known as HMG-1), a highly conserved ubiquitous protein, has been for a long time described as a nuclear DNA-binding protein involved in nucleosome stabilization and gene transcription. Recent discoveries indicate that HMGB1 is released from activated innate immune cells or necrotic cells and functions as an important mediator of endotoxemia, sepsis, arthritis, and local inflammation. Therapeutic agents that inhibit HMGB1 release or action confer significant protection against endotoxemia, sepsis, and arthritis in animal models and thus hold potential for the clinical management of various inflammatory diseases.
Journal of Immunological Methods. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15251426
We describe methods for the isolation, purification, and characterization of full-length high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and truncated mutants expressed in bacteria and in mammalian Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. HMGB1 is an abundant nuclear and cytoplasmic protein, highly conserved across species and widely distributed in eukaryotic cells from yeast to man. As a ubiquitous nuclear DNA binding protein, HMGB1 binds DNA, facilitates gene transcription, and stabilizes nucleosome structure. In addition to these intracellular roles, HMGB1 can be released into the extracellular milieu by activated innate immune cells (i.e., macrophages, monocytes) and functions as a mediator of lethal endotoxemia and sepsis. The proinflammatory cytokine activity of HMGB1 has become an intense area of research and recombinant protein can be a useful tool to probe HMGB1 functions. Due to its dipolar charged properties, HMGB1 isolated by some methods can be contaminated with bacterial products (such as CpG DNA or lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) that may interfere with immunological analyses. Here we report our newly developed methods for the isolation and purification of biologically active HMGB1 from bacteria or mammalian CHO cells that is essentially free of contaminants. This strategy provides an important advance in methodology to facilitate future HMGB1 studies.
Bench to Bedside: HMGB1-a Novel Proinflammatory Cytokine and Potential Therapeutic Target for Septic Patients in the Emergency Department
Academic Emergency Medicine : Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15289194
Overwhelming gram-negative bacterial infection and life-threatening systemic inflammation are widespread problems in critically ill emergency department patients. Currently, the treatment of these patients is largely supportive, focusing on antibiotics, fluids, hemodynamic and ventilatory support, and intensive monitoring. The only Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmaceutical agent for the treatment of sepsis is activated protein C, with its use largely relegated to the intensive care unit. The subject thus remains an active area of exploration for emergency medicine research. During sepsis and inflammation, innate immune cells release excessive amounts of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1beta. If delivered early enough, anti-TNF antibodies can be an effective therapy in experimental models of septic shock. Anti-TNF antibodies have been developed for clinical use in rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. However, anti-TNF treatment for sepsis has been difficult to achieve in the clinical setting, perhaps because TNF's early release and transient appearance in the serum create a narrow therapeutic window. An alternative strategy would be to identify "late" mediators that may be clinically more accessible. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a protein previously known only as a nuclear transcription factor, is now implicated as a late mediator of sepsis. Targeting late mediators of lethal systemic inflammation represents a novel approach that may widen the therapeutic window and lead to new strategies for inhibiting the deleterious effects of the inflammatory cascade. Here the authors review the studies that led to the discovery of HMGB1 as a late mediator of systemic inflammation and discuss the possibility of HMGB1 as a therapeutic target for septic patients in the emergency department.
Medical Hypotheses. 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15325019
High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is released by necrotic cells or activated macrophages/monocytes, and functions as a late mediator of lethal systemic and local pulmonary inflammation. Passive immunization with anti-HMGB1 antibodies confers significant protection against lethal endotoxemia, sepsis, and acute lung injury, even when antibodies are administered after the onset of these diseases. In light of observations that three Chinese herbal formulations recommended for treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) specifically inhibited the release of HMGB1 from innate immune cells, we hypothesize that HMGB1 might occupy a pathogenic role in SARS by mediating an injurious pulmonary inflammatory response.
Bacterial Endotoxin Stimulates Macrophages to Release HMGB1 Partly Through CD14- and TNF-dependent Mechanisms
Journal of Leukocyte Biology. Nov, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15331624
Bacterial endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] stimulates macrophages to sequentially release early [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)] and late [high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)] proinflammatory cytokines. The requirement of CD14 and mitogen-activated protein kinases [MAPK; e.g., p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2] for endotoxin-induced TNF production has been demonstrated previously, but little is known about their involvement in endotoxin-mediated HMGB1 release. Here, we demonstrated that genetic disruption of CD14 expression abrogated LPS-induced TNF production but only partially attenuated LPS-induced HMGB1 release in cultures of primary murine peritoneal macrophages. Pharmacological suppression of p38 or ERK1/2 MAPK with specific inhibitors (SB203580, SB202190, U0126, or PD98059) significantly attenuated LPS-induced TNF production but failed to inhibit LPS-induced HMGB1 release. Consistently, an endogenous, immunosuppressive molecule, spermine, failed to inhibit LPS-induced activation of p38 MAPK and yet, still significantly attenuated LPS-mediated HMGB1 release. Direct suppression of TNF activity with neutralizing antibodies or genetic disruption of TNF expression partially attenuated HMGB1 release from macrophages induced by LPS at lower concentrations (e.g., 10 ng/ml). Taken together, these data suggest that LPS stimulates macrophages to release HMGB1 partly through CD14- and TNF-dependent mechanisms.
Nature Medicine. Nov, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15502843
Physiological anti-inflammatory mechanisms can potentially be exploited for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Here we report that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine inhibits HMGB1 release from human macrophages by signaling through a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Nicotine, a selective cholinergic agonist, is more efficient than acetylcholine and inhibits HMGB1 release induced by either endotoxin or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Nicotinic stimulation prevents activation of the NF-kappaB pathway and inhibits HMGB1 secretion through a specific 'nicotinic anti-inflammatory pathway' that requires the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7nAChR). In vivo, treatment with nicotine attenuates serum HMGB1 levels and improves survival in experimental models of sepsis, even when treatment is started after the onset of the disease. These results reveal acetylcholine as the first known physiological inhibitor of HMGB1 release from human macrophages and suggest that selective nicotinic agonists for the alpha7nAChR might have therapeutic potential for the treatment of sepsis.
Suppression of HMGB1 Release by Stearoyl Lysophosphatidylcholine:an Additional Mechanism for Its Therapeutic Effects in Experimental Sepsis
Journal of Lipid Research. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15687351
Stearoyl lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) has recently been proven protective against lethal sepsis by stimulating neutrophils to eliminate invading pathogens through an H2O2-dependent mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that stearoyl LPC, but not caproyl LPC, significantly attenuates circulating high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) levels in endotoxemia and sepsis by suppressing endotoxin-induced HMGB1 release from macrophages/monocytes. Neutralizing antibodies against G2A, a potential cell surface receptor for LPC, partially abrogated stearoyl LPC-mediated suppression of HMGB1 release. Thus, stearoyl LPC confers protection against lethal experimental sepsis partly by facilitating the elimination of the invading pathogens and partly by inhibiting endotoxin-induced release of a late proinflammatory cytokine, HMGB1.
