In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (22)

Articles by Jason Grant in JoVE

Other articles by Jason Grant on PubMed

Adenovirus E3-6.7K Maintains Calcium Homeostasis and Prevents Apoptosis and Arachidonic Acid Release

Journal of Virology. Feb, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 11799152

E3-6.7K is a small and hydrophobic membrane glycoprotein encoded by the E3 region of subgroup C adenovirus. Recently, E3-6.7K has been shown to be required for the downregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors by the adenovirus E3/10.4K and E3/14.5K complex of proteins. We demonstrate here that E3-6.7K has additional protective roles, independent of other virus proteins. In transfected Jurkat T-cell lymphoma cells, E3-6.7K was found to maintain endoplasmic reticulum-Ca(2+) homeostasis and inhibit the induction of apoptosis by thapsigargin. The presence of E3-6.7K also lead to a reduction in the TNF-induced release of arachidonic acid from transfected U937 human histiocytic lymphoma cells. In addition, E3-6.7K protected cells against apoptosis induced through Fas, TNF receptor, and TRAIL receptors. Therefore, E3-6.7K confers a wide range of protective effects against both Ca(2+) flux-induced and death receptor-mediated apoptosis.

Monophyly and Relationships of the Tribe Exaceae (Gentianaceae) Inferred from Nuclear Ribosomal and Chloroplast DNA Sequences

Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Sep, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12927134

Both chloroplast trnL (UAA) intron and nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences highly confirmed the monophyly of the tribes of the Gentianaceae defined by the recent classification, and revealed the tribe Exaceae as a basal clade just next to the basal-most lineage, the tribe Saccifolieae. Within the tribe Exaceae, Sebaea (except Sebaea madagascariensis) appeared as the most basal clade as the sister group to the rest of the tribe. The Madagascan endemic genera Gentianothamnus and Tachiadenus were very closely related to each other, together standing as sister to a clade comprising Sebaea madagascariensis, Ornichia, and Exacum. The saprophytic genus Cotylanthera nested deeply inside Exacum. Sebaea madagascariensis was shown closer to the Madagascan endemic genus Ornichia than to any other sampled Sebaea species. Exacum appeared as the most derived taxon within this tribe. The topology of the phylogenetic trees conform with the Gondwana vicariance hypothesis regarding the biogeography of Exaceae. However, no evidence for matching the older relationships within the family to the tectonic history could be corroborated with various divergence time analyses. Divergence dating estimated a post-Gondwana diverging of the Gentianaceae about 50 million years ago (MYA), and the tribe Exaceae as about 40 MYA. The Mozambique Channel land-bridge could have played an important role in the biogeographic history of the tribe Exaceae.

The Adenovirus E3-6.7K Protein Adopts Diverse Membrane Topologies Following Posttranslational Translocation

Journal of Virology. Jan, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 14671125

The E3 region of adenovirus codes for several membrane proteins, most of which are involved in immune evasion and prevention of host cell apoptosis. We explored the topology and targeting mechanisms of E3-6.7K, the most recently described member of this group, by using an in vitro translation system supplemented with microsomes. Here, we present evidence that E3-6.7K, one of the smallest signal-anchor proteins known, translocates across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum in a posttranslational, ribosome-independent, yet ATP-dependent manner, reminiscent of the translocation of tail-anchored proteins. Our analysis also demonstrated that E3-6.7K could achieve several distinct topological fates. In addition to the previously postulated type III orientation (N-luminal/C-cytoplasmic, termed NtmE3-6.7K), we detected a tail-anchored form adopting the opposite orientation (N-cytoplasmic/C-luminal, termed CtmE3-6.7K) as well as the possibility of a fully translocated form (N and C termini are both translocated, termed NCE3-6.7K). Due to the translocation of a positively charged domain, both the CtmE3-6.7K and NCE3-6.7K topologies of E3-6.7K constitute exceptions to the "positive inside" rule. The NtmE3-6.7K and NCE3-6.7K are the first examples of posttranslationally translocated proteins in higher eukaryotes that are not tail anchored. Distinct topological forms were also found in transfected cells, as both N and C termini of E3-6.7K were detected on the extracellular surface of transfected cells. The demonstration of unexpected topological forms and translocation mechanisms for E3-6.7K defies conventional thinking about membrane protein topogenesis and advises that both the mode of targeting and topology of signal-anchor proteins should be determined experimentally.

