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Articles by James H. Henderson in JoVE
Forma Polímeros Memória da Cultura célula ativa
Kevin A. Davis, Xiaofan Luo, Patrick T. Mather, James H. Henderson
Department of Biomedical and Chemical Engineering, Syracuse Biomaterials Institute
Um método para o desenvolvimento de substratos de cultura de células com a capacidade de alterar a topografia durante a cultura é descrito. O método faz uso de materiais inteligentes conhecidos como polímeros com memória de forma que têm a capacidade de memorizar uma forma permanente. Este conceito é adaptável a uma vasta gama de materiais e aplicações.
Other articles by James H. Henderson on PubMed
The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. May, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12826806
Mechanical tensile strain is believed to play an important role in regulating calvarial morphogenesis. To better understand the effects of mechanical strain on pathologic calvarial growth, we applied 10% constant equibiaxial tensile strain to neonatal rat calvarial osteoblast cultures and examined cellular proliferation, cytokine production, and extracellular matrix molecule expression. Mechanical strain markedly increased osteoblast proliferation as demonstrated by increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein. In addition, both transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA expression and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) protein production were increased with exposure to strain. Moreover, mechanical strain induced expression of the extracellular matrix molecule collagen IalphaI. To further explore the relationship between mechanotransduction, osteogenesis, and angiogenesis, we examined the effect of mechanical strain on calvarial osteoblast expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Interestingly, we found that mechanical strain induced a rapid (within 3 hrs) increase in osteoblast VEGF expression. These data suggest that constant equibiaxial tensile strain-induced mechanotransduction can influence osteoblasts to assume an "osteogenic" and "angiogenic" phenotype, and these findings may have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of pathologic strain-induced calvarial growth.
Mechanical Strain Affects Dura Mater Biological Processes: Implications for Immature Calvarial Healing
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Oct, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14504515
The human brain grows rapidly during the first 2 years of life. This growth generates tensile strain in the overlying dura mater and neurocranium. Interestingly, it is largely during this 2-year growth period that infants are able to reossify calvarial defects. This clinical observation is important because it suggests that calvarial healing is most robust during the period of active intracranial volume expansion. With a rat model, it was previously demonstrated that immature dura mater proliferates more rapidly and produces more osteogenic cytokines and markers of osteoblast differentiation than does mature dura mater. It was therefore hypothesized that mechanical strain generated by the growing brain induces immature dura mater proliferation and increases osteogenic cytokine expression necessary for growth and healing of the overlying calvaria. Human and rat (n = 40) intracranial volume expansion was calculated as a function of age. These calculations demonstrated that 83 percent of human intracranial volume expansion is complete by 2 years of age and 90 percent of Sprague-Dawley rat intracranial volume expansion is achieved by 2 months of age. Next, the maximal daily circumferential tensile strains that could be generated in immature rat dura mater were calculated, and the corresponding daily biaxial tensile strains in the dura mater during this 2-month period were determined. With the use of a three-parameter monomolecular growth curve, it was calculated that rat dura mater experiences daily equibiaxial strains of at most 9.7 percent and 0.1 percent at birth (day 0) and 60 days of age, respectively. Because it was noted that immature dural cells may experience tensile strains as high as approximately 10 percent, neonatal rat dural cells were subjected to 10 percent equibiaxial strain in vitro, and dural cell proliferation and gene expression profiles were analyzed. When exposed to mechanical strain, immature dural cells rapidly proliferated (5.8-fold increase in proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression at 24 hours). Moreover, mechanical strain induced marked up-regulation of dural cell osteogenic cytokine production; transforming growth factor-beta1 messenger RNA levels increased 3.4-fold at 3 hours and fibroblast growth factor-2 protein levels increased 4.5-fold at 24 hours and 5.6-fold at 48 hours. Finally, mechanical strain increased dural cell expression of markers of osteoblast differentiation (2.8-fold increase in osteopontin levels at 3 hours). These findings suggest that mechanical strain can induce changes in dura mater biological processes and gene expression that may play important roles in coordinating the growth and healing of the neonatal calvaria.