Critical Care Medicine. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15699844
The neuroendocrine response to hemorrhage is to maintain perfusion to the heart and brain, often at the expense of other organ systems. Systemic inflammation and tissue injury are important components of pathophysiologic consequences of hemorrhage. We have recently shown that administration of adrenomedullin (AM, a potent vasodilator peptide) and adrenomedullin binding protein-1 (AMBP-1) prevented the transition from the hyperdynamic to the hypodynamic stage in the progression of sepsis. However, the effect of AM/AMBP-1 on the inflammatory response after hemorrhage remains unknown. We therefore hypothesized that administration of AM/AMBP-1 during fluid resuscitation in hemorrhaged animals (i.e., posttreatment) attenuates tissue injury and the proinflammatory response.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology. Jul, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15734795
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein present in the nuclei and cytoplasm of nearly all cell types. We recently discovered that HMGB1 is secreted into the extracellular milieu and acts as a proinflammatory cytokine. Administration of HMGB1 to normal animals causes inflammatory responses, including fever, weight loss and anorexia, acute lung injury, epithelial barrier dysfunction, arthritis, and death. Anti-HMGB1 treatment, with antibodies or specific antagonists, rescues mice from lethal endotoxemia or sepsis and ameliorates the severity of collagen-induced arthritis and endotoxin-induced lung injury. Here, we give an abridged review of the cytokine activity of HMGB1, its secretion and release into the extracellular milieu, the putative signal transduction pathways, including interaction with cell-surface receptors and intracellular signaling, and its role in several inflammatory diseases. Finally, the therapeutic potential of blocking HMGB1 in the treatment of inflammatory diseases is discussed.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16107957
A considerable amount of research has focused on elucidating the mechanisms by which cytokines synthesized by cells of the innate immune system participate in the life-threatening multiple-organ failure of endotoxic shock. We show here that alphabeta T cells, which are archetypes of the adaptive cellular immune response, suppress the proinflammatory cascade triggered during the early stages of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia. The absence of alphabeta T cells led to the fulminant death of LPS-challenged mice, coinciding with a massive release of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma and a marked reduction in the synthesis of the immunosuppressive cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-positive alphabeta T cells emerging shortly after LPS challenge appear to control TGF-beta synthesis. The neutralization of either TGF-beta or CTLA4 resulted in similar increases in IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha serum concentrations in LPS-challenged mice. These observations suggest that suppressor alphabeta T lymphocytes protect against the proinflammatory cascade unleashed during the innate stages of endotoxemia.
Interferon-gamma Inhibition Attenuates Lethality After Cecal Ligation and Puncture in Rats: Implication of High Mobility Group Box-1
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16205327
Interferon (IFN)-gamma is an important immunomodulatory agent that is stimulated during infection to aid in host defense. However, increased IFN-gamma levels have been implicated as a mediator in various models of tissue injury and endotoxemia. We have previously shown that inhibition of IFN-gamma decreased bacterial load by accelerating peritoneal fibrin deposition in the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of peritonitis. In addition, circulating inflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-6 were reduced by IFN-gamma inhibition. In the present study, we show that administration of IFN-gamma antibody (1.2 mg/kg, i.v.) attenuated mortality after CLP. Administration of this antibody was able to reduce mortality when given immediately after CLP or 24 h after CLP surgery. Mortality in sepsis has been closely associated with increased release of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1). Furthermore, it has been reported that IFN-gamma stimulates the release of HMGB1 from macrophages. Our studies showed that inhibition of IFN-gamma activity in vivo reduced the levels of HMGB1 in peritoneal fluid and serum of CLP rats 24 h after surgery. In addition, the decrease in HMGB1 was associated with an increase in tissue repair as evidenced by histological analyses. These results suggest that the attenuation of mortality in IFN-gamma antibody-treated rats was associated with a decrease in HMGB1 release.
More Tea for Septic Patients?--Green Tea May Reduce Endotoxin-induced Release of High Mobility Group Box 1 and Other Pro-inflammatory Cytokines
Medical Hypotheses. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16266789
Despite recent advances in antibiotic therapy and intensive care, sepsis remains widespread problems in critically ill patients. The high mortality of sepsis is in part mediated by bacterial endotoxin, which stimulates macrophages/monocytes to sequentially release early (e.g., TNF, IL-1, and IFN-gamma) and late (e.g., HMGB1) pro-inflammatory cytokines. In light of our recent discovery of HMGB1 as a late mediator of lethal systemic inflammation, and the observation that green tea (Camellia sinensis) dose-dependently attenuated bacterial endotoxin-induced HMGB1 release, we propose that regular tea intake might decrease the incidence of and mortality rates from lethal endotoxemia and sepsis.
The Aqueous Extract of a Popular Herbal Nutrient Supplement, Angelica Sinensis, Protects Mice Against Lethal Endotoxemia and Sepsis
The Journal of Nutrition. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16424112
Despite recent advances in antibiotic therapy and intensive care, sepsis remains a widespread problem in critically ill patients. The high mortality from sepsis is in part mediated by bacterial endotoxin, which stimulates macrophages/monocytes to sequentially release early (e.g., tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interferon-gamma) and late [e.g., high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1)] proinflammatory cytokines. Our discovery of HMGB1 as a late mediator of lethal systemic inflammation has initiated a new field of investigation for the development of experimental therapeutics. A popular Chinese herb, Angelica sinensis (also known as Dang Gui or Dong Quai) has been used traditionally for treating women with gynecological disorders (such as dysmenorrheal and hot flashes). Here we examined the effect of Angelica sinensis extract on endotoxin-induced HMGB1 release in vitro, and explored its therapeutic potential in animal models of lethal endotoxemia and sepsis [induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)] in vivo. We demonstrated that a low-molecular-weight (<10 kDa) fraction of A. sinensis extract significantly attenuated endotoxin-induced HMGB1 release in part through interfering with its cytoplasmic translocation in macrophage cultures. Prophylactic administration of an aqueous extract of A. sinensis significantly attenuated systemic HMGB1 accumulation in vivo, and conferred a dose-dependent protection against lethal endotoxemia. Furthermore, delayed administration of A. sinensis extract beginning 24 h after CLP attenuated systemic HMGB1 accumulation, and significantly rescued mice from lethal sepsis. Taken together, these data suggest that A. sinensis contains water-soluble components that exert protective effects against lethal endotoxemia and experimental sepsis in part by attenuating systemic accumulation of a late proinflammatory cytokine, HMGB1.
Current Opinion in Pharmacology. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16487750
A nuclear protein, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), is released passively by necrotic cells, and actively by macrophages/monocytes in response to exogenous and endogenous inflammatory stimuli. After binding to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) or toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), HMGB1 activates vascular endothelial cells and macrophages/monocytes to express proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. Pharmacological suppression of its activities or release is protective against lethal endotoxemia and sepsis, establishing HMGB1 as a critical mediator of lethal systemic inflammation. In light of the pathogenic role of inflammation in cardiovascular diseases, we propose that HMGB1, a proinflammatory cytokine derived from both injured endothelium and activated macrophages/monocytes, could contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases.
