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In JoVE (1)
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Articles by Ibon Garitaonandia in JoVE
Testis Kapsül içinde teratom Üretimi
Suzanne E. Peterson1, Ha T. Tran1, Ibon Garitaonandia1, Sangyoon Han1, Kyle S. Nickey1, Trevor Leonardo2, Louise C. Laurent3, Jeanne F. Loring1
1Department of Chemical Physiology, Scripps Research Institute, 2Department of Chemical Physiology, Scripps Research Institute, 3Department of Reproductive Medicine, University of California
İnsan pluripotent kök hücreler (hPSCs) farklı hastalıkların sayısız tedavi potansiyeline sahiptir. Bu hücrelerin yardımcı vücutta herhangi bir hücre tipinde farklılaşabilmektedir olduğu yatmaktadır. Burada hPSCs arasında pluripotence göstermek için kullanılan deney teratomlar, açıklanmaktadır.
Other articles by Ibon Garitaonandia on PubMed
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17553578
We previously reported a role for the IZH2 gene product in metal ion metabolism. Subsequently, Izh2p was also identified as a member of the PAQR family of receptors and, more specifically, as the receptor for the plant protein osmotin. In this report, we investigate the effect of Izh2p on iron homeostasis. We show that overproduction of Izh2p prevents the iron-dependent induction of the Fet3p component of the high-affinity iron-uptake system and is deleterious for growth in iron-limited medium. We demonstrate that the effect of Izh2p requires cAMP-dependent kinase and AMP-dependent kinase and is not mediated by general inhibition of the Aft1p iron-responsive transcriptional activator. We also show that Izh2p-overproduction negatively regulates Nrg1p/Nrg2p- and Msn2p/Msn4p-dependent reporters. Furthermore, we show that the Nrg1p/Nrg2p and Msn2p/Msn4p pairs are epistatic to each other with respect to their effects on FET3 expression. Finally, we show that the mechanism by which PAQR receptors activate signal transduction pathways is likely to be conserved from yeast to humans.
Heterologous Expression of Human MPRalpha, MPRbeta and MPRgamma in Yeast Confirms Their Ability to Function As Membrane Progesterone Receptors
Steroids. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18603275
The nuclear progesterone receptor (nPR) mediates many of the physiological effects of progesterone by regulating the expression of genes, however, progesterone also exerts non-transcriptional (non-genomic) effects that have been proposed to rely on a receptor that is distinct from nPR. Several members of the progestin and AdipoQ-Receptor (PAQR) family were recently identified as potential mediators of these non-genomic effects. Membranes from cells expressing these proteins, called mPRalpha, mPRbeta and mPRgamma, were shown to specifically bind progesterone and have G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) characteristics, although other studies dispute these findings. To clarify the role of these mPRs in non-genomic progesterone signaling, we established an assay for PAQR functional evaluation using heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using this assay, we demonstrate unequivocally that mPRalpha, mPRbeta and mPRgamma can sense and respond to progesterone with EC(50) values that are physiologically relevant. Agonist profiles also show that mPRalpha, mPRbeta and mPRgamma are activated by ligands, such as 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, that are known to activate non-genomic pathways but not nPR. These results strongly suggest that these receptors may indeed function as the long-sought-after membrane progesterone receptors. Additionally, we show that two uncharacterized PAQRs, PAQR6 and PAQR9, are also capable of responding to progesterone. These mPR-like PAQRs have been renamed as mPRdelta (PAQR6) and mPRvarepsilon (PAQR9). Additional characterization of mPRgamma and mPRalpha indicates that their progesterone-dependent signaling in yeast does not require heterotrimeric G-proteins, thus calling into question the characterization of the mPRs as a novel class of G-protein coupled receptor.
Molecular Pharmacology. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19066337
The Izh2p protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs to the newly characterized progestin and adipoQ receptor (PAQR) superfamily of receptors whose mechanism of signal transduction is still unknown. Izh2p functions as a receptor for the plant PR-5 defensin osmotin and has pleiotropic effects on cellular biochemistry. One example of this pleiotropy is the Izh2p-dependent repression of FET3, a gene involved in iron-uptake. Although the physiological purpose of FET3 repression by Izh2p is a matter of speculation, it provides a reporter with which to probe the mechanism of signal transduction by this novel class of receptor. Receptors in the PAQR family share sequence similarity with enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism, which led to the hypothesis that sphingolipids are involved in Izh2p-dependent signaling. In this study, we demonstrate that drugs affecting sphingolipid metabolism, such as d-erythro-MAPP and myriocin, inhibit the effect of Izh2p on FET3. We also show that Izh2p causes an increase in steady-state levels of sphingoid base. Moreover, we show that Izh2p-independent increases in sphingoid bases recapitulate the effect of Izh2p on FET3. Finally, our data indicate that the Pkh1p and Pkh2p sphingoid base-sensing kinases are essential components of the Izh2p-dependent signaling pathway. In conclusion, our data indicate that Izh2p produces sphingoid bases and that these bioactive lipids probably function as the second messenger responsible for the effect of Izh2p on FET3.