Identification of a Novel Immunosubversion Mechanism Mediated by a Virologue of the B-lymphocyte Receptor TACI

Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI. Jul, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17538121

TACI (transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand [CAML] interactor) is a part of a novel network of ligands and receptors involved in B-cell survival and isotype switching. The TACI protein mediates its effects through CAML, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized protein that controls Ca(2+) efflux. The adenovirus E3-6.7K protein prevents inflammatory responses and also confers resistance from a variety of apoptotic stimuli and maintains ER Ca(2+) homeostasis; however, the mechanism of action is unknown. Here, we provide evidence that E3-6.7K shares sequence homology with TACI and inhibits apoptosis and ER Ca(2+) efflux through an interaction with CAML, a Ca(2+)-modulating protein. We demonstrate a direct interaction between E3-6.7K and CAML and reveal that the two proteins colocalize in an ER-like compartment. Furthermore, the interaction between the two proteins is localized to the N-terminal domain of CAML and to a 22-amino-acid region near the C terminus of E3-6.7K termed the CAML-binding domain (CBD). Mutational analysis of the CBD showed that an interaction with CAML is required for E3-6.7K to inhibit thapsigargin-induced apoptosis and ER Ca(2+) efflux. E3-6.7K appears to be the first virologue of TACI to be identified. It targets CAML in a novel immunosubversive mechanism to alter ER Ca(2+) homeostasis, which consequently inhibits inflammation and protects infected cells from apoptosis.

The CGView Server: a Comparative Genomics Tool for Circular Genomes

Nucleic Acids Research. Jul, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18411202

The CGView Server generates graphical maps of circular genomes that show sequence features, base composition plots, analysis results and sequence similarity plots. Sequences can be supplied in raw, FASTA, GenBank or EMBL format. Additional feature or analysis information can be submitted in the form of GFF (General Feature Format) files. The server uses BLAST to compare the primary sequence to up to three comparison genomes or sequence sets. The BLAST results and feature information are converted to a graphical map showing the entire sequence, or an expanded and more detailed view of a region of interest. Several options are included to control which types of features are displayed and how the features are drawn. The CGView Server can be used to visualize features associated with any bacterial, plasmid, chloroplast or mitochondrial genome, and can aid in the identification of conserved genome segments, instances of horizontal gene transfer, and differences in gene copy number. Because a collection of sequences can be used in place of a comparison genome, maps can also be used to visualize regions of a known genome covered by newly obtained sequence reads. The CGView Server can be accessed at http://stothard.afns.ualberta.ca/cgview_server/

A First Generation Whole Genome RH Map of the River Buffalo with Comparison to Domestic Cattle

BMC Genomics. Dec, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 19108729

The recently constructed river buffalo whole-genome radiation hybrid panel (BBURH5000) has already been used to generate preliminary radiation hybrid (RH) maps for several chromosomes, and buffalo-bovine comparative chromosome maps have been constructed. Here, we present the first-generation whole genome RH map (WG-RH) of the river buffalo generated from cattle-derived markers. The RH maps aligned to bovine genome sequence assembly Btau_4.0, providing valuable comparative mapping information for both species.

The Genome Sequence of Taurine Cattle: a Window to Ruminant Biology and Evolution

Science (New York, N.Y.). Apr, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19390049

To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions in chromosomes have a higher density of segmental duplications, enrichment of repetitive elements, and species-specific variations in genes associated with lactation and immune responsiveness. Genes involved in metabolism are generally highly conserved, although five metabolic genes are deleted or extensively diverged from their human orthologs. The cattle genome sequence thus provides a resource for understanding mammalian evolution and accelerating livestock genetic improvement for milk and meat production.

Characterization of Bovine MiRNAs by Sequencing and Bioinformatics Analysis

BMC Molecular Biology. Sep, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19758457

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of approximately 22 nucleotide small RNA molecules which regulate gene expression by fully or partially binding to their complementary sequences in mRNAs or promoters. A large number of miRNAs and their expression patterns have been reported in human, mouse and rat. However, miRNAs and their expression patterns in live stock species such as beef cattle are not well studied.

