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In JoVE (1)
- Isolation of Mouse Respiratory Epithelial Cells and Exposure to Experimental Cigarette Smoke at Air Liquid Interface
Other Publications (3)
Articles by Hilaire C. Lam in JoVE
Isolation of Mouse Respiratory Epithelial Cells and Exposure to Experimental Cigarette Smoke at Air Liquid Interface
Hilaire C. Lam1,2, Augustine M.K. Choi1, Stefan W. Ryter1
1Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Cellular and Molecular Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh
Pulmonary epithelial cells can be isolated from the respiratory tract of mice and cultured at air-liquid interface as a model of differentiated respiratory epithelium. A protocol is described for isolating, culturing and exposing these cells to mainstream cigarette smoke, in order to study molecular responses to this environmental toxin.
Other articles by Hilaire C. Lam on PubMed
Autophagy Protein Microtubule-associated Protein 1 Light Chain-3B (LC3B) Activates Extrinsic Apoptosis During Cigarette Smoke-induced Emphysema
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20956295
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a debilitating disease caused by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke (CS), which involves airway obstruction and alveolar loss (i.e., emphysema). The mechanisms of COPD pathogenesis remain unclear. Our previous studies demonstrated elevated autophagy in human COPD lung, and as a cellular and tissue response to CS exposure in an experimental model of emphysema in vivo. We identified the autophagic protein microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain-3B (LC3B) as a positive regulator of CS-induced lung epithelial cell death. We now extend these initial observations to explore the mechanism by which LC3B mediates CS-induced apoptosis and emphysema development in vivo. Here, we observed that LC3B(-/-) mice had significantly decreased levels of apoptosis in the lungs after CS exposure, and displayed resistance to CS-induced airspace enlargement, relative to WT littermate mice. We found that LC3B associated with the extrinsic apoptotic factor Fas in lipid rafts in an interaction mediated by caveolin-1 (Cav-1). The siRNA-dependent knockdown of Cav-1 sensitized epithelial cells to CS-induced apoptosis, as evidenced by enhanced death-inducing signaling complex formation and caspase activation. Furthermore, Cav-1(-/-) mice exhibited higher levels of autophagy and apoptosis in the lung in response to chronic CS exposure in vivo. In conclusion, we demonstrate a pivotal role for the autophagic protein LC3B in CS-induced apoptosis and emphysema, suggestive of novel therapeutic targets for COPD treatment. This study also introduces a mechanism by which LC3B, through interactions with Cav-1 and Fas, can regulate apoptosis.
Autophagy Proteins Regulate Innate Immune Responses by Inhibiting the Release of Mitochondrial DNA Mediated by the NALP3 Inflammasome
Nature Immunology. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21151103
Autophagy, a cellular process for organelle and protein turnover, regulates innate immune responses. Here we demonstrate that depletion of the autophagic proteins LC3B and beclin 1 enhanced the activation of caspase-1 and secretion of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. Depletion of autophagic proteins promoted the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria and cytosolic translocation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ATP in macrophages. Release of mtDNA into the cytosol depended on the NALP3 inflammasome and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cytosolic mtDNA contributed to the secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 in response to LPS and ATP. LC3B-deficient mice produced more caspase-1-dependent cytokines in two sepsis models and were susceptible to LPS-induced mortality. Our study suggests that autophagic proteins regulate NALP3-dependent inflammation by preserving mitochondrial integrity.
Autophagy. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21200154
Autophagy, a cellular program for organelle and protein turnover, represents primarily a cell survival mechanism. However, the role of autophagy in the regulation of apoptosis remains unclear. We have observed increases in morphological and biochemical indicators of autophagy in human lung from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Furthermore, we observed induction of autophagic markers in mouse lung subjected to chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Recently, we investigated the role of the autophagic protein microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B) as a regulator of lung cell death. We found that LC3B knockout (LC3B(-/-)) mice subjected to chronic cigarette smoke exposure have reduced lung apoptosis, and resist airspace enlargement, relative to wild-type mice. We therefore examined the mechanisms by which LC3B can regulate apoptosis in epithelial cells. We found that LC3B forms a complex with the death receptor Fas in lipid rafts of epithelial cells, which requires the caveolae-resident protein caveolin-1. Genetic interference of caveolin-1 in epithelial cells augments cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis. Caveolin-1 knockout mice exhibit increased autophagic markers, apoptosis, and airspace enlargement in the lung in response to chronic cigarette smoke. These studies demonstrate that LC3B can promote tissue injury during chronic cigarette smoke exposure, and suggest a mechanism by which LC3B, through interactions with caveolin-1 and Fas, can regulate apoptosis. Targeting the autophagic pathway may represent an experimental therapeutic strategy when designing new approaches to COPD treatment.