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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (4)
Articles by Hilary A. Kemp in JoVE
Generating Chimeric Zebrafish Embryos by Transplantation
Hilary A. Kemp, Amanda Carmany-Rampey, Cecilia Moens
HHMI and Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center - FHCRC
A step-by-step guide to generating targeted chimeric zebrafish embryos by transplantation at the blastula or gastrula stage.
Other articles by Hilary A. Kemp on PubMed
Far3 and Five Interacting Proteins Prevent Premature Recovery from Pheromone Arrest in the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
Molecular and Cellular Biology. Mar, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12588993
In budding yeast, diffusible mating pheromones initiate a signaling pathway that culminates in several responses, including cell cycle arrest. Only a handful of genes required for the interface between pheromone response and the cell cycle have been identified, among them FAR1 and FAR3; of these, only FAR1 has been extensively characterized. In an effort to learn about the mechanism by which Far3 acts, we used the two-hybrid method to identify interacting proteins. We identified five previously uncharacterized open reading frames, dubbed FAR7, FAR8, FAR9, FAR10, and FAR11, that cause a far3-like pheromone arrest defect when disrupted. Using two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation analysis, we found that all six Far proteins interact with each other. Moreover, velocity sedimentation experiments suggest that Far3 and Far7 to Far11 form a complex. The phenotype of a sextuple far3far7-far11 mutant is no more severe than any single mutant. Thus, FAR3 and FAR7 to FAR11 all participate in the same pathway leading to G1 arrest. These mutants initially arrest in response to pheromone but resume budding after 10 h. Under these conditions, wild-type cells fail to resume budding even after several days whereas far1 mutant cells resume budding within 1 h. We conclude that the FAR3-dependent arrest pathway is functionally distinct from that which employs FAR1.
The Identification of Pcl1-interacting Proteins That Genetically Interact with Cla4 May Indicate a Link Between G1 Progression and Mitotic Exit
Genetics. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15082539
In budding yeast, Cla4 and Ste20, two p21-activated kinases, contribute to numerous morphogenetic processes. Loss of Ste20 or Cla4 individually confers distinct phenotypes, implying that they regulate different processes. However, loss of both proteins is lethal, suggesting some functional overlap. To explore the role(s) of Cla4, we and others have sought mutations that are lethal in a cla4 Delta strain. These mutations define >60 genes. Recently, both Ste20 and Cla4 have been implicated in mitotic exit. Here, we identify a genetic interaction between PHO85, which encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase, and CLA4. We further show that the Pho85-coupled G(1) cyclins Pcl1 and Pcl2 contribute to this Pho85 role. We performed a two-hybrid screen with Pcl1. Three Pcl1-interacting proteins were identified: Ncp1, Hms1, and a novel ATPase dubbed Epa1. Each of these proteins interacts with Pcl1 in GST pull-down experiments and is specifically phosphorylated by Pcl1.Pho85 complexes. NCP1, HMS1, and EPA1 also genetically interact with CLA4. Like Cla4, the proteins Hms1, Ncp1, and Pho85 appear to affect mitotic exit, a conclusion that follows from the mislocalization of Cdc14, a key mitotic regulator, in strains lacking these proteins. We propose a model in which the G(1) Pcl1.Pho85 complex regulates mitotic exit machinery.
Current Biology : CB. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15797022
The formation of boundaries between or within tissues is a fundamental aspect of animal development. In the developing vertebrate hindbrain, boundaries separate molecularly and neuroanatomically distinct segments called rhombomeres. Transplantation studies have suggested that rhombomere boundaries form by the local sorting out of cells with different segmental identities. This sorting-out process has been shown to involve repulsive interactions between cells expressing an Eph receptor tyrosine kinase, EphA4, and cells expressing its ephrinB ligands. Although a model for rhombomere-boundary formation based on repulsive Eph-ephrin signaling is well established in the literature, the predictions of this model have not been tested in loss-of-function experiments. Here, we eliminate EphA4 and ephrinB2a proteins in zebrafish with antisense morpholinos (MO) and find that rhombomere boundaries are disrupted in EphA4MO embryos, consistent with a requirement for Eph-ephrin signaling in boundary formation. However, in mosaic embryos, we observe that EphA4MO cells and EphA4-expressing cells sort from one another, an observation that is not predicted by the Eph-ephrin repulsion model but instead suggests that EphA4 promotes cell adhesion within the rhombomeres in which it is expressed. Differential cell adhesion is known to be an effective mechanism for cell sorting. We therefore propose that the well-known EphA4-dependent repulsion between rhombomeres operates in parallel with the EphA4-dependent adhesion within rhombomeres described here to drive the cell sorting that underlies rhombomere-boundary formation.
EphA4 and EfnB2a Maintain Rhombomere Coherence by Independently Regulating Intercalation of Progenitor Cells in the Zebrafish Neural Keel
Developmental Biology. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19135438
During vertebrate development, the hindbrain is transiently segmented into 7 distinct rhombomeres (r). Hindbrain segmentation takes place within the context of the complex morphogenesis required for neurulation, which in zebrafish involves a characteristic cross-midline division that distributes progenitor cells bilaterally in the forming neural tube. The Eph receptor tyrosine kinase EphA4 and the membrane-bound Ephrin (Efn) ligand EfnB2a, which are expressed in complementary segments in the early hindbrain, are required for rhombomere boundary formation. We showed previously that EphA4 promotes cell-cell affinity within r3 and r5, and proposed that preferential adhesion within rhombomeres contributes to boundary formation. Here we show that EfnB2a is similarly required in r4 for normal cell affinity and that EphA4 and EfnB2a regulate cell affinity independently within their respective rhombomeres. Live imaging of cell sorting in mosaic embryos shows that both proteins function during cross-midline cell divisions in the hindbrain neural keel. Consistent with this, mosaic EfnB2a over-expression causes widespread cell sorting and disrupts hindbrain organization, but only if induced at or before neural keel stage. We propose a model in which Eph and Efn-dependent cell affinity within rhombomeres serve to maintain rhombomere organization during the potentially disruptive process of teleost neurulation.