Viral Immunology. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16553546
A nuclear protein, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), is released passively by necrotic cells and actively by macrophages/monocytes in response to exogenous and endogenous inflammatory stimuli. After binding to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), or Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), HMGB1 activates macrophages/monocytes to express proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules. Pharmacological suppression of its activities or release is protective against lethal endotoxemia and sepsis, establishing HMGB1 as a critical mediator of lethal systemic inflammation. In light of observations that many viruses (e.g., West Nile virus, Salmon anemia virus) can induce passive HMGB1 release, we propose a potential pathogenic role of HMGB1 in viral infectious diseases.
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16721263
Cerebral and myocardial ischemia, two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, are associated with inflammation that can lead to multiple organ failure and death. High-mobility group box 1(HMGB1), a recently described mediator of lethal systemic inflammation, has been detected in individuals with severe sepsis and hemorrhagic shock, but its role during ischemic injury in humans is unknown. To determine whether systemic HMGB1 levels are elevated after ischemic injury, a prospective observational study was performed in subjects with a diagnosis of either Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) or cerebral vascular ischemia (transient ischemic attack or cerebral vascular accident). Subjects (n, 16; age [mean], 67+/-16.3 years) were enrolled in the North Shore-LIJ emergency department within 24 h of symptom onset. Blood samples were collected, and HMGB1 levels analyzed by Western blot analysis using previously described methods (Wang et al. Science. 1999). Control samples were obtained from healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers (n, 16; age [mean], 68+/-15.8 years). Here, we report that serum HMGB1 levels were significantly elevated in both myocardial ischemia subjects (myocardial control serum HMGB1, 1.94+/-2.05 ng/mL, vs. myocardial ischemia serum HMGB1, 159+/-54.3 ng/mL; P<0.001); and in cerebral ischemia subjects (cerebral control serum HMGB1, 16.8+/-10.9 ng/mL, vs. cerebral ischemia serum HMGB1, 218+/-18.8 ng/mL; P<0.001). These results suggest that systemic HMGB1 levels are elevated in human ischemic disease.
The Journal of Experimental Medicine. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16818669
Severe sepsis, a lethal syndrome after infection or injury, is the third leading cause of mortality in the United States. The pathogenesis of severe sepsis is characterized by organ damage and accumulation of apoptotic lymphocytes in the spleen, thymus, and other organs. To examine the potential causal relationships of apoptosis to organ damage, we administered Z-VAD-FMK, a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, to mice with sepsis. We found that Z-VAD-FMK-treated septic mice had decreased levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a critical cytokine mediator of organ damage in severe sepsis, and suppressed apoptosis in the spleen and thymus. In vitro, apoptotic cells activate macrophages to release HMGB1. Monoclonal antibodies against HMGB1 conferred protection against organ damage but did not prevent the accumulation of apoptotic cells in the spleen. Thus, our data indicate that HMGB1 production is downstream of apoptosis on the final common pathway to organ damage in severe sepsis.
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16878026
In response to bacterial endotoxin (e.g., LPS) or endogenous proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF and IL-1beta), innate immune cells release HMGB1, a late cytokine mediator of lethal endotoxemia and sepsis. The delayed kinetics of HMGB1 release makes it an attractive therapeutic target with a wider window of opportunity for the treatment of lethal systemic inflammation. However, the receptor(s) responsible for HMGB1-mediated production of proinflammatory cytokines has not been well characterized. Here we demonstrate that in human whole blood, neutralizing antibodies against Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, but not TLR2 or receptor for advanced glycation end product) dose-dependently attenuate HMGB1-induced IL-8 release. Similarly, in primary human macrophages, HMGB1-induced TNF release is dose-dependently inhibited by anti-TLR4 antibodies. In primary macrophages from knockout mice, HMGB1 activates significantly less TNF release in cells obtained from MyD88 and TLR4 knockout mice as compared with cells from TLR2 knockout and wild-type controls. However, in human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with TLR2 or TLR4, HMGB1 effectively induces IL-8 release only from TLR2 overexpressing cells. Consistently, anti-TLR2 antibodies dose-dependently attenuate HMGB1-induced IL-8 release in human embryonic kidney/TLR2-expressing cells and markedly reduce HMGB1 cell surface binding on murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells. Taken together, our data suggest that there is a differential usage of TLR2 and TLR4 in HMGB1 signaling in primary cells and in established cell lines, adding complexity to studies of HMGB1 signaling which was not previously expected.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17135572
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) can be actively secreted by macrophages/monocytes in response to exogenous and endogenous inflammatory stimuli (such as bacterial endotoxin, TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IFN-gamma) or passively released by necrotic cells and mediates innate and adaptive inflammatory responses to infection and injury. Here, we demonstrated that a reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), induces active and passive HMGB1 release from macrophage and monocyte cultures in a time- and dose-dependent manner. At nontoxic doses (e.g., 0.0125-0.125 mM), H(2)O(2) induced HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation and active release within 3-24 h. At higher concentrations (e.g., 0.25 mM), however, H(2)O(2) exhibited cytotoxicity to macrophage and monocyte cell cultures and consequently, triggered active and passive HMGB1 release. In addition, H(2)O(2) stimulated potential interaction of HMGB1 with a nuclear export factor, chromosome region maintenance (CRM1), in macrophage/monocyte cultures. Inhibitors specific for the JNK (SP600125) and MEK (PD98059), but not p38 MAPK (SB203580), abrogated H(2)O(2)-induced, active HMGB1 release. Together, these data establish an important role for oxidative stress in inducing active HMGB1 release, potentially through a MAPK- and CRM1-dependent mechanism.
A Cardiovascular Drug Rescues Mice from Lethal Sepsis by Selectively Attenuating a Late-acting Proinflammatory Mediator, High Mobility Group Box 1
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17339485
The pathogenesis of sepsis is mediated in part by bacterial endotoxin, which stimulates macrophages/monocytes to sequentially release early (e.g., TNF, IL-1, and IFN-gamma) and late (e.g., high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein) proinflammatory cytokines. The recent discovery of HMGB1 as a late mediator of lethal sepsis has prompted investigation for development of new experimental therapeutics. We found that many steroidal drugs (such as dexamethasone and cortisone) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and indomethacin) failed to influence endotoxin-induced HMGB1 release even at superpharmacological concentrations (up to 10-25 microM). However, several steroid-like pigments (tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, and cryptotanshinone) of a popular Chinese herb, Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), dose dependently attenuated endotoxin-induced HMGB1 release in macrophage/monocyte cultures. A water-soluble tanshinone IIA sodium sulfonate derivative (TSNIIA-SS), which has been widely used as a Chinese medicine for patients with cardiovascular disorders, selectively abrogated endotoxin-induced HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation and release in a glucocorticoid receptor-independent manner. Administration of TSNIIA-SS significantly protected mice against lethal endotoxemia and rescued mice from lethal sepsis even when the first dose was given 24 h after the onset of sepsis. The therapeutic effects were partly attributable to attenuation of systemic accumulation of HMGB1 (but not TNF and NO) and improvement of cardiovascular physiologic parameters (e.g., decrease in total peripheral vascular resistance and increase in cardiac stroke volume) in septic animals. Taken together, these data re-enforce the pathogenic role of HMGB1 in lethal sepsis, and support a therapeutic potential for TSNIIA-SS in the treatment of human sepsis.