Hydroxycut Hepatotoxicity

The Medical Journal of Australia. Feb, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20121691

In-depth Annotation of SNPs Arising from Resequencing Projects Using NGS-SNP

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England). Aug, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21697123

NGS-SNP is a collection of command-line scripts for providing rich annotations for SNPs identified by the sequencing of whole genomes from any organism with reference sequences in Ensembl. Included among the annotations, several of which are not available from any existing SNP annotation tools, are the results of detailed comparisons with orthologous sequences. These comparisons can, for example, identify SNPs that affect conserved residues, or alter residues or genes linked to phenotypes in another species.

Combining Resources to Obtain a Comprehensive Survey of the Bovine Embryo Transcriptome Through Deep Sequencing and Microarrays

Molecular Reproduction and Development. Sep, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21812063

While most assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are considered routine for the reproduction of species of economical importance, such as the bovine, the impact of these manipulations on the developing embryo remains largely unknown. In an effort to obtain a comprehensive survey of the bovine embryo transcriptome and how it is modified by ART, resources were combined to design an embryo-specific microarray. Close to one million high-quality reads were produced from subtracted bovine embryo libraries using Roche 454 Titanium deep sequencing technology, which enabled the creation of an augmented bovine genome catalog. This catalog was enriched with bovine embryo transcripts, and included newly discovered indel type and 3'UTR variants. Using this augmented bovine genome catalog, the EmbryoGENE Bovine Microarray was designed and is composed of a total of 42,242 probes, including 21,139 known reference genes; 9,322 probes for novel transcribed regions (NTRs); 3,677 alternatively spliced exons; 3,353 3'-tiling probes; and 3,723 controls. A suite of bioinformatics tools was also developed to facilitate microrarray data analysis and database creation; it includes a quality control module, a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) and microarray analysis software. Results obtained during this study have already led to the identification of differentially expressed blastocyst targets, NTRs, splice variants of the indel type, and 3'UTR variants. We were able to confirm microarray results by real-time PCR, indicating that the EmbryoGENE bovine microarray has the power to detect physiologically relevant changes in gene expression.

Comparing Thousands of Circular Genomes Using the CGView Comparison Tool

BMC Genomics. May, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22621371

Continued sequencing efforts coupled with advances in sequencing technology will lead to the completion of a vast number of small genomes. Whole-genome comparisons represent an important part of the analysis of any new genome sequence, as they can provide a better understanding of the biology and evolution of the source organism. Visualization of the results is important, as it allows information from a variety of sources to be integrated and interpreted. However, existing graphical comparison tools lack features needed for efficiently comparing a new genome to hundreds or thousands of existing sequences. Moreover, existing tools are limited in terms of the types of comparisons that can be performed, the extent to which the output can be customized, and the ease with which the entire process can be automated.

Development of a Porcine (Sus Scofa) Embryo-specific Microarray: Array Annotation and Validation

BMC Genomics. 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22863022

The domestic pig is an important livestock species and there is strong interest in the factors that affect the development of viable embryos and offspring in this species. A limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in early embryonic development has inhibited our ability to fully elucidate these factors. Next generation deep sequencing and microarray technologies are powerful tools for delineation of molecular pathways involved in the developing embryo.

Molecular Phylogenetics Supports Widespread Cryptic Species in Moonworts (Botrychium S.s., Ophioglossaceae)

American Journal of Botany. Jan, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24401328

Previous phylogenetic studies of moonworts (Botrychium sensu stricto (s.s.)) included few taxa from outside of North America. This low geographical representation limited interpretations of relationships of this group rich in cryptic species. With 18 out of 30 species in the genus being polyploid, understanding their evolutionary history remains a major challenge.

The Mid-South Clinical Data Research Network

Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA. Jul-Aug, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24821742

The Mid-South Clinical Data Research Network (CDRN) encompasses three large health systems: (1) Vanderbilt Health System (VU) with electronic medical records for over 2 million patients, (2) the Vanderbilt Healthcare Affiliated Network (VHAN) which currently includes over 40 hospitals, hundreds of ambulatory practices, and over 3 million patients in the Mid-South, and (3) Greenway Medical Technologies, with access to 24 million patients nationally. Initial goals of the Mid-South CDRN include: (1) expansion of our VU data network to include the VHAN and Greenway systems, (2) developing data integration/interoperability across the three systems, (3) improving our current tools for extracting clinical data, (4) optimization of tools for collection of patient-reported data, and (5) expansion of clinical decision support. By 18 months, we anticipate our CDRN will robustly support projects in comparative effectiveness research, pragmatic clinical trials, and other key research areas and have the capacity to share data and health information technology tools nationally.

An Integrated Platform for Bovine DNA Methylome Analysis Suitable for Small Samples

BMC Genomics. Jun, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24912542

Oocytes and early embryos contain minute amounts of DNA, RNA and proteins, making the study of early mammalian development highly challenging. The study of the embryo epigenome, in particular the DNA methylome, has been made accessible thanks to the possibility of amplifying specific sequences according to their initial methylation status. This paper describes a novel platform dedicated to the genome-wide study of bovine DNA methylation, including a complete pipeline for data analysis and visualization. The platform allows processing and integrating of DNA methylome and transcriptome data from the same sample. Procedures were optimized for genome-wide analysis of 10 ng of DNA (10 bovine blastocysts). Bovine sperm and blastocysts were compared as a test of platform capability.

T3DB: the Toxic Exposome Database

Nucleic Acids Research. Jan, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25378312

The exposome is defined as the totality of all human environmental exposures from conception to death. It is often regarded as the complement to the genome, with the interaction between the exposome and the genome ultimately determining one's phenotype. The 'toxic exposome' is the complete collection of chronically or acutely toxic compounds to which humans can be exposed. Considerable interest in defining the toxic exposome has been spurred on by the realization that most human injuries, deaths and diseases are directly or indirectly caused by toxic substances found in the air, water, food, home or workplace. The Toxin-Toxin-Target Database (T3DB--www.t3db.ca) is a resource that was specifically designed to capture information about the toxic exposome. Originally released in 2010, the first version of T3DB contained data on nearly 2900 common toxic substances along with detailed information on their chemical properties, descriptions, targets, toxic effects, toxicity thresholds, sequences (for both targets and toxins), mechanisms and references. To more closely align itself with the needs of epidemiologists, toxicologists and exposome scientists, the latest release of T3DB has been substantially upgraded to include many more compounds (>3600), targets (>2000) and gene expression datasets (>15,000 genes). It now includes extensive data on 'normal' toxic compound concentrations in human biofluids as well as detailed chemical taxonomies, informative chemical ontologies and a large number of referential NMR, MS/MS and GC-MS spectra. This manuscript describes the most recent update to the T3DB, which was previously featured in the 2010 NAR Database Issue.

Accurate, Fully-automated NMR Spectral Profiling for Metabolomics

PloS One. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26017271

Many diseases cause significant changes to the concentrations of small molecules (a.k.a. metabolites) that appear in a person's biofluids, which means such diseases can often be readily detected from a person's "metabolic profile"-i.e., the list of concentrations of those metabolites. This information can be extracted from a biofluids Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrum. However, due to its complexity, NMR spectral profiling has remained manual, resulting in slow, expensive and error-prone procedures that have hindered clinical and industrial adoption of metabolomics via NMR. This paper presents a system, BAYESIL, which can quickly, accurately, and autonomously produce a person's metabolic profile. Given a 1D 1H NMR spectrum of a complex biofluid (specifically serum or cerebrospinal fluid), BAYESIL can automatically determine the metabolic profile. This requires first performing several spectral processing steps, then matching the resulting spectrum against a reference compound library, which contains the "signatures" of each relevant metabolite. BAYESIL views spectral matching as an inference problem within a probabilistic graphical model that rapidly approximates the most probable metabolic profile. Our extensive studies on a diverse set of complex mixtures including real biological samples (serum and CSF), defined mixtures and realistic computer generated spectra; involving > 50 compounds, show that BAYESIL can autonomously find the concentration of NMR-detectable metabolites accurately (~ 90% correct identification and ~ 10% quantification error), in less than 5 minutes on a single CPU. These results demonstrate that BAYESIL is the first fully-automatic publicly-accessible system that provides quantitative NMR spectral profiling effectively-with an accuracy on these biofluids that meets or exceeds the performance of trained experts. We anticipate this tool will usher in high-throughput metabolomics and enable a wealth of new applications of NMR in clinical settings. BAYESIL is accessible at http://www.bayesil.ca.

Correction: Accurate, Fully-Automated NMR Spectral Profiling for Metabolomics

PloS One. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26222058

ECMDB 2.0: A Richer Resource for Understanding the Biochemistry of E. Coli

Nucleic Acids Research. Jan, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26481353

ECMDB or the Escherichia coli Metabolome Database (http://www.ecmdb.ca) is a comprehensive database containing detailed information about the genome and metabolome of E. coli (K-12). First released in 2012, the ECMDB has undergone substantial expansion and many modifications over the past 4 years. This manuscript describes the most recent version of ECMDB (ECMDB 2.0). In particular, it provides a comprehensive update of the database that was previously described in the 2013 NAR Database Issue and details many of the additions and improvements made to the ECMDB over that time. Some of the most important or significant enhancements include a 13-fold increase in the number of metabolic pathway diagrams (from 125 to 1650), a 3-fold increase in the number of compounds linked to pathways (from 1058 to 3280), the addition of dozens of operon/metabolite signalling pathways, a 44% increase in the number of compounds in the database (from 2610 to 3760), a 7-fold increase in the number of compounds with NMR or MS spectra (from 412 to 3261) and a massive increase in the number of external links to other E. coli or chemical resources. These additions, along with many other enhancements aimed at improving the ease or speed of querying, searching and viewing the data within ECMDB should greatly facilitate the understanding of not only the metabolism of E. coli, but also allow the in-depth exploration of its extensive metabolic networks, its many signalling pathways and its essential biochemistry.

PHASTER: a Better, Faster Version of the PHAST Phage Search Tool

Nucleic Acids Research. Jul, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27141966

PHASTER (PHAge Search Tool - Enhanced Release) is a significant upgrade to the popular PHAST web server for the rapid identification and annotation of prophage sequences within bacterial genomes and plasmids. Although the steps in the phage identification pipeline in PHASTER remain largely the same as in the original PHAST, numerous software improvements and significant hardware enhancements have now made PHASTER faster, more efficient, more visually appealing and much more user friendly. In particular, PHASTER is now 4.3× faster than PHAST when analyzing a typical bacterial genome. More specifically, software optimizations have made the backend of PHASTER 2.7X faster than PHAST, while the addition of 80 CPUs to the PHASTER compute cluster are responsible for the remaining speed-up. PHASTER can now process a typical bacterial genome in 3 min from the raw sequence alone, or in 1.5 min when given a pre-annotated GenBank file. A number of other optimizations have also been implemented, including automated algorithms to reduce the size and redundancy of PHASTER's databases, improvements in handling multiple (metagenomic) queries and higher user traffic, along with the ability to perform automated look-ups against 14 000 previously PHAST/PHASTER annotated bacterial genomes (which can lead to complete phage annotations in seconds as opposed to minutes). PHASTER's web interface has also been entirely rewritten. A new graphical genome browser has been added, gene/genome visualization tools have been improved, and the graphical interface is now more modern, robust and user-friendly. PHASTER is available online at www.phaster.ca.

Heatmapper: Web-enabled Heat Mapping for All

Nucleic Acids Research. Jul, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27190236

Heatmapper is a freely available web server that allows users to interactively visualize their data in the form of heat maps through an easy-to-use graphical interface. Unlike existing non-commercial heat map packages, which either lack graphical interfaces or are specialized for only one or two kinds of heat maps, Heatmapper is a versatile tool that allows users to easily create a wide variety of heat maps for many different data types and applications. More specifically, Heatmapper allows users to generate, cluster and visualize: (i) expression-based heat maps from transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic experiments; (ii) pairwise distance maps; (iii) correlation maps; (iv) image overlay heat maps; (v) latitude and longitude heat maps and (vi) geopolitical (choropleth) heat maps. Heatmapper offers a number of simple and intuitive customization options for facile adjustments to each heat map's appearance and plotting parameters. Heatmapper also allows users to interactively explore their numeric data values by hovering their cursor over each heat map cell, or by using a searchable/sortable data table view. Heat map data can be easily uploaded to Heatmapper in text, Excel or tab delimited formatted tables and the resulting heat map images can be easily downloaded in common formats including PNG, JPG and PDF. Heatmapper is designed to appeal to a wide range of users, including molecular biologists, structural biologists, microbiologists, epidemiologists, environmental scientists, agriculture/forestry scientists, fish and wildlife biologists, climatologists, geologists, educators and students. Heatmapper is available at http://www.heatmapper.ca.

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