Bone. Feb, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14962805
It is widely believed that rapid growth of the human brain generates tensile strain in cranial sutures, and that this strain influences the rate of bone deposition at the sutural margins during development. We developed general theoretical techniques for estimating sutural bone deposition rate and strain magnitude during mammalian cranial development. A geometry-based analysis was developed to estimate sutural bone deposition rate. A quasi-static stress analysis was developed to estimate sutural strain magnitude. We applied these techniques to the special case of normal cranial development in humans. The results of the bone deposition rate analysis indicate that average human sutural bone deposition rate is on the order of 100 microm/day at 1 month of age and decreases in an approximately exponential fashion during the first 4 years of life. The results of the strain analysis indicate that sutural strain magnitude is highly dependent on the assumed stiffness of the sutures, with estimated strain at 1 month of age ranging from approximately 20 to 400 microstrain. Regardless of the assumed stiffness of the sutures, the results indicate that sutural strain magnitude is small and decreases in an approximately exponential fashion during the first 4 years of life. The finding that both sutural bone deposition rate and strain magnitude decrease with increasing age is consistent with quasi-static tensile strain in sutures influencing sutural osteoblast activity in a dose-dependent manner. However, the small magnitude of the predicted strains suggests that tissue level strains in sutures may be too small to directly influence osteoblast biology. In light of these results, we suggest other biomechanical mechanisms, such as a tension-induced angiogenic environment in the sutures or mechanotransduction in the underlying dura mater, through which tension across sutures may regulate the rate of bone deposition in sutures.
Journal of Biomechanics. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16154417
We measured the morphology of and performed tensile tests on sagittal sutures from rats of postnatal age 2 to 60 days. Using the properties measured ex vivo and a pressure vessel-based analysis, we estimated the quasi-static strain that had existed in the suture in vivo from 2 to 60 days. Sutural thickness, width, and stiffness per length were notable properties found to be age dependent. Sutural thickness increased 4.5-fold (0.11-0.50mm) between 2 and 60 days. Sutural width increased transiently between 2 and 20 days, peaking around 8 days; at 8 days, mean sutural width was 75% larger than mean sutural width at two days (0.35+/-0.07 (SD) vs. 0.20+/-0.06 mm). Sutural stiffness per length increased 4.4-fold (8.77-38.3N/mm/mm) between 2 and 60 days. The quasi-static sutural strain estimated to exist in vivo averaged 270+/-190 muepsilon between 2 and 60 days and was not age dependent. These findings provide data on the age-dependent sutural properties of infant to mature rats and provide the first estimate of quasi-static sutural strain in vivo in the rat. The findings show that during development the rat sagittal suture, as a structure, changes significantly and is exposed to quasi-static tensile strain in vivo due to intracranial pressure.
Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16849176
The objectives of this study were to determine whether residual tensile strains exist in the dura mater of mammals in vivo, and whether the strains are age-dependent. We made incisions in the parietal dura mater of immature and mature rats, and measured the retraction of the dura mater from each incision. We then used a finite-element model to calculate the strain present in the parietal dura mater of each rat. We found that age-dependent residual tensile strains are present in the dura mater of rats. The mean average residual strain of the immature rats was significantly larger than that of the mature rats (4.96+/-1.54% (s.d.) versus 0.39+/-0.13%, p<0.0001), with the mean strain calculated in the mature rats of the order of the minimum measurement that could be made using our experimental approach. In addition, in the immature rats mean residual strain in the longitudinal direction was significantly larger than mean residual strain in the transverse direction (6.11+/-3.62% versus 3.82+/-2.64%, p=0.0218). Our findings show that age-dependent residual tensile strains exist in the dura mater of rats. We speculate that these strains may reflect the rate and direction of cranial growth and may also influence cranial healing.