Antagonism of Human Adiponectin Receptors and Their Membrane Progesterone Receptor Paralogs by TNFalpha and a Ceramidase Inhibitor
Biochemistry. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19453184
The progestin and AdipoQ receptor (PAQR) family of proteins comprises three distinct structural classes, each with seemingly different agonist specificities. For example, Class I receptors, like the human adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2), sense proteins with a particular three-dimensional fold, while Class II receptors are nonclassical membrane receptors for the steroid hormone progesterone. Using a previously developed heterologous expression system to study PAQR receptor activity, we demonstrate that human PAQRs from all three classes are antagonized by both 1(S),2(R)-d-erythro-2-(N-myristoylamino)-1-phenyl-1-propanol, a ceramidase inhibitor, and TNFalpha, a homologue of adiponectin that functions antagonistically to both adiponectin and progesterone in human cells.
Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19519172
The PAQR family of proteins comprises an intriguing group of newly discovered receptors. Although the agonist is known for 5 of the 11 human PAQRs, most are considered "orphan" receptors. We developed a yeast-based assay system for PAQR receptor activity that can be used to identify agonists for PAQRs of unknown function. Using this system, we found that the proteinaceous hormone adiponectin functions as an agonist of PAQR3, a previously uncharacterized member of this family. This is not surprising given that PAQR3 is most closely related to PAQR1 (AdipoR1) and PAQR2 (AdipoR2), which also sense adiponectin. The identification of adiponectin as an agonist for PAQR3 is of considerable clinical relevance because adiponectin suppresses the proliferation of tumor cells and it has been reported that PAQR3 suppresses tumorigenesis. Thus, the interaction between PAQR3 and adiponectin may help explain the antiproliferative properties of adiponectin.
Nature Methods. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21892153
For some highly endangered species there are too few reproductively capable animals to maintain adequate genetic diversity, and extraordinary measures are necessary to prevent extinction. We report generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from two endangered species: a primate, the drill, Mandrillus leucophaeus and the nearly extinct northern white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum cottoni. iPSCs may eventually facilitate reintroduction of genetic material into breeding populations.
Specific Lectin Biomarkers for Isolation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Identified Through Array-based Glycomic Analysis
Cell Research. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21894191
Rapid and dependable methods for isolating human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) populations are urgently needed for quality control in basic research and in cell-based therapy applications. Using lectin arrays, we analyzed glycoproteins extracted from 26 hPSC samples and 22 differentiated cell samples, and identified a small group of lectins with distinctive binding signatures that were sufficient to distinguish hPSCs from a variety of non-pluripotent cell types. These specific biomarkers were shared by all the 12 human embryonic stem cell and the 14 human induced pluripotent stem cell samples examined, regardless of the laboratory of origin, the culture conditions, the somatic cell type reprogrammed, or the reprogramming method used. We demonstrated a practical application of specific lectin binding by detecting hPSCs within a differentiated cell population with lectin-mediated staining followed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, and by enriching and purging viable hPSCs from mixed cell populations using lectin-mediated cell separation. Global gene expression analysis showed pluripotency-associated differential expression of specific fucosyltransferases and sialyltransferases, which may underlie these differences in protein glycosylation and lectin binding. Taken together, our results show that protein glycosylation differs considerably between pluripotent and non-pluripotent cells, and demonstrate that lectins may be used as biomarkers to monitor pluripotency in stem cell populations and for removal of viable hPSCs from mixed cell populations.
Regenerative Medicine. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22168496
Human parthenogenetic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts obtained from unfertilized oocytes that have been stimulated to develop without any participation of male gamete. As parthenogenesis does not involve the destruction of a viable human embryo, the derivation and use of human parthenogenetic stem cells does not raise the same ethical concerns as conventional embryonic stem cells. Human parthenogenetic stem cells are similar to embryonic stem cells in their proliferation and multilineage in vitro differentiation capacity. The aim of this study is to derive multipotent neural stem cells from human parthenogenetic stem cells that are stable to passaging and cryopreservation, and have the ability to further differentiate into functional neurons. Immunocytochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR, or FACS were used to confirm that the derived neural stem cells express neural markers such as NES, SOX2 and MS1. The derived neural stem cells keep uniform morphology for at least 30 passages and can be spontaneously differentiated into cells with neuron morphology that express TUBB3 and MAP2, and fire action potentials. These results suggest that parthenogenetic stem cells are a very promising and potentially unlimited source for the derivation of multipotent neural stem cells that can be used for therapeutic applications.