Novartis Foundation Symposium. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17380789
Despite recent advances in antibiotic therapy and intensive care, sepsis remains the most common cause of death in the intensive care units, claiming approximately 225000 victims annually in the USA alone. The pathogenesis of sepsis is attributable, at least in part, to dysregulated systemic inflammatory responses characterized by excessive accumulation of various proinflammatory cytokines. A ubiquitous nuclear protein, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), is released by activated macrophages/monocytes, and functions as a late mediator of lethal endotoxaemia and sepsis. First, circulating HMGB1 levels are elevated in a delayed fashion (after 16-32h) in endotoxaemic and septic animals. Second, administration of recombinant HMGB1 to mice recapitulates many clinical signs of sepsis, including fever, derangement of intestinal barrier function, lung injury and lethal multiple organ failure. Third, administration of anti-HMGB1 antibodies or inhibitors (e.g. ethyl pyruvate, nicotine, stearoyl lysophosphatidylcholine and Chinese herbs such as Angelica sinensis) protects mice against lethal endotoxaemia, and rescues mice from lethal experimental sepsis even when the first doses are given 24 hours after onset of sepsis. Taken together, these experimental data establish HMGB1 as a late mediator of lethal endotoxaemia and sepsis with a wider therapeutic window for the clinical management of lethal systemic inflammatory diseases.
Nuclear Heat Shock Protein 72 As a Negative Regulator of Oxidative Stress (hydrogen Peroxide)-induced HMGB1 Cytoplasmic Translocation and Release
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17513788
In response to inflammatory stimuli (e.g., endotoxin, proinflammatory cytokines) or oxidative stress, macrophages actively release a ubiquitous nuclear protein, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), to sustain an inflammatory response to infection or injury. In this study, we demonstrated mild heat shock (e.g., 42.5 degrees C, 1 h), or enhanced expression of heat shock protein (Hsp) 72 (by gene transfection) similarly rendered macrophages resistant to oxidative stress-induced HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation and release. In response to oxidative stress, cytoplasmic Hsp72 translocated to the nucleus, where it interacted with nuclear proteins including HMGB1. Genetic deletion of the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) or the peptide binding domain (PBD) from Hsp72 abolished oxidative stress-induced nuclear translocation of Hsp72-DeltaNLS (but not Hsp72-DeltaPBD), and prevented oxidative stress-induced Hsp72-DeltaPBD-HMGB1 interaction in the nucleus. Furthermore, impairment of Hsp72-DeltaNLS nuclear translocation, or Hsp72-DeltaPBD-HMGB1 interaction in the nucleus, abrogated Hsp72-mediated suppression of HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation and release. Taken together, these experimental data support a novel role for nuclear Hsp72 as a negative regulator of oxidative stress-induced HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation and release.
Blood. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17548579
CpG-DNA or its synthetic analog CpG-ODN activates innate immunity through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). However, the mechanism of TLR9 activation by CpG-DNA remains elusive. Here we have identified HMGB1 as a CpG-ODN-binding protein. HMGB1 interacts and preassociates with TLR9 in the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC), and hastens TLR9's redistribution to early endosomes in response to CpG-ODN. CpG-ODN stimulates macrophages and dendritic cells to secrete HMGB1; in turn, extracellular HMGB1 accelerates the delivery of CpG-ODNs to its receptor, leading to a TLR9-dependent augmentation of IL-6, IL-12, and TNFalpha secretion. Loss of HMGB1 leads to a defect in the IL-6, IL-12, TNFalpha, and iNOS response to CpG-ODN. However, lack of intracellular TLR9-associated HMGB1 can be compensated by extracellular HMGB1. Thus, the DNA-binding protein HMGB1 shuttles in and out of immune cells and regulates inflammatory responses to CpG-DNA.
The Anti-inflammatory Effects of Heat Shock Protein 72 Involve Inhibition of High-mobility-group Box 1 Release and Proinflammatory Function in Macrophages
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17617616
High-mobility-group box 1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein, has recently been identified as an important mediator of local and systemic inflammatory diseases when released into the extracellular milieu. Anti-inflammatory regulation by the stress response is an effective autoprotective mechanism when the host encounters harmful stimuli, but the mechanism of action remains incompletely delineated. In this study, we demonstrate that increases in levels of a major stress-inducible protein, heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) by gene transfection attenuated LPS- or TNF-alpha-induced HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation and release. The mechanisms involved inhibition of the chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1)-dependent nuclear export pathway. Overexpression of Hsp72 inhibited CRM1 translocation and interaction between HMGB1 and CRM1 in macrophages post-LPS and TNF-alpha treatment. In addition, overexpression of Hsp72 strongly inhibited HMGB1-induced cytokine (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta) expression and release, which correlated closely with: 1) inhibition of the MAP kinases (p38, JNK, and ERK); and 2) inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway. Taken together, these experiments suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of Hsp72 is achieved by interfering with both the release and proinflammatory function of HMGB1. Our experimental data provide important insights into the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of heat shock protein protection.
Adrenomedullin and Adrenomedullin Binding Protein-1 Prevent Acute Lung Injury After Gut Ischemia-reperfusion
Journal of the American College of Surgeons. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17660075
Ischemic bowel remains a critical problem, resulting in up to 80% mortality. Acute lung injury, a common complication after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), might be responsible for such a high mortality rate. Our previous studies have shown that administration of a novel vasoactive peptide adrenomedullin (AM) and its binding protein (AMBP-1) reduces the systemic inflammatory response in rat models of both hemorrhage and sepsis. It remains unknown whether administration of AM/AMBP-1 has any protective effects on intestinal I/R-induced acute lung injury. We hypothesized that administration of AM/AMBP-1 after intestinal I/R prevents acute lung injury through downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines.
Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation Reduces Serum High Mobility Group Box 1 Levels and Improves Survival in Murine Sepsis
Critical Care Medicine. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17901837
Electrical vagus nerve stimulation inhibits proinflammatory cytokine production and prevents shock during lethal systemic inflammation through an alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7nAChR)-dependent pathway to the spleen, termed the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Pharmacologic alpha7nAChR agonists inhibit production of the critical proinflammatory mediator high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and rescue mice from lethal polymicrobial sepsis. Here we developed a method of transcutaneous mechanical vagus nerve stimulation and then investigated whether this therapy can protect mice against sepsis lethality.
