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In JoVE (1)
- Surgical Transplantation of Mouse Neural Stem Cells into the Spinal Cords of Mice Infected with Neurotropic Mouse Hepatitis Virus
Other Publications (5)
Articles by Jason G. Weinger in JoVE
Surgical Transplantation of Mouse Neural Stem Cells into the Spinal Cords of Mice Infected with Neurotropic Mouse Hepatitis Virus
Kevin S. Carbajal1,2, Jason G. Weinger1,2, Lucia M. Whitman1,2, Chris S. Schaumburg1,2, Thomas E. Lane1,2,3
1Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, 2Sue and Bill Gross Stem Cell Center, University of California, Irvine, 3Institute for Immunology, University of California, Irvine
The transplantation of mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) into the spinal cords of mice with established demyelination is detailed. The preparation of NSCs, the laminectomy of thoracic vertebra 9 (T9), and transplantation of NSCs is outlined along with the pre- and post-operative care of the mice.
Other articles by Jason G. Weinger on PubMed
T Cell Leukemia-1 Modulates TCR Signal Strength and IFN-gamma Levels Through Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Protein Kinase C Pathway Activation
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Jul, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16002684
A signaling role for T cell leukemia-1 (TCL1) during T cell development or in premalignant T cell expansions and mature T cell tumors is unknown. In this study, TCL1 is shown to regulate the growth and survival of peripheral T cells but not precursor thymocytes. Proliferation is increased by TCL1-induced lowering of the TCR threshold for CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell activation through both PI3K-Akt and protein kinase C-MAPK-ERK signaling pathways. This effect is submaximal as CD28 costimulation coupled to TCL1 expression additively accelerates dose-dependent T cell growth. In addition to its role in T cell proliferation, TCL1 also increases IFN-gamma levels from Th1-differentiated T cells, an effect that may provide a survival advantage during premalignant T cell expansions and in clonal T cell tumors. Combined, these data indicate a role for TCL1 control of growth and effector T cell functions, paralleling features provided by TCR-CD28 costimulation. These results also provide a more detailed mechanism for TCL1-augmented signaling and help explain the delayed occurrence of mature T cell expansions and leukemias despite tumorigenic TCL1 dysregulation that begins in early thymocytes.
Decreased Hepatic Futile Cycling Compensates for Increased Glucose Disposal in the Pten Heterodeficient Mouse
Diabetes. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17130482
Despite altered regulation of insulin signaling, Pten(+/-) heterodeficient standard diet-fed mice, approximately 4 months old, exhibit normal fasting glucose and insulin levels. We report here a stable isotope flux phenotyping study of this "silent" phenotype, in which tissue-specific insulin effects in whole-body Pten(+/-)-deficient mice were dissected in vivo. Flux phenotyping showed gain of function in Pten(+/-) mice, seen as increased peripheral glucose disposal, and compensation by a metabolic feedback mechanism that 1) decreases hepatic glucose recycling via suppression of glucokinase expression in the basal state to preserve hepatic glucose production and 2) increases hepatic responsiveness in the fasted-to-fed transition. In Pten(+/-) mice, hepatic gene expression of glucokinase was 10-fold less than wild-type (Pten(+/+)) mice in the fasted state and reached Pten(+/+) values in the fed state. Glucose-6-phosphatase expression was the same for Pten(+/-) and Pten(+/+) mice in the fasted state, and its expression for Pten(+/-) was 25% of Pten(+/+) in the fed state. This study demonstrates how intra- and interorgan flux compensations can preserve glucose homeostasis (despite a specific gene defect that accelerates glucose disposal) and how flux phenotyping can dissect these tissue-specific flux compensations in mice presenting with a "silent" phenotype.
In Brain, Axl Recruits Grb2 and the P85 Regulatory Subunit of PI3 Kinase; in Vitro Mutagenesis Defines the Requisite Binding Sites for Downstream Akt Activation
Journal of Neurochemistry. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18346204
Axl is a receptor tyrosine kinase implicated in cell survival following growth factor withdrawal and other stressors. The binding of Axl's ligand, growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6), results in Axl autophosphorylation, recruitment of signaling molecules, and activation of downstream survival pathways. Pull-down assays and immunoprecipitations using wildtype and mutant Axl transfected cells determined that Axl directly binds growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) at pYVN and the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3 kinase) at two pYXXM sites (pY779 and pY821). Also, p85 can indirectly bind to Axl via an interaction between p85's second proline-rich region and the N-terminal SH3 domain of Grb2. Further, Grb2 and p85 can compete for binding at the pY821VNM site. Gas6-stimulation of Axl-transfected COS7 cells recruited activated PI3 kinase and phosphorylated Akt. An interaction between Axl, p85 and Grb2 was confirmed in brain homogenates, enriched populations of O4+ oligodendrocytes, and O4- flow-through prepared from day 10 mouse brain, indicating that cells with active Gas6/Axl signal through Grb2 and the PI3 kinase/Akt pathways.
Up-regulation of Soluble Axl and Mer Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Negatively Correlates with Gas6 in Established Multiple Sclerosis Lesions
The American Journal of Pathology. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19541935
Multiple sclerosis is a disease that is characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage; it ultimately forms gliotic scars and lesions that severely compromise the function of the central nervous system. Evidence has shown previously that altered growth factor receptor signaling contributes to lesion formation, impedes recovery, and plays a role in disease progression. Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6), the ligand for the TAM receptor tyrosine kinase family, consisting of Tyro3, Axl, and Mer, is important for cell growth, survival, and clearance of debris. In this study, we show that levels of membrane-bound Mer (205 kd), soluble Mer ( approximately 150 kd), and soluble Axl (80 kd) were all significantly elevated in homogenates from established multiple sclerosis lesions comprised of both chronic active and chronic silent lesions. Whereas in normal tissue Gas6 positively correlated with soluble Axl and Mer, there was a negative correlation between Gas6 and soluble Axl and Mer in established multiple sclerosis lesions. In addition, increased levels of soluble Axl and Mer were associated with increased levels of mature ADAM17, mature ADAM10, and Furin, proteins that are associated with Axl and Mer solubilization. Soluble Axl and Mer are both known to act as decoy receptors and block Gas6 binding to membrane-bound receptors. These data suggest that in multiple sclerosis lesions, dysregulation of protective Gas6 receptor signaling may prolong lesion activity.
Loss of the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Axl Leads to Enhanced Inflammation in the CNS and Delayed Removal of Myelin Debris During Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Journal of Neuroinflammation. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21569627
Axl, together with Tyro3 and Mer, constitute the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases. In the nervous system, Axl and its ligand Growth-arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6) are expressed on multiple cell types. Axl functions in dampening the immune response, regulating cytokine secretion, clearing apoptotic cells and debris, and maintaining cell survival. Axl is upregulated in various disease states, such as in the cuprizone toxicity-induced model of demyelination and in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions, suggesting that it plays a role in disease pathogenesis. To test for this, we studied the susceptibility of Axl-/- mice to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis.