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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (33)
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Virology
- Trends in Biochemical Sciences
- Journal of Virology
- Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Virology
- International Reviews of Immunology
- Genes & Development
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Virology
- Virus Research
- Genes & Development
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Virology
- Molecular and Cellular Biology
- PLoS Pathogens
- Cell Host & Microbe
- Genes & Development
- Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
- Molecular Biology of the Cell
- The Laryngoscope
- Nature Reviews. Microbiology
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Virology
- Otology & Neurotology : Official Publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology
- PLoS Pathogens
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Articles by Ian Mohr in JoVE
A Primary Neuron Culture System for the Study of Herpes Simplex Virus Latency and Reactivation
Mariko Kobayashi1, Ju-Youn Kim1, Vladimir Camarena2, Pamela C. Roehm3, Moses V. Chao2,4,5,6,7, Angus C. Wilson1, Ian Mohr1
1Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, 2Molecular Neurobiology Program, Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 3Department of Otolaryngology, New York University School of Medicine, 4Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, 5Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, 6Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 7Center for Neural Science, New York University School of Medicine
The protocol describes an efficient and reproducible model system to study herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency and reactivation. The assay employs homogenous sympathetic neuron cultures and allows for the molecular dissection of virus-neuron interactions using a variety of tools including RNA interference and expression of recombinant proteins.
Other articles by Ian Mohr on PubMed
Journal of Virology. Nov, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12368348
PACT, a protein activator of PKR, can cause inhibition of cellular protein synthesis and apoptosis. Here, we report that the Us11 protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 can block PKR activation by PACT both in vitro and in vivo. Although Us11 can bind to both PKR and PACT, mutational analyses revealed that the binding of Us11 to PKR, and not to PACT, was essential for its inhibitory action. Similar analyses also revealed that the inhibitory effect was mediated by an interaction between the C-terminal half of Us11 and the N-terminal domain of PKR. The binding of Us11 to PKR did not block the binding of PKR to PACT but prevented its activation. Us11 is the first example of a viral protein that can inhibit the action of PACT on PKR.
Characterization of RNA Determinants Recognized by the Arginine- and Proline-rich Region of Us11, a Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1-encoded Double-stranded RNA Binding Protein That Prevents PKR Activation
Journal of Virology. Dec, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12414939
The herpes simplex virus Us11 gene product inhibits activation of the cellular PKR kinase and associates with a limited number of unrelated viral and cellular RNA molecules via a carboxyl-terminal 68-amino-acid segment rich in arginine and proline. To characterize the determinants underlying the recognition of an RNA target by Us11, we employed an in vitro selection technique to isolate RNA ligands that bind Us11 with high affinity from a population of molecules containing an internal randomized segment. Binding of Us11 to these RNA ligands is specific and appears to occur preferentially on conformational isoforms that possess a higher-order structure. While the addition of unlabeled poly(I. C) reduced binding of Us11 to a selected radiolabeled RNA, single-stranded homopolymers were not effective competitors. Us11 directly associates with poly(I. C), and inclusion of an unlabeled selected RNA in the reaction reduces poly(I. C) binding, while single-stranded RNA homopolymers have no effect. Finally, Us11 binds to defined, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules that exhibit greater sequence complexity. Binding to these dsRNA perfect duplexes displays a striking dependence on length, as 39-bp or shorter duplexes do not bind efficiently. Furthermore, this interaction is specific for dsRNA as opposed to dsDNA, implying that the Us11 RNA binding domain can distinguish nucleic acid duplexes containing 2' hydroxyl groups from those that do not. These results establish that Us11 is a dsRNA binding protein. The arginine- and proline-rich Us11 RNA binding domain is unrelated to known dsRNA binding elements and thus constitutes a unique recognition motif that interacts with dsRNA. The ability of Us11 to bind dsRNA may be important for inhibiting activation of the cellular PKR kinase in response to dsRNA.
Journal of Virology. Jan, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12477828
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) SM protein is a posttranscriptional regulator of viral gene expression. Like many transactivators encoded by herpesviruses, SM transports predominantly unspliced viral mRNA cargo from the nucleus to the cytosol, where it is subsequently translated. This activity likely involves a region of the protein that has homology to the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ICP27 gene product, the first member of this class of regulators to be discovered. However, SM also contains a repetitive segment rich in arginine and proline residues that is dispensable for its effects on RNA transport and splicing. This portion of SM, comprised of RXP triplet repeats, shows homology to the carboxyl-terminal domain of Us11, a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding protein encoded by HSV-1 that inhibits activation of the cellular PKR kinase. To evaluate the intrinsic ability of SM to regulate PKR, we expressed and purified several SM protein derivatives and examined their activity in a variety of biochemical assays. The full-length SM protein bound dsRNA, associated physically with PKR, and prevented PKR activation. Removal of the 37-residue RXP domain significantly compromised all of these activities. Furthermore, the SM RXP domain was itself sufficient to inhibit PKR activation and interact with the kinase. Relative to its Us11 counterpart, the SM RXP segment bound dsRNA with reduced affinity and responded differently to single-stranded competitor polynucleotides. Thus, SM represents the first EBV gene product expressed during the lytic cycle that can prevent PKR activation. In addition, the RXP repeat segment appears to be a conserved herpesvirus motif capable of associating with dsRNA and modulating activation of the PKR kinase, a molecule important for the control of translation and the cellular antiviral response.
Trends in Biochemical Sciences. Mar, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12633992
A variety of viral strategies are utilized for dominance of the host-cell protein synthetic machinery, optimization of viral mRNA translation and evasion of host-cell antiviral responses that act at the translational level. Many viruses exploit regulated steps in the initiation of cellular protein synthesis to their own advantage. They have developed some rather unconventional means for mRNA translation, which were probably adapted from specialized cellular mRNA translation systems. Regardless of the type of translational tricks exploited, viruses typically ensure efficient viral translation, often at the expense of host-cell protein synthesis.
In Vivo Replication of an ICP34.5 Second-site Suppressor Mutant Following Corneal Infection Correlates with in Vitro Regulation of EIF2 Alpha Phosphorylation
Journal of Virology. Apr, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12663769
In animal models of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, ICP34.5-null viruses are avirulent and also fail to grow in a variety of cultured cells due to their inability to prevent RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis. We show here that the inability of ICP34.5 mutants to grow in vitro is due specifically to the accumulation of phosphorylated eIF2 alpha. Mutations suppressing the in vitro phenotype of ICP34.5-null mutants have been described which map to the unique short region of the HSV-1 genome, resulting in dysregulated expression of the US11 gene. Despite the inability of the suppressor mutation to suppress the avirulent phenotype of the ICP34.5-null parental virus following intracranial inoculation, the suppressor mutation enhanced virus growth in the cornea, trigeminal ganglia, and periocular skin following corneal infection compared to that with the ICP34.5-null virus. The phosphorylation state of eIF2 alpha following in vitro infection with the suppressor virus was examined to determine if in vivo differences could be attributed to differential regulation of eIF2 alpha phosphorylation. The suppressor virus prevented accumulation of phosphorylated eIF2 alpha, while the wild-type virus substantially reduced eIF2 alpha phosphorylation levels. These data suggest that US11 functions as a PKR antagonist in vivo, although its activity may be modulated by tissue-specific differences in translation regulation.
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy. Feb, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12718736
Over the past decade, rapid progress has been made in engineering safe, replicating herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) mutants for use as biological oncolytic agents in the treatment of human cancer. While initial efforts demonstrated the potential of HSV-1 mutants as antitumour agents, they relied on viruses that were not sufficiently attenuated. Following its identification as the major viral neurovirulence determinant, mutations in the gamma34.5 gene were subsequently incorporated into oncolytic strains. Despite the fact that gamma34.5 mutant derivatives can be safely administered to mice, non-human primates and humans, their efficacy is limited because, like many weakened viral strains, they replicate poorly in a number of cell types, including cancer cells. Strategies to improve the oncolytic properties of gamma34.5 mutant derivatives through further genetic manipulation are reviewed. In addition, traditional treatment modalities that incorporate viral inoculation, along with efforts to elicit an antitumour immune response following treatment with gamma34.5 derivatives, are discussed.
Association of the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Us11 Gene Product with the Cellular Kinesin Light-chain-related Protein PAT1 Results in the Redistribution of Both Polypeptides
Journal of Virology. Sep, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12915535
The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) Us11 gene encodes a multifunctional double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding protein that is expressed late in infection and packaged into the tegument layer of the virus particle. As a tegument component, Us11 associates with nascent capsids after its synthesis late in the infectious cycle and is delivered into newly infected cells at times prior to the expression of viral genes. Us11 is also an abundant late protein that regulates translation through its association with host components and contains overlapping nucleolar retention and nuclear export signals, allowing its accumulation in both nucleoli and the cytosol. Thus, at various times during the viral life cycle and in different intracellular compartments, Us11 has the potential to execute discrete tasks. The analysis of these functions, however, is complicated by the fact that Us11 is not essential for viral replication in cultured cells. To discover new host targets for the Us11 protein, we searched for cellular proteins that interact with Us11 and have identified PAT1 as a Us11-binding protein according to multiple, independent experimental criteria. PAT1 binds microtubules, participates in amyloid precursor protein trafficking, and has homology to the kinesin light chain (KLC) in its carboxyl terminus. The carboxyl-terminal dsRNA-binding domain of Us11, which also contains the nucleolar retention and nuclear export signals, binds PAT1, whereas 149 residues derived from the KLC homology region of PAT1 are important for binding to Us11. Both PAT1 and Us11 colocalize within a perinuclear area in transiently transfected and HSV-1-infected cells. The 149 amino acids derived from the KLC homology region are required for colocalization of the two polypeptides. Furthermore, although PAT1 normally accumulates in the nuclear compartment, Us11 expression results in the exclusion of PAT1 from the nucleus and its accumulation in the perinuclear space. Similarly, Us11 does not accumulate in the nucleoli of infected cells that overexpress PAT1. These results establish that Us11 and PAT1 can associate, resulting in an altered subcellular distribution of both polypeptides. The association between PAT1, a cellular trafficking protein with homology to KLC, and Us11, along with a recent report demonstrating an interaction between Us11 and the ubiquitous kinesin heavy chain (R. J. Diefenbach et al., J. Virol. 76:3282-3291, 2002), suggests that these associations may be important for the intracellular movement of viral components.
Regulation of EIF2alpha Phosphorylation by Different Functions That Act During Discrete Phases in the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Life Cycle
Journal of Virology. Oct, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14512542
Multiple herpes simplex virus type 1 functions control translation by regulating phosphorylation of the initiation factor eIF2 on its alpha subunit. Both of the two known regulators, the gamma(1)34.5 and Us11 gene products, are produced late in the viral life cycle, although the gamma(1)34.5 gene is expressed prior to the gamma(2) Us11 gene, as gamma(2) genes require viral DNA replication for their expression while gamma(1) genes do not. The gamma(1)34.5 protein, through a GADD34-related domain, binds a cellular phosphatase (PP1alpha), maintaining pools of active, unphosphorylated eIF2. Infection of a variety of cultured cells with a gamma(1)34.5 mutant virus results in the accumulation of phosphorylated eIF2alpha and the inhibition of translation prior to the completion of the viral lytic program. Ectopic, immediate-early Us11 expression prevents eIF2alpha phosphorylation and the inhibition of translation observed in cells infected with a gamma(1)34.5 mutant by inhibiting activation of the cellular kinase PKR and the subsequent phosphorylation of eIF2alpha; however, a requirement for the Us11 protein, produced in its natural context as a gamma(2) polypeptide, remains to be demonstrated. To determine if Us11 regulates late translation, we generated two Us11 null viruses. In cells infected with a Us11 mutant, elevated levels of activated PKR and phosphorylated eIF2alpha were detected, viral translation rates were reduced 6- to 7-fold, and viral replication was reduced 13-fold compared to replication in cells infected with either wild-type virus or a virus in which the Us11 mutation was repaired. This establishes that the Us11 protein is critical for proper late translation rates. Moreover, it demonstrates that the shutoff of protein synthesis observed in cells infected with a gamma(1)34.5 mutant virus, previously ascribed solely to the gamma(1)34.5 mutation, actually results from the combined loss of gamma(1)34.5 and Us11 functions, as the gamma(2) Us11 mRNA is not translated in cells infected with a gamma(1)34.5 mutant.
International Reviews of Immunology. Jan-Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14690861
Lytic replication of many viruses activates an innate host response designed to prevent the completion of the viral lifecycle, thus impeding the spread of the infection. One branch of the host's complex reaction functions to incapacitate the cellular translational machinery on which the synthesis of viral polypeptides completely depends. This is achieved through the activation of specific protein kinases that phosphorylate eIF2 on its alpha subunit and inactivate this critical translation initiation factor. However, as continued synthesis of viral proteins is required to assemble the viral progeny necessary to transmit the infection to neighboring cells, viruses have developed a variety of strategies to counter this cellular response. Genetic and biochemical studies with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) have revealed that the virus produces at least two discrete products at different times during its replicative program that act to prevent the accumulation of phosphorylated eIF2alpha. The gamma(1)34.5 gene product is expressed first, encoding a regulatory subunit that binds the cellular protein phosphatase 1alpha and regenerates pools of active eIF2 by removing the inhibitory phosphate from the alpha subunit. The second function, encoded by the product of the Us11 gene, specifies a double-stranded RNA-binding protein that prevents activation of PKR, a cellular eIF2alpha kinase. Together, both proteins cooperate to overcome the antiviral response of the host and properly regulate translation in HSV-1-infected cells.
Genes & Development. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15075293
Although the activity of the translation initiation factor eIF4F is regulated in part by translational repressors (4E-BPs) that prevent incorporation of eIF4E, the cap-binding protein, into the initiation complex, the contribution of eIF4E phosphorylation to translational control remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate that the herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) ICP0 gene product, a multifunctional transactivator of viral gene expression with ubiquitin E3 ligase activity that is important for vegetative replication and reactivation of latent infections, is required to stimulate phosphorylation of eIF4E as well as 4E-BP1, and promote assembly of eIF4F complexes in infected cells. Furthermore, 4E-BP1 is degraded by the proteasome in an ICP0-dependent manner, establishing that the proteasome can control 4E-BP1 steady-state levels. Preventing eIF4E phosphorylation by inhibiting the eIF4E kinase mnk-1 dramatically reduced viral replication and the translation of viral polypeptides in quiescent cells, providing the first evidence that phosphorylation of eIF4E by mnk-1 is critical for viral protein synthesis and replication. Thus, in marked contrast to many viruses that inactivate eIF4F, HSV-1 stimulates eIF4F complex assembly in quiescent, differentiated cells; moreover, this is important for viral replication, and may be crucial for HSV-1 to initiate its productive growth cycle in resting cells, such as latently infected neurons.
Full Resistance of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1-infected Primary Human Cells to Alpha Interferon Requires Both the Us11 and Gamma(1)34.5 Gene Products
Journal of Virology. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15331752
The gamma(1)34.5 gene product is important for the resistance of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) to interferon. However, since the inhibition of protein synthesis observed in cells infected with a gamma(1)34.5 mutant virus results from the combined loss of the gamma(1)34.5 gene product and the failure to translate the late Us11 mRNA, we sought to characterize the relative interferon sensitivity of mutants unable to produce either the Us11 or the gamma(1)34.5 polypeptide. We now demonstrate that primary human cells infected with a Us11 mutant virus are hypersensitive to alpha interferon, arresting translation upon entry into the late phase of the viral life cycle. Furthermore, immediate-early expression of Us11 by a gamma(1)34.5 deletion mutant is sufficient to render translation resistant to alpha interferon. Finally, we establish that the Us11 gene product is required for wild-type levels of replication in alpha interferon-treated cells and, along with the gamma(1)34.5 gene, is an HSV-1-encoded interferon resistance determinant.
Regulation of the Translation Initiation Factor EIF4F by Multiple Mechanisms in Human Cytomegalovirus-infected Cells
Journal of Virology. Jul, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15956551
As a viral opportunistic pathogen associated with serious disease among the immunocompromised and congenital defects in newborns, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) must engage the translational machinery within its host cell to synthesize the viral proteins required for its productive growth. However, unlike many viruses, HCMV does not suppress the translation of host polypeptides. Here, we examine how HCMV regulates the cellular cap recognition complex eIF4F, a critical component of the cellular translation initiation apparatus that recruits the 40S ribosome to the 5' end of the mRNA. This study establishes that the cap binding protein eIF4E, together with the translational repressor 4E-BP1, are both phosphorylated early in the productive viral growth cycle and that the activity of the cellular eIF4E kinase, mnk, is critical for efficient viral replication. Furthermore, HCMV replication also induces an increase in the overall abundance of eIF4F components and promotes assembly of eIF4F complexes. Notably, increasing the abundance of select eIF4F core components and associated factors alters the ratio of active eIF4F complexes in relation to the 4E-BP1 translational repressor, illustrating a new strategy through which members of the herpesvirus family enhance eIF4F activity during their replicative cycle.
To Replicate or Not to Replicate: Achieving Selective Oncolytic Virus Replication in Cancer Cells Through Translational Control
Oncogene. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16299530
To ensure that their mRNAs are translated and that the viral proteins necessary for assembling the next generation of infectious progeny are produced, viruses must effectively seize control of the translational machinery within their host cells. In many cases, the ability to productively engage host translational components can determine if a given cell type can support viral replication, illustrating the critical importance of this task in the viral life cycle. Failure to interface properly with the host translational apparatus can compromise the productive growth cycle, resulting in an abortive infection and radically restricting viral replication. Not only have viruses become facile at commandeering this machinery, they are also particularly adept at manipulating cellular translation control pathways for their own ends. In this review, the mechanisms by which numerous viruses manipulate host translational control circuits are discussed. Furthermore, particular attention is devoted to understanding how interfering with the ability of a virus to properly regulate translation in its host can be exploited to generate oncolytic strains that selectively replicate in cancer cells.
Virus Research. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16305812
As they are completely dependent upon the protein synthesis machinery resident in the cells of their host to translate their mRNAs, it is imperative that viruses are able to effectively manipulate the elaborate cellular regulatory network that controls translation. Indeed, this exquisite dependence on host functions has made viral models attractive systems to explore translational regulatory mechanisms operative in eukaryotic cells. Central among these are an intricate array of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events that have far reaching consequences on the activity of cellular translation factors. Not only do these modulate the activity of a given factor, but they can also determine if the translation of host proteins persists in infected cells, the efficiency with which viral mRNAs are translated and the outcome of a systemic host anti-viral response. In this review, we discuss how various viruses manipulate the phosphorylation state of key cellular translation factors, illustrating the critical nature these interactions play in virus replication, pathogenesis and innate host defense.
Genes & Development. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16481474
Recruitment of the 40S ribosome to the 5' end of a eukaryotic mRNA requires assembly of translation initiation factors eIF4E, the cap-binding protein, together with eIF4A and eIF4G into a complex termed eIF4F. While the translational repressor 4E-BP1 regulates binding of eIF4E to eIF4G, the forces required to construct an eIF4F complex remain unidentified. Here, we establish that the herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) ICP6 polypeptide associates with eIF4G to promote eIF4F complex assembly. Strikingly, release of eIF4E from the 4E-BP1 repressor is insufficient to drive complex formation, suggesting that ICP6 is an eIF4F-assembly chaperone. This is the first example of a translation initiation factor-associated protein that promotes active complex assembly and defines a new, controllable step in the initiation of translation. Homology of the N-terminal, eIF4G-binding segment of ICP6 with cellular chaperones suggest that factors capable of interacting with eIF4G and promoting eIF4F complex assembly may play important roles in a variety of processes where translation complexes need to be remodeled or assembled on populations of newly synthesized or derepressed mRNAs, including development, differentiation, and the response to a broad spectrum of environmental cues.
Resistance of MRNA Translation to Acute Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-inducing Agents in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1-infected Cells Requires Multiple Virus-encoded Functions
Journal of Virology. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16840316
Via careful control of multiple kinases that inactivate the critical translation initiation factor eIF2 by phosphorylation of its alpha subunit, the cellular translation machinery can rapidly respond to a spectrum of environmental stresses, including viral infection. Indeed, virus replication produces a battery of stresses, such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress resulting from misfolded proteins accumulating within the lumen of this organelle, which could potentially result in eIF2alpha phosphorylation and inhibit translation. While cellular translation is exquisitely sensitive to ER stress-inducing agents, protein synthesis in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-infected cells is notably resistant. Sustained translation in HSV-1-infected cells exposed to acute ER stress does not involve the interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-responsive eIF2alpha kinase PKR, and it does not require either the PKR inhibitor encoded by the Us11 gene or the eIF2alpha phosphatase component specified by the gamma(1)34.5 gene, the two viral functions known to regulate eIF2alpha phosphorylation. In addition, although ER stress potently induced the GADD34 cellular eIF2alpha phosphatase subunit in uninfected cells, it did not accumulate to detectable levels in HSV-1-infected cells under identical exposure conditions. Significantly, resistance of translation to the acute ER stress observed in infected cells requires HSV-1 gene expression. Whereas blocking entry into the true late phase of the viral developmental program does not abrogate ER stress-resistant translation, the presence of viral immediate-early proteins is sufficient to establish a state permissive of continued polypeptide synthesis in the presence of ER stress-inducing agents. Thus, one or more previously uncharacterized viral functions exist to counteract the accumulation of phosphorylated eIF2alpha in response to ER stress in HSV-1-infected cells.
Journal of Virology. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17079296
Viral pathogenesis depends on a suitable milieu in target host cells permitting viral gene expression, propagation, and spread. In many instances, viral genomes can be manipulated to select for propagation in certain tissues or cell types. This has been achieved for the neurotropic poliovirus (PV) by exchange of the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES), which is responsible for translation of the uncapped plus-strand RNA genome. The IRES of human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2) confers neuron-specific replication deficits to PV but has no effect on viral propagation in malignant glioma cells. We report here that placing the critical gamma(1)34.5 virulence genes of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) under translation control of the HRV2 IRES results in neuroattenuation in mice. In contrast, IRES insertion permits HSV propagation in malignant glioma cell lines that do not support replication of HSV recombinants carrying gamma(1)34.5 deletions. Our observations indicate that the conditions for alternative translation initiation at the HRV2 IRES in malignant glioma cells differ from those in normal central nervous system (CNS) cells. Picornavirus regulatory sequences mediating cell type-specific gene expression in the CNS can be utilized to target cancerous cells at the level of translation regulation outside their natural context.
Maintenance of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Homeostasis in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1-infected Cells Through the Association of a Viral Glycoprotein with PERK, a Cellular ER Stress Sensor
Journal of Virology. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17229688
In the efforts of viruses to dominate and control critical cellular pathways, viruses generate considerable intracellular stress within their hosts. In particular, the capacity of resident endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones to properly process the acute increase in client protein load is significantly challenged. Such alterations typically induce the unfolded protein response, one component of which acts through IRE1 to restore ER homeostasis by expanding the folding capabilities, whereas the other arm activates the eIF-2alpha (alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2) kinase PERK to transiently arrest production of new polypeptide clientele. Viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), however, go to great lengths to prevent the inhibition of translation resulting from eIF-2alpha phosphorylation. Here, we establish that PERK, but not IRE1, resists activation by acute ER stress in HSV-1-infected cells. This requires the ER luminal domain of PERK, which associates with the viral glycoprotein gB. Strikingly, gB regulates viral protein accumulation in a PERK-dependent manner. This is the first description of a virus-encoded PERK-specific effector and defines a new strategy by which viruses are able to maintain ER homeostasis.
Inhibition of Cellular 2'-5' Oligoadenylate Synthetase by the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Us11 Protein
Journal of Virology. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17229694
Among the many host genes induced by virus infection and interferon, the eIF2alpha protein kinase PKR and the 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) are both activated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) produced in virus-infected cells. Furthermore, each is a critical component that independently acts to inhibit virus replication and thereby contributes to the establishment of an antiviral state. As part of their tactics to foil host defense mechanisms, some viruses prevent the induction of interferon-responsive genes at the level of transcription. Other viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), can additionally replicate in interferon-treated cells and must also evade the actions of host defense proteins such as PKR and OAS that have been previously synthesized and merely await detection of an activating signal. Whereas HSV-1 gene products gamma(1)34.5 and Us11 are required for viral replication in interferon-treated cells and both act in a temporally coordinated manner during infection to counteract PKR, HSV-1 functions that target OAS have not been described. Here, we demonstrate that HSV-1 infection inhibits 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthesis in interferon-stimulated primary human cells. The OAS-inhibiting activity is generated late in the virus' productive life cycle and requires the Us11 gene product. Moreover, we establish that the Us11 protein is sufficient to block OAS activation in extracts from uninfected, interferon-treated cells. Inhibition of OAS specifically requires the Us11 dsRNA-binding domain, suggesting a mechanism that, in part, relies on sequestering available dsRNA produced during infection. Thus, in addition to PKR and its protein activator, PACT, the HSV-1 Us11 gene product is able to counteract the activity of OAS, a third cellular protein critical for host defense.
Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4F Architectural Alterations Accompany Translation Initiation Factor Redistribution in Poxvirus-infected Cells
Molecular and Cellular Biology. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18250159
Despite their self-sufficient ability to generate capped mRNAs from cytosolic DNA genomes, poxviruses must commandeer the critical eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) to recruit ribosomes. While eIF4F integrates signals to control translation, precisely how poxviruses manipulate the multisubunit eIF4F, composed of the cap-binding eIF4E and the RNA helicase eIF4A assembled onto an eIF4G platform, remains obscure. Here, we establish that the poxvirus infection of normal, primary human cells destroys the translational repressor eIF4E binding protein (4E-BP) and promotes eIF4E assembly into an active eIF4F complex bound to the cellular polyadenylate-binding protein (PABP). Stimulation of the eIF4G-associated kinase Mnk1 promotes eIF4E phosphorylation and enhances viral replication and protein synthesis. Remarkably, these eIF4F architectural alterations are accompanied by the concentration of eIF4E and eIF4G within cytosolic viral replication compartments surrounded by PABP. This demonstrates that poxvirus infection redistributes, assembles, and modifies core and associated components of eIF4F and concentrates them within discrete subcellular compartments. Furthermore, it suggests that the subcellular distribution of eIF4F components may potentiate the complex assembly.
PLoS Pathogens. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19300492
In response to numerous signals, latent herpesvirus genomes abruptly switch their developmental program, aborting stable host-cell colonization in favor of productive viral replication that ultimately destroys the cell. To achieve a rapid gene expression transition, newly minted capped, polyadenylated viral mRNAs must engage and reprogram the cellular translational apparatus. While transcriptional responses of viral genomes undergoing lytic reactivation have been amply documented, roles for cellular translational control pathways in enabling the latent-lytic switch have not been described. Using PEL-derived B-cells naturally infected with KSHV as a model, we define efficient reactivation conditions and demonstrate that reactivation substantially changes the protein synthesis profile. New polypeptide synthesis correlates with 4E-BP1 translational repressor inactivation, nuclear PABP accumulation, eIF4F assembly, and phosphorylation of the cap-binding protein eIF4E by Mnk1. Significantly, inhibiting Mnk1 reduces accumulation of the critical viral transactivator RTA through a post-transcriptional mechanism, limiting downstream lytic protein production, and impairs reactivation efficiency. Thus, herpesvirus reactivation from latency activates the host cap-dependent translation machinery, illustrating the importance of translational regulation in implementing new developmental instructions that drastically alter cell fate.
Nature and Duration of Growth Factor Signaling Through Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Regulates HSV-1 Latency in Neurons
Cell Host & Microbe. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20951966
Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) establishes life-long latency in peripheral neurons where productive replication is suppressed. While periodic reactivation results in virus production, the molecular basis of neuronal latency remains incompletely understood. Using a primary neuronal culture system of HSV-1 latency and reactivation, we show that continuous signaling through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) pathway triggered by nerve growth factor (NGF)-binding to the TrkA receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) is instrumental in maintaining latent HSV-1. The PI3-K p110α catalytic subunit, but not the β or δ isoforms, is specifically required to activate 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and sustain latency. Disrupting this pathway leads to virus reactivation. EGF and GDNF, two other growth factors capable of activating PI3-K and PDK1 but that differ from NGF in their ability to persistently activate Akt, do not fully support HSV-1 latency. Thus, the nature of RTK signaling is a critical host parameter that regulates the HSV-1 latent-lytic switch.
Constitutive MTORC1 Activation by a Herpesvirus Akt Surrogate Stimulates MRNA Translation and Viral Replication
Genes & Development. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21123650
All viruses require cellular ribosomes to translate their mRNAs. Viruses producing methyl-7 (m⁷) GTP-capped mRNAs, like Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1), stimulate cap-dependent translation by activating mTORC1 to inhibit the translational repressor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). Here, we establish that the HSV-1 kinase Us3 masquerades as Akt to activate mTORC1. Remarkably, Us3 displays no sequence homology with the cellular kinase Akt, yet directly phosphorylates tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) on the same sites as Akt. TSC2 depletion rescued Us3-deficient virus replication, establishing that Us3 enhances replication by phosphorylating TSC2 to constitutively activate mTORC1, effectively bypassing S6K-mediated feedback inhibition. Moreover, Us3 stimulated Akt substrate phosphorylation in infected cells, including FOXO1 and GSK3. Thus, HSV-1 encodes an Akt surrogate with overlapping substrate specificity to activate mTORC1, stimulating translation and virus replication. This establishes Us3 as a unique viral kinase with promising drug development potential.
Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.). Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21606676
The cellular protein synthesis machinery is tightly regulated and capable of rapid reaction to a variety of physiological inputs critical in stress-response, cell cycle control, cancer biology, and virus infection. One important strategy for stimulating protein synthesis involves the ser/thr kinase Akt, which subsequently triggers inactivation of the cap-dependent translational repressor 4E-BP1 by an mTOR-containing protein complex (mTORC1). A recent paper demonstrated that herpes simplex virus utilizes a remarkable tactic to activate mTOR in infected cells. Instead of using the cellular Akt, the virus produces a ser / thr kinase called Us3 that doesn't look like Akt, but masquerades as Akt. By making the Akt-like protein unrecognizable, this disguise allows it to bypass the strict limits normally imposed on the real cellular Akt. Importantly, preventing the virus Akt-imposter from triggering mTORC1 inhibited viral growth, suggesting a new way to block herpes simplex virus. This study also raises the possibility that other Akt-impersonators may lurk hidden in our own genomes, possibly contributing to diseases ranging from diabetes to cancer.
Molecular Biology of the Cell. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21737679
Mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) is an essential precursor for mannosyl glycoconjugates, including lipid-linked oligosaccharides (LLO; glucose(3)mannose(9)GlcNAc(2)-P-P-dolichol) used for protein N-glycosylation. In permeabilized mammalian cells, M6P also causes specific LLO cleavage. However, the context and purpose of this paradoxical reaction are unknown. In this study, we used intact mouse embryonic fibroblasts to show that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress elevates M6P concentrations, leading to cleavage of the LLO pyrophosphate linkage with recovery of its lipid and lumenal glycan components. We demonstrate that this M6P originates from glycogen, with glycogenolysis activated by the kinase domain of the stress sensor IRE1-α. The apparent futility of M6P causing destruction of its LLO product was resolved by experiments with another stress sensor, PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), which attenuates translation. PERK's reduction of N-glycoprotein synthesis (which consumes LLOs) stabilized steady-state LLO levels despite continuous LLO destruction. However, infection with herpes simplex virus 1, an N-glycoprotein-bearing pathogen that impairs PERK signaling, not only caused LLO destruction but depleted LLO levels as well. In conclusion, the common metabolite M6P is also part of a novel mammalian stress-signaling pathway, responding to viral stress by depleting host LLOs required for N-glycosylation of virus-associated polypeptides. Apparently conserved throughout evolution, LLO destruction may be a response to a variety of environmental stresses.
The Laryngoscope. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21898423
Vestibular neuritis is a common cause of both acute and chronic vestibular dysfunction. Multiple pathologies have been hypothesized to be the causative agent of vestibular neuritis; however, whether herpes simplex type I (HSV1) reactivation occurs within the vestibular ganglion has not been demonstrated previously by experimental evidence. We developed an in vitro system to study HSV1 infection of vestibular ganglion neurons (VGNs) using a cell culture model system.
Nature Reviews. Microbiology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22002165
Viruses are fully reliant on the translation machinery of their host cells to produce the polypeptides that are essential for viral replication. Consequently, viruses recruit host ribosomes to translate viral mRNAs, typically using virally encoded functions to seize control of cellular translation factors and the host signalling pathways that regulate their activity. This not only ensures that viral proteins will be produced, but also stifles innate host defences that are aimed at inhibiting the capacity of infected cells for protein synthesis. Remarkably, nearly every step of the translation process can be targeted by virally encoded functions. This Review discusses the diverse strategies that viruses use to subvert host protein synthesis functions and regulate mRNA translation in infected cells.
Translational Control of the Abundance of Cytoplasmic Poly(A) Binding Protein in Human Cytomegalovirus-infected Cells
Journal of Virology. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20980505
Irrespective of their effects on ongoing host protein synthesis, productive replication of the representative alphaherpesvirus herpes simplex virus type 1, the representative gammaherpesvirus Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus, and the representative betaherpesvirus human cytomegalovirus [HCMV] stimulates the assembly of the multisubunit, cap-binding translation factor eIF4F. However, only HCMV replication is associated with an increased abundance of eIF4F core components (eIF4E, eIF4G, eIF4A) and the eIF4F-associated factor poly(A) binding protein (PABP). Here, we demonstrate that the increase in translation factor concentration was readily detected in an asynchronous population of HCMV-infected primary human fibroblasts, abolished by prior UV inactivation of virus, and genetically dependent upon viral immediate-early genes. Strikingly, while increased mRNA steady-state levels accompanied the rise in eIF4E and eIF4G protein levels, the overall abundance of PABP mRNA, together with the half-life of the polypeptide it encodes, remained relatively unchanged by HCMV infection. Instead, HCMV-induced PABP accumulation resulted from new protein synthesis and was sensitive to the mTORC1-selective inhibitor rapamycin, which interferes with phosphorylation of the mTORC1 substrate p70 S6K and the translational repressor 4E-BP1. While virus-induced PABP accumulation did not require p70 S6K, it was inhibited by the expression of a dominant-acting 4E-BP1 variant unable to be inactivated by mTORC1. Finally, unlike the situation in alpha- or gammaherpesvirus-infected cells, where PABP is redistributed to nuclei, PABP accumulated in the cytoplasm of HCMV-infected cells. Thus, cytoplasmic PABP accumulation is translationally controlled in HCMV-infected cells via a mechanism requiring mTORC1-mediated inhibition of the cellular 4E-BP1 translational repressor.
Cooperation Between Viral Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 and RTA to Activate a Subset of Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus Lytic Promoters
Journal of Virology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22090118
The four Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded interferon (IFN) regulatory factor homologues (vIRF1 to vIRF4) are used to counter innate immune defenses and suppress p53. The vIRF genes are arranged in tandem but differ in function and expression. In KSHV-infected effusion lymphoma lines, K10.5/vIRF3 and K11/vIRF2 mRNAs are readily detected during latency, whereas K9/vIRF1 and K10/vIRF4 mRNAs are upregulated during reactivation. Here we show that the K10/vIRF4 promoter responds to the lytic switch protein RTA in KSHV-infected cells but is essentially unresponsive in uninfected cells. Coexpression of RTA with vIRF4 is sufficient to restore regulation, a property not shared by other vIRFs. The K9/vIRF1 promoter behaves similarly, and production of infectious virus is enhanced by the presence of vIRF4. Synergy requires the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and C-terminal IRF homology regions of vIRF4. Mutations of arginine residues within the putative DNA recognition helix of vIRF4 or the invariant cysteines of the adjacent CxxC motif abolish cooperation with RTA, in the latter case by preventing self-association. The oligomerization and transactivation functions of RTA are also essential for synergy. The K10/vIRF4 promoter contains two transcription start sites (TSSs), and a 105-bp fragment containing the proximal promoter is responsive to vIRF4/RTA. Binding of a cellular factor(s) to this fragment is altered when both viral proteins are present, suggesting a possible mechanism for transcriptional synergy. Reliance on coregulators encoded by either the host or viral genome provides an elegant strategy for expanding the regulatory potential of a master regulator, such as RTA.