PloS One. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17987129
The pathogenesis of sepsis is mediated in part by bacterial endotoxin, which stimulates macrophages/monocytes to sequentially release early (e.g., TNF, IL-1, and IFN-gamma) and late (e.g., HMGB1) pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our recent discovery of HMGB1 as a late mediator of lethal sepsis has prompted investigation for development of new experimental therapeutics. We previously reported that green tea brewed from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis is effective in inhibiting endotoxin-induced HMGB1 release.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi = Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Hepatology. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18073062
To investigate whether there is a possible role of pro-inflammatory cytokine high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) causing liver failure in severe hepatitis B patients.
A Pilot Study to Detect High Mobility Group Box 1 and Heat Shock Protein 72 in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Pediatric Patients with Meningitis
Critical Care Medicine. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18090368
To determine whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) or heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) are elevated in patients with meningitis.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi = Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Hepatology. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18578995
To explore the dynamic changes of fetuin-A expression and the influences of the changes on liver damage, hepatocyte apoptosis and inflammation in a mouse fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) model.
Hyperglycemia Aggravates Endotoxin-induced High Mobility Group Box 1 Protein Release: Yet Another Reason Not to Be Too Sweet
Critical Care Medicine. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18664811
PACAP Inhibit the Release and Cytokine Activity of HMGB1 and Improve the Survival During Lethal Endotoxemia
International Immunopharmacology. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18713653
The pathogenesis of sepsis is mediated in part by bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS), which stimulates macrophages/monocytes to sequentially release early (e.g., TNF-alpha, IL-1beta) and late [e.g., high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein] pro-inflammatory cytokines. Specifically targeting early mediators has not been effective clinically, in part, because peak mediator activity often has passed before therapy can be initiated. Recent discovery of HMGB1 as a late mediator of lethal sepsis has provided a new target for the treatment of septic shock. Here, we demonstrate that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), an endogenous neuropeptide, significantly attenuated circulating HMGB1 levels and increased survival in animals with established endotoxemia, even if treatment began after acute cytokine response has occurred. In vitro, PACAP suppressed LPS-induced HMGB1 release from macrophages/monocytes, even when given 2-4 h after LPS stimulation. PACAP also suppressed HMGB1 release induced by TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma. Moreover, PACAP inhibits HMGB1-induced cytokine release in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that PACAP inhibits the release and pro-inflammatory activity of HMGB1 and improves survival during lethal endotoxemia, which confirms this peptide as a candidate for therapy of septic shock.
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18714026
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a critical mediator of lethal sepsis. Previously, we showed that apoptotic cells can activate macrophages to release HMGB1. During sepsis, apoptosis occurs primarily in lymphoid organs, including the spleen and thymus. Currently, it is unclear whether this accelerated lymphoid organ apoptosis contributes to systemic release of HMGB1 in sepsis. In this study, we report that splenectomy significantly reduces systemic HMGB1 release and improves survival in mice with polymicrobial sepsis. Treatment with a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor reduces systemic lymphocyte apoptosis, suppresses circulating HMGB1 concentrations, and improves survival during polymicrobial sepsis, but fails to protect septic mice following splenectomy. These findings indicate that apoptosis in the spleen is essential to the pathogenesis of HMGB1-mediated sepsis lethality.
Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18980707
Sepsis refers to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome resulting from a microbial infection. The inflammatory response is partly mediated by innate immune cells (such as macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils), which not only ingest and eliminate invading pathogens but also initiate an inflammatory response upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The prevailing theories of sepsis as a dysregulated inflammatory response, as manifested by excessive release of inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor and high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), are supported by extensive studies employing animal models of sepsis. Here we review emerging evidence that support extracellular HMGB1 as a late mediator of experimental sepsis, and discuss the therapeutic potential of several HMGB1-targeting agents (including neutralising antibodies and steroid-like tanshinones) in experimental sepsis.
Caging a Beast in the Inflammation Arena: Use of Chinese Medicinal Herbs to Inhibit a Late Mediator of Lethal Sepsis, HMGB1
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19079688
Sepsis refers to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome resulting from a microbial infection, which kills > 225,000 people annually in the U.S. alone. The high mortality of sepsis is partly mediated by bacterial endotoxin, which stimulates macrophages/monocytes to sequentially release early (e.g., TNF) and late (e.g., HMGB1) pro-inflammatory cytokines. Although early proinflammatory cytokines may be protective against infection, excessive accumulation of late-acting proinflammatory mediators (such as HMGB1) may sustain a potentially injurious inflammatory response. Agents capable of inhibiting HMGB1 activities (e.g., neutralizing antibodies) or release [e.g., Chinese herbs, Danggui (Angelica sinensis), Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) and Green tea (Camellia sinensis)] rescue mice from lethal sepsis even when given 24 hours after onset of the disease. Here we review emerging evidence that support a critical role for extracellular HMGB1 as a late mediator of lethal sepsis, and several commonly used Chinese herbs (Danggui, Danshen and Green tea) as potential HMGB1- targeting therapeutic agents in experimental sepsis.
Alveolar Macrophage Suppression in Sepsis is Associated with High Mobility Group Box 1 Transmigration
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18004227
Macrophage dysfunction occurs late in sepsis and is implicated in increased mortality. Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) stimulates transmigration of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1) from the nucleus into cytoplasm of macrophages and subsequent release. Because HMGB-1 release also occurs late, and because one of the actions of HMGB-1 in the nucleus is to enhance transcription factors, we investigated if HMGB-1 transmigration is involved in macrophage suppression in sepsis. Alveolar macrophages were isolated 12 and 24 h from sham controls, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and CLP rats given IFN-gamma antibody (1.2 mg/kg, i.v.). All injections were given immediately after surgery. At 12 h, 60% of cells from sham controls had HMGB-1 located primarily in the nucleus, whereas 35% of cells had diffuse staining in both cytoplasm and nucleus. In CLP rats, HMGB-1 was located predominantly in the cytoplasm of 37% of cells, and 48% had diffuse staining, whereas in IFN-gamma antibody (Ab)-treated rats, HMGB-1 was located predominantly in the nucleus of 56% of cells, whereas 32% had diffuse staining. At 24 h, most cells from CLP rats (82%) had HMGB-1 located in the cytoplasm, whereas in contrast, HMGB-1 was located in the nucleus of 80% and 82% of cells from sham control and IFN-gamma Ab-treated rats, respectively. Gene expression of TNF-alpha was not significantly changed 12 h after surgery, but at 24 h, alveolar macrophages from CLP rats had reduced gene expression of TNF-alpha. Interferon gamma Ab treatment prevented the reduction in TNF-alpha gene expression. TNF-alpha release was not altered at 12 h. At 24 h, LPS-stimulated release of TNF-alpha was decreased in macrophages from CLP rats compared with sham controls. Interferon gamma Ab treatment prevented the decrease in LPS-stimulated TNF-alpha release. The results suggest that alveolar macrophage suppression after CLP is associated with HMGB-1 transmigration out of the cell nucleus and provides evidence that intranuclear HMGB-1 may play an integral role in macrophage activation in sepsis.