Cartilage Tissue Engineering for Laryngotracheal Reconstruction: Comparison of Chondrocytes from Three Anatomic Locations in the Rabbit
Tissue Engineering. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17394383
Tissue engineering may provide a technique to generate cartilage grafts for laryngotracheal reconstruction in children. The present study used a rabbit model to characterize cartilage generated by a candidate tissue engineering approach to determine, under baseline conditions, which chondrocytes in the rabbit produce tissue-engineered cartilage suitable for in vivo testing in laryngotracheal reconstruction. We characterized tissue-engineered cartilage generated in perfused bioreactor chambers from three sources of rabbit chondrocytes: articular, auricular, and nasal cartilage. Biomechanical testing and histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical assays were performed to determine equilibrium unconfined compression (Young's) modulus, and biochemical composition and structure. We found that cartilage samples generated from articular or nasal chondrocytes lacked the mechanical integrity and stiffness necessary for completion of the biomechanical testing, but five of six auricular samples completed the biomechanical testing (moduli of 210 +/- 93 kPa in two samples at 3 weeks and 100 +/- 65 kPa in three samples at 6 weeks). Auricular samples showed more consistent staining for proteoglycans and collagen II and had significantly higher glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content and concentration and higher collagen content than articular or nasal samples. In addition, the delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) method revealed variations in GAG spatial distribution in auricular samples that were not present in articular or nasal samples. The results indicate that, for the candidate tissue engineering approach under baseline conditions, only rabbit auricular chondrocytes produce tissue-engineered cartilage suitable for in vivo testing in laryngotracheal reconstruction. The results also suggest that this and similar tissue engineering approaches must be optimized for each potential source of chondrocytes.
The Laryngoscope. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17690606
Donor site morbidity, including pneumothorax, can be a considerable problem when harvesting cartilage grafts for laryngotracheal reconstruction (LTR). Tissue-engineered cartilage may offer a solution to this problem. This study investigated the feasibility of using Hyalograft C combined with autologous chondrocytes to tissue engineer cartilage grafts for LTR in rabbits.
Low Oxygen Tension During Incubation Periods of Chondrocyte Expansion is Sufficient to Enhance Postexpansion Chondrogenesis
Tissue Engineering. Part A. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19958052
To determine whether low oxygen (O(2)) tension during expansion affects the matrix density, as well as quantity, of cartilage formed, and to determine whether application of low O(2) tension during incubation periods alone is sufficient to modulate chondrogenic expression, rabbit chondrocytes expanded at either 21% O(2) or 5% O(2) were analyzed for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and DNA content, total collagen, and gene expression during expansion and postexpansion aggregate cultures. When cultured as aggregates at 21% O(2), chondrocytes expanded at 5% O(2) produced cartilage aggregates that contained more total GAG, GAG per wet weight, GAG per DNA, and total collagen than chondrocytes expanded at 21% O(2). Less of an effect on GAG and collagen content was observed when aggregate culture was performed at 5% O(2). Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of COL2A1 expression showed upregulated levels of type IIA (an early marker) and IIB (a late marker) during expansion and elevated levels of type IIB during aggregate culture in chondrocytes expanded in low O(2). The application of low O(2) tension during incubation periods of chondrocyte expansion enhances the ultimate cartilage matrix density and quantity, and this enhancement can be achieved through the use of an O(2) control incubator.
Biomaterials. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21224032
Cell culture substrates of defined topography have emerged as powerful tools with which to investigate cell mechanobiology, but current technologies only allow passive control of substrate properties. Here we present a thermo-responsive cell culture system that uses shape memory polymer (SMP) substrates that are programmed to change surface topography during cell culture. Our hypothesis was that a shape-memory-activated change in substrate topography could be used to control cell behavior. To test this hypothesis, we embossed an initially flat SMP substrate to produce a temporary topography of parallel micron-scale grooves. After plating cells on the substrate, we triggered shape memory activation using a change in temperature tailored to be compatible with mammalian cell culture, thereby causing topographic transformation back to the original flat surface. We found that the programmed erasure of substrate topography caused a decrease in cell alignment as evidenced by an increase in angular dispersion with corresponding remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Cell viability remained greater than 95% before and after topography change and temperature increase. These results demonstrate control of cell behavior through shape-memory-activated topographic changes and introduce the use of active cell culture SMP substrates for investigation of mechanotransduction, cell biomechanical function, and cell soft-matter physics.