Otology & Neurotology : Official Publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22158020
Reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in geniculate ganglion neurons (GGNs) is an etiologic mechanism of Bell's palsy (BP) and delayed facial palsy (DFP) after otologic surgery.
Urothelial Tumor Initiation Requires Deregulation of Multiple Signaling Pathways: Implications in Target-based Therapies
Carcinogenesis. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22287562
Although formation of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) requires multiple steps and proceeds along divergent pathways, the underlying genetic and molecular determinants for each step and pathway remain undefined. By developing transgenic mice expressing single or combinatorial genetic alterations in urothelium, we demonstrated here that overcoming oncogene-induced compensatory tumor barriers was critical for urothelial tumor initiation. Constitutively active Ha-ras (Ras*) elicited urothelial hyperplasia that was persistent and did not progress to tumors over a 10 months period. This resistance to tumorigenesis coincided with increased expression of p53 and all pRb family proteins. Expression of a Simian virus 40 T antigen (SV40T), which disables p53 and pRb family proteins, in urothelial cells expressing Ras* triggered early-onset, rapidly-growing and high-grade papillary UCB that strongly resembled the human counterpart (pTaG3). Urothelial cells expressing both Ras* and SV40T had defective G(1)/S checkpoint, elevated Ras-GTPase and hyperactivated AKT-mTOR signaling. Inhibition of the AKT-mTOR pathway with rapamycin significantly reduced the size of high-grade papillary UCB but hyperactivated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Inhibition of AKT-mTOR, MAPK and STAT3 altogether resulted in much greater tumor reduction and longer survival than did inhibition of AKT-mTOR pathway alone. Our studies provide the first experimental evidence delineating the combinatorial genetic events required for initiating high-grade papillary UCB, a poorly defined and highly challenging clinical entity. Furthermore, they suggest that targeted therapy using a single agent such as rapamycin may not be highly effective in controlling high-grade UCB and that combination therapy employing inhibitors against multiple targets are more likely to achieve desirable therapeutic outcomes.
Transient Reversal of Episome Silencing Precedes VP16-Dependent Transcription During Reactivation of Latent HSV-1 in Neurons
PLoS Pathogens. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22383875
Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) establishes latency in peripheral neurons, creating a permanent source of recurrent infections. The latent genome is assembled into chromatin and lytic cycle genes are silenced. Processes that orchestrate reentry into productive replication (reactivation) remain poorly understood. We have used latently infected cultures of primary superior cervical ganglion (SCG) sympathetic neurons to profile viral gene expression following a defined reactivation stimulus. Lytic genes are transcribed in two distinct phases, differing in their reliance on protein synthesis, viral DNA replication and the essential initiator protein VP16. The first phase does not require viral proteins and has the appearance of a transient, widespread de-repression of the previously silent lytic genes. This allows synthesis of viral regulatory proteins including VP16, which accumulate in the cytoplasm of the host neuron. During the second phase, VP16 and its cellular cofactor HCF-1, which is also predominantly cytoplasmic, concentrate in the nucleus where they assemble an activator complex on viral promoters. The transactivation function supplied by VP16 promotes increased viral lytic gene transcription leading to the onset of genome amplification and the production of infectious viral particles. Thus regulated localization of de novo synthesized VP16 is likely to be a critical determinant of HSV-1 reactivation in sympathetic neurons.
Poly(A) Binding Protein Abundance Regulates Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4F Assembly in Human Cytomegalovirus-infected Cells
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Mar, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22431630
By commandeering cellular translation initiation factors, or destroying those dispensable for viral mRNA translation, viruses often suppress host protein synthesis. In contrast, cellular protein synthesis proceeds in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-infected cells, forcing viral and cellular mRNAs to compete for limiting translation initiation factors. Curiously, inactivating the host translational repressor 4E-BP1 in HCMV-infected cells stimulates synthesis of the cellular poly(A) binding protein (PABP), significantly increasing PABP abundance. Here, we establish that new PABP synthesis is translationally controlled by the HCMV-encoded UL38 mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1-activator. The 5' UTR within the mRNA encoding PABP contains a terminal oligopyrimidine (TOP) element found in mRNAs, the translation of which is stimulated in response to mitogenic, growth, and nutritional stimuli, and proteins encoded by TOP-containing mRNAs accumulated in HCMV-infected cells. Furthermore, UL38 expression was necessary and sufficient to regulate expression of a PABP TOP-containing reporter. Remarkably, preventing the rise in PABP abundance by RNAi impaired eIF4E binding to eIF4G, thereby reducing assembly of the multisubunit initiation factor eIF4F, viral protein production, and replication. This finding demonstrates that viruses can increase host translation initiation factor concentration to foster their replication and defines a unique mechanism whereby control of PABP abundance regulates eIF4F assembly.