Journal of Molecular Medicine (Berlin, Germany). Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19172241
Classical experimental models of hemorrhage are characterized by the use of anesthetics that may interfere with the typical immune responses and pathology of hemorrhage/resuscitation. Thus, therapeutic strategies successful in anesthetized animals might not be beneficial in clinical trials. In this study, we analyzed whether ethyl pyruvate could provide therapeutic benefits during resuscitation in awake (unanesthetized) hemorrhage. Our results indicate that hemorrhage in unanesthetized animals required approximately 25% higher blood withdrawal than anesthetized animals to achieve the same targeted mean arterial blood pressure. Resuscitation with Hextend reestablished circulatory volume and improved survival during resuscitation of awake rodents. Yet, over 75% of the animals resuscitated with Hextend died within the first hours after hemorrhage. Resuscitation with Hextend containing 50 mM ethyl pyruvate protected over 87% of the animals. This survival benefit did not correlate with significant changes in the metabolic markers but with an anti-inflammatory potential during resuscitation. Unlike classical hemorrhage in anesthetized animals, ethyl pyruvate reestablished mean arterial blood pressure significantly earlier than Hextend in unanesthetized rodents. Unanesthetized animals showed twofold higher serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha than anesthetized animals subjected to the same blood pressure. This process was not due to the response of a single organ, but affected all the analyzed organs including the lung, heart, spleen, and liver. Although resuscitation with Hextend failed to attenuate systemic TNF-alpha levels, it inhibited TNF-alpha levels in the lung, heart, and liver but not in the spleen. Unlike Hextend, resuscitation with ethyl pyruvate prevented high serum TNF-alpha levels and blunted TNF-alpha responses in all the organs including the spleen. These studies indicate that the inflammatory responses in anesthetized animals differ from that in unanesthetized animals and that awake hemorrhage can provide advantages in the study of anti-inflammatory strategies during resuscitation. Ethyl pyruvate may attenuate systemic inflammatory responses during resuscitation and improve survival in experimental models of awake hemorrhage.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19265175
The pathogenesis of sepsis is mediated in part by the pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecule bacterial endotoxin, which stimulates macrophages to sequentially release early (e.g., TNF-alpha, IL-1beta) and late (e.g., high-mobility group box [HMGB] 1 protein) proinflammatory mediators. The recent discovery of HMGB1 as a late mediator of lethal sepsis has prompted investigation into development of several new experimental therapeutics that limit release, either blocking HMGB1 itself or its nominal receptors. Quercetin was recently identified as an experimental therapeutic that significantly protects against oxidative injury. Here, we report that quercetin attenuates lethal systemic inflammation caused by endotoxemia, even if treatment is started after the early TNF response. Quercetin treatment reduced circulating levels of HMGB1 in animals with established endotoxemia. In macrophage cultures, quercetin inhibited release as well as the cytokine activities of HMGB1, including limiting the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-kappaB, two signaling pathways that are critical for HMGB1-induced subsequent cytokine release. Quercetin and autophagic inhibitor, wortmannin, inhibited LPS-induced type-II microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 production and aggregation, as well as HMGB1 translocation and release, suggesting a potential association between autophagy and HMGB1 release. Quercetin delivery, a strategy to pharmacologically inhibit HMGB1 release that is effective at clinically achievable concentrations, now warrants further evaluation in sepsis and other systemic inflammatory disorders.
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19333143
Sepsis refers to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome resulting from a microbial infection. The inflammatory response is partly mediated by innate immune cells (such as macrophages, monocytes, and neutrophils), which not only ingest and eliminate invading pathogens but also initiate an inflammatory response by producing early (e.g., TNF and IFN-gamma) and late (e.g., high-mobility group box [HMGB1]) proinflammatory cytokines. Here, we briefly review emerging evidence that support extracellular HMGB1 as a late mediator of experimental sepsis and discuss therapeutic potential of several HMGB1-inhibiting agents (including neutralizing antibodies and steroid-like tanshinones) in experimental sepsis.
Critical Care Medicine. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19531942
We have recently shown that ghrelin, a novel orexigenic hormone, is reduced in sepsis. Ghrelin treatment, mediated through ghrelin receptors in the brain, attenuates sepsis-induced inflammation and mortality. Gut barrier dysfunction is common in sepsis. High-mobility group B1 (HMGB1) increases gut permeability both in vitro and in vivo. However, it remains unknown whether ghrelin has any effects on HMGB1 and gut barrier function in sepsis. We hypothesized that ghrelin decreases HMGB1 release and attenuates sepsis-induced gut barrier dysfunction through central ghrelin receptors.
Molecular Medicine (Cambridge, Mass.). Jul-Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19593412
The pathogenesis of sepsis is partly attributable to dysregulated inflammatory response mediated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) (for example, endotoxin) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) (for example, high-mobility group box 1 [HMGB1]). An endogenous ubiquitous polyamine, spermine, inhibits endotoxin-induced cytokine release in vitro, but its capacities to attenuate sepsis- and HMGB1-induced inflammatory responses was previously unknown. We thus tested the hypothesis that spermine protects mice against lethal sepsis by attenuating sepsis-induced local and systemic inflammatory responses. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of spermine (10 mg/kg, twice daily, for 3 d) conferred a significant protection against lethal sepsis. The protective effects were associated with a significant reduction in peritoneal and serum levels of several surrogate markers of sepsis (for example, Interleukin-6 [IL-6], keratinocyte-derived chemokine [KC], monocytes chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1], macrophage inflammatory protein-2 [MIP-2], tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 [TIMP-1], soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor I [sTNFRI], and soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor II [sTNFRII]) during a late stage of sepsis. In vitro, spermine effectively inhibited HMGB1-induced release of the above surrogate markers in peritoneal macrophages. Thus, spermine confers protection against lethal sepsis partly by attenuating sepsis- and HMGB1-induced inflammatory responses.
High-mobility Group Box 1 Protein Induces Tissue Factor Expression in Vascular Endothelial Cells Via Activation of NF-kappaB and Egr-1
Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19652887
High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), an abundant nuclear protein, was recently established as a proinflammatory mediator of experimental sepsis. Although extracellular HMGB1 has been found in atherosclerotic plaques, its potential role in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis remains elusive. In the present study, we determined whether HMGB1 induces tissue factor (TF) expression in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and macrophages. Our data showed that HMGB1 stimulated ECs to express TF (but not TF pathway inhibitor) mRNA and protein in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Blockade of cell surface receptors (including TLR4, TLR2, and RAGE) with specific neutralising antibodies partially reduced HMGB1-induced TF expression. Moreover, HMGB1 increased expression of Egr-1 and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB (c-Rel/p65) in ECs. Taken together, our data suggest that HMGB1 induces TF expression in vascular endothelial cells via cell surface receptors (TLR4, TLR2, and RAGE), and through activation of transcription factors (NF-kappaB and Egr-1).
Immature Dendritic Cell-derived Exosomes Rescue Septic Animals Via Milk Fat Globule Epidermal Growth Factor-factor VIII [corrected]
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19812188
Sepsis, a highly lethal systemic inflammatory syndrome, is associated with increases of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-alpha, HMGB1) and the accumulation of apoptotic cells that have the potential to be detrimental. Depending on the timing and tissue, prevention of apoptosis in sepsis is beneficial; however, thwarting the development of secondary necrosis through the active removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytosis may offer a novel anti-sepsis therapy. Immature dendritic cells (IDCs) release exosomes that contain milk fat globule EGF factor VIII (MFGE8), a protein required to opsonize apoptotic cells for phagocytosis. In an experimental sepsis model using cecal ligation and puncture, we found that MFGE8 levels decreased in the spleen and blood, which was associated with impaired apoptotic cell clearance. Administration of IDC-derived exosomes promoted phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and significantly reduced mortality. Treatment with recombinant MFGE8 was equally protective, whereas MFGE8-deficient mice suffered from increased mortality. IDC exosomes also attenuated the release of proinflammatory cytokines in septic rats. Liberation of HMGB1, a nuclear protein that contributes to inflammation upon release from unengulfed apoptotic cells, was prevented by MFGE8-mediated phagocytosis in vitro. We conclude that IDC-derived exosomes attenuate the acute systemic inflammatory response in sepsis by enhancing apoptotic cell clearance via MFGE8.
High Mobility Group Box 1 Protein As a Potential Drug Target for Infection- and Injury-elicited Inflammation
Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19906009
In response to infection or injury, a ubiquitous nucleosomal protein, HMGB1 is secreted actively by innate immune cells, and / or released passively by injured/damaged cells. Subsequently, extracellular HMGB1 alerts, recruits, and activates various innate immune cells to sustain a rigorous inflammatory response. A growing number of HMGB1 inhibitors ranging from neutralizing antibodies, endogenous hormones, to medicinal herb-derived small molecule HMGB1 inhibitors (such as nicotine, glycyrrhizin, tanshinones, and EGCG) are proven protective against lethal infection and ischemic injury. Here we review emerging evidence that support extracellular HMGB1 as a proinflammatory alarmin(g) danger signal, and discuss a wide array of HMGB1 inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents for sepsis and ischemic injury.
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19953099
Cerebral ischemia-elicited inflammatory responses are driven by inflammatory mediators produced both by central (e.g., neurons and microglia) and infiltrating peripheral immune cells (e.g., macrophage/monocyte), and contribute to the evolution of tissue injury. A ubiquitous molecule, spermine, is released from injured cells, and counter-regulates release of various proinflammatory cytokines. However, the spermine-mediated anti-inflammatory activities are dependent on the availability of fetuin-A, a liver-derived negative acute-phase protein. Using an animal model of focal cerebral ischemia (i.e., permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, MCAo), we found that levels of fetuin-A in the ischemic brain tissue were elevated in a time-dependent manner, starting between 2 and 6 h, peaking around 24 to 48 h, and returning to baseline 72 h after MCAo. When administered peripherally, exogenous fetuin-A gained entry across the BBB into the ischemic brain tissue, and dose dependently reduced brain infarct volume at 24 h after MCAo. Meanwhile, fetuin-A effectively attenuated (i) ischemia-induced HMGB1 depletion from the ischemic core; (ii) activation of centrally (e.g., microglia) and peripherally derived immune cells (e.g., macrophage/monocytes); and (iii) TNF production in ischemic brain tissue. Taken together, these experimental data suggest that fetuin-A protects against early cerebral ischemic injury partly by attenuating the brain inflammatory response.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20543468
To investigate the effect of high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) on the proliferative activity of human hepatoma cell line HepG2 and its potential regulating mechanism.
A Critical Cysteine is Required for HMGB1 Binding to Toll-like Receptor 4 and Activation of Macrophage Cytokine Release
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20547845
During infection, vertebrates develop "sickness syndrome," characterized by fever, anorexia, behavioral withdrawal, acute-phase protein responses, and inflammation. These pathophysiological responses are mediated by cytokines, including TNF and IL-1, released during the innate immune response to invasion. Even in the absence of infection, qualitatively similar physiological syndromes occur following sterile injury, ischemia reperfusion, crush injury, and autoimmune-mediated tissue damage. Recent advances implicate high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein with inflammatory cytokine activities, in stimulating cytokine release. HMGB1 is passively released during cell injury and necrosis, or actively secreted during immune cell activation, positioning it at the intersection of sterile and infection-associated inflammation. To date, eight candidate receptors have been implicated in mediating the biological responses to HMGB1, but the mechanism of HMGB1-dependent cytokine release is unknown. Here we show that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a pivotal receptor for activation of innate immunity and cytokine release, is required for HMGB1-dependent activation of macrophage TNF release. Surface plasmon resonance studies indicate that HMGB1 binds specifically to TLR4, and that this binding requires a cysteine in position 106. A wholly synthetic 20-mer peptide containing cysteine 106 from within the cytokine-stimulating B box mediates TLR4-dependent activation of macrophage TNF release. Inhibition of TLR4 binding with neutralizing anti-HMGB1 mAb or by mutating cysteine 106 prevents HMGB1 activation of cytokine release. These results have implications for rationale, design, and development of experimental therapeutics for use in sterile and infectious inflammation.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21347455
A liver-derived protein, fetuin-A, was first purified from calf fetal serum in 1944, but its potential role in lethal systemic inflammation was previously unknown. This study aims to delineate the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of hepatic fetuin-A expression during lethal systemic inflammation (LSI), and investigated whether alterations of fetuin-A levels affect animal survival, and influence systemic accumulation of a late mediator, HMGB1.
Biochemical Pharmacology. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21371444
Historically, consumption of Green tea (Camellia sinensis) has been associated with health benefits against multiple diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders. Emerging evidence has suggested a pathogenic role for HMGB1, a newly identified "late" mediator of lethal systemic inflammation, in the aforementioned diseases. Here we demonstrated that a major ingredient of Green tea, EGCG, was internalized into HMGB1-containing LC3-positive cytoplasmic vesicles (likely autophagosomes) in macrophages, and induced HMGB1 aggregation in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, EGCG stimulated LC3-II production and autophagosome formation, and inhibited LPS-induced HMGB1 up-regulation and extracellular release. The EGCG-mediated HMGB1 inhibitory effects were diminished by inhibition of class III phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (with 3-methyladenine) or knockdown of an essential autophagy-regulating protein, beclin-1. Moreover, the EGCG-mediated protection against lethal sepsis was partly impaired by co-administration of an autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine. Taken together, the present study has suggested a possibility that EGCG inhibits HMGB1 release by stimulating its autophagic degradation.
BMC Gastroenterology. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21406085
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a late mediator of lethal systemic inflammation. Acute liver failure (ALF) has been shown to trigger systemic inflammation in clinical and animal studies. To evaluate the possibility of HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation in ALF, we determined whether HMGB1 is released in hepatocytes and end organ in patients with liver failure/injury.
Peripheral Administration of Human Adrenomedullin and Its Binding Protein Attenuates Stroke-induced Apoptosis and Brain Injury in Rats
Molecular Medicine (Cambridge, Mass.). Sep-Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21695352
Stroke is a leading cause of death and the primary medical cause of acquired adult disability worldwide. The progressive brain injury after acute stroke is partly mediated by ischemia-elicited inflammatory responses. The vasoactive hormone adrenomedullin (AM), upregulated under various inflammatory conditions, counterbalances inflammatory responses. However, regulation of AM activity in ischemic stroke remains largely unknown. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of a specific AM binding protein (that is, AMBP-1) in mammalian blood. AMBP-1 potentiates AM biological activities. Using a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), we found that plasma levels of AM increased significantly, whereas plasma levels of AMBP-1 decreased significantly after stroke. When given peripherally early after MCAO, exogenous human AM in combination with human AMBP-1 reduced brain infarct volume 24 and 72 h after MCAO, an effect not observed after the treatment by human AM or human AMBP-1 alone. Furthermore, treatment of human AM/AMBP-1 reduced neuron apoptosis and morphological damage, inhibited neutrophil infiltration in the brain and decreased serum levels of S100B and lactate. Thus, human AM/AMBP-1 has the ability to reduce stroke-induced brain injury in rats. AM/AMBP-1 can be developed as a novel therapeutic agent for patients with ischemic stroke.
Recombinant Human MFG-E8 Attenuates Cerebral Ischemic Injury: Its Role in Anti-inflammation and Anti-apoptosis
Neuropharmacology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 21964436
Excessive inflammation and apoptosis contribute to the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. MFG-E8 is a 66-kDa glycoprotein that has shown tissue protection in various models of organ injury. However, the potential role of MFG-E8 in cerebral ischemia has not been investigated. We found that levels of MFG-E8 protein in the brain were reduced at 24 h after cerebral ischemia. To assess the potential role of MFG-E8 in cerebral ischemia, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). At 1 h post-stroke onset, an intravenous administration of 1 ml saline as vehicle or 160 μg/kg BW recombinant human MFG-E8 (rhMFG-E8) as treatment was given. The optimal dose of rhMFG-E8 was obtained from previous dose-response organ protection in rat sepsis studies. Neurological scores were determined at 24 h and 48 h post-MCAO. Rats were sacrificed thereafter and brains rapidly removed and analyzed for infarct size, histopathology, and markers of inflammation and apoptosis. Compared with saline vehicle, rhMFG-E8 treatment led to significant decreases in sensorimotor and vestibulomotor deficits, and infarct size at 24 h and 48 h post-MCAO. Measures associated with improved outcome included reduced microglial inflammatory cytokine secretion, adhesion molecules and neutrophil influx, cleaved caspase-3, and upregulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), and Bcl-2/Bax ratio leading to decreased apoptosis. Thus, rhMFG-E8 treatment is neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia through suppression of inflammation and apoptosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'.
Current Molecular Medicine. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22292896
Infection and injury are two seemingly unrelated processes that often converge on common innate inflammatory responses mediated by pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs or DAMPs). If dysregulated, an excessive inflammation menifested by the overproduction and release of proinflammatory mediators (e.g., TNF, IFN-γ, and HMGB1) may adversely lead to many pathogenic consequences. As a counter-regulatory mechanism, the liver strategically re-prioritizes the synthesis and systemic release of acute phase proteins (APP) including the fetuin-A (also termed alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein for the human homologue). Fetuin-A is divergently regulated by different proinflammatory mediators, and functions as a positive or negative APP in injury and infection. It not only facilitates anti-inflammatory actions of cationic polyamines (e.g., spermine), but also directly inhibits PAMP-induced HMGB1 release by innate immune cells. Peripheral administration of fetuin-A promotes a short-term reduction of cerebral ischemic injury, but confers a long-lasting protection against lethal endotoxemia. Furthermore, delayed administration of fetuin-A rescues mice from lethal sepsis even when the first dose is given 24 hours post the onset of disease. Collectively, these findings have reinforced an essential role for fetuin-A in counter-regulating injury- or infection-elicited inflammatory responses.
Inhibition of HMGB1 Enhances Bacterial Clearance and Protects Against P. Aeruginosa Pneumonia in Cystic Fibrosis
Molecular Medicine (Cambridge, Mass.). Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22314397
Pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa and neutrophilic lung inflammation significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). HMGB1, a ubiquitous DNA binding protein that promotes inflammatory tissue injury, is significantly elevated in CF sputum. However, its mechanistic and potential therapeutic implications in CF were previously unknown. We found that HMGB1 levels were significantly elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BAL) of CF patients and CFTR(-/-) mice. Neutralizing anti-HMGB1 mAb conferred significant protection against P. aeruginosa-induced neutrophil recruitment, lung injury and bacterial infection in both CFTR(-/-) and wildtype mice. Alveolar macrophages isolated from mice treated with anti-HMGB1 mAb had improved phagocytic activity, which was suppressed by direct exposure to HMGB1. In addition, BAL from CF patients significantly impaired macrophage phagocytotic function and this impairment was attenuated by HMGB1-neutralizing antibodies. The HMGB1-mediated suppression of bacterial phagocytosis was attenuated in macrophages lacking toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), suggesting a critical role for TLR4 in signaling HMGB1-mediated macrophage dysfunction. These studies demonstrate that the elevated levels of HMGB1 in CF airways are critical for neutrophil recruitment and persistent presence of P. aeruginosa in the lung. Thus, HMGB1 may provide a therapeutic target for reducing bacterial infection and lung inflammation in CF.
Exposure of Perfluorononanoic Acid Suppresses the Hepatic Insulin Signal Pathway and Increases Serum Glucose in Rats
Toxicology. Apr, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22387981
Exposure to perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), an increasingly persistent organic pollutant that has been detected in abiotic and biotic matrices, has been demonstrated to cause hepatotoxicity in animals. However, the effects of PFNA on hepatic glucose metabolism have not been fully characterized. In this study, male rats were exposed to 0, 0.2, 1 or 5mg/kg/d PFNA for 14 days to explore the specific effect of PFNA on hepatic glycometabolism and its underlying mechanisms. The results showed that administration of 5mg/kg/d PFNA significantly increased serum glucose and hepatic glycogen in rats. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that PFNA exposure changed the expression levels of several genes related to hepatic glucose metabolism, such as the glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC) gene and the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) gene, which were upregulated, and the glucokinase (GCK) gene and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide (PI3Kca) gene, which were decreased. The protein expression levels of phospho-insulin receptor 1(IRS1), phospho-PI3K, phospho-AKT and phospho-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) were decreased in the livers of rats that received 5mg/kg/d PFNA. The expression of phospho-glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3β, Ser 9) was increased, which explains the augment of hepatic glycogen. Significant increases in hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were found in the livers of 5mg/kg/d PFNA-treated rats. Thus, exposure to PFNA disordered glucose metabolism via inhibiting hepatic insulin signal pathway, accelerating the output of glucose and increasing glycogen synthesis in the rat liver. Furthermore, the oxidative stress induced by PFNA may be involved in this process.