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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (3)
Articles by Jay T. Myers in JoVE
Intravital Imaging of the Mouse Popliteal Lymph Node
H. L. Rachel Liou1, Jay T. Myers1, Deborah S. Barkauskas1, Alex Y. Huang2
1Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, 2Department of Pediatrics, Pathology and Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University
Recent advances in 2-photon microscopy have enabled real-time in situ imaging of live tissues in animal models, thereby enhancing our ability to investigate cellular behavior in both physiologic and pathologic conditions. Here, we outline the preparations required to perform intravital imaging of the mouse popliteal lymph node.
Other articles by Jay T. Myers on PubMed
Conditional Control of Selectin Ligand Expression and Global Fucosylation Events in Mice with a Targeted Mutation at the FX Locus
The Journal of Cell Biology. Aug, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12186857
Glycoprotein fucosylation enables fringe-dependent modulation of signal transduction by Notch transmembrane receptors, contributes to selectin-dependent leukocyte trafficking, and is faulty in leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) type II, also known as congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG)-IIc, a rare human disorder characterized by psychomotor defects, developmental abnormalities, and leukocyte adhesion defects. We report here that mice with an induced null mutation in the FX locus, which encodes an enzyme in the de novo pathway for GDP-fucose synthesis, exhibit a virtually complete deficiency of cellular fucosylation, and variable frequency of intrauterine demise determined by parental FX genotype. Live-born FX(-/-) mice exhibit postnatal failure to thrive that is suppressed with a fucose-supplemented diet. FX(-/-) adults suffer from an extreme neutrophilia, myeloproliferation, and absence of leukocyte selectin ligand expression reminiscent of LAD-II/CDG-IIc. Contingent restoration of leukocyte and endothelial selectin ligand expression, general cellular fucosylation, and normal postnatal physiology is achieved by modulating dietary fucose to supply a salvage pathway for GDP-fucose synthesis. Conditional control of fucosylation in FX(-/-) mice identifies cellular fucosylation events as essential concomitants to fertility, early growth and development, and leukocyte adhesion.
Mammalian Genome : Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society. Feb, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12584608
The FX locus encodes an essential enzyme in the de novo pathway of GDP-fucose biosynthesis. Mice homozygous for a targeted mutation of the FX gene manifest a host of pleiotropic abnormalities including a lethal phenotype that is almost completely penetrant in heterozygous intercrosses on a mixed genetic background. Here we have investigated genetic suppression of FX-mediated lethality. Reduced recovery of heterozygous mice was observed while backcrossing the null FX allele to C57BL/6J (B6), but was less dramatic in an outcross to CASA/Rk and absent in an outcross to 129S1/SvImJ, indicating that genetic background modifies survival of FX+/- progeny. Substantial strain-specific differences in pre- and postnatal survival of FX-/- progeny were also detected in heterozygous crosses of C57BL/6J congenic, 129S1B6F1, and B6CASAF1 mice. Specifically, intrauterine survival of FX-/- mice was greatly increased during a heterozygous intercross on a uniform C57BL/6J genetic background compared with survival on a hybrid genetic background consisting of a mixture of C57BL/6J and 129S2/SvPas. In addition, statistically significant clustering of FX-/- progeny into litters and specific breeding cages was noted during a B6CASAF1 FX+/- intercross, suggesting a rare mechanism for modifier gene action in which parentally expressed genes define the phenotype, in this case the survival potential, of mutant offspring. Our results disclose that lethality in FX mutant mice is determined by one or more strain-specific modifier loci.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21961046
High-grade gliomas (World Health Organization grade III anaplastic astrocytoma and grade IV glioblastoma multiforme), the most prevalent primary malignant brain tumors, display a cellular hierarchy with self-renewing, tumorigenic cancer stem cells (CSCs) at the apex. While the CSC hypothesis has been an attractive model to describe many aspects of tumor behavior, it remains controversial due to unresolved issues including the use of ex vivo analyses with differential growth conditions. A CSC population has been confirmed in malignant gliomas by preferential tumor formation from cells directly isolated from patient biopsy specimens. However, direct comparison of multiple tumor cell populations with analysis of the resulting phenotypes of each population within a representative tumor environment has not been clearly described. To directly test the relative tumorigenic potential of CSCs and non-stem tumor cells in the same microenvironment, we interrogated matched tumor populations purified from a primary human tumor transplanted into a xenograft mouse model and monitored competitive in vivo tumor growth studies using serial in vivo intravital microscopy. While CSCs were a small minority of the initial transplanted cancer cell population, the CSCs, not the non-stem tumor cells, drove tumor formation and yielded tumors displaying a cellular hierarchy. In the resulting tumors, a fraction of the initial transplanted CSCs maintained expression of stem cell and proliferation markers, which were significantly higher compared to the non-stem tumor cell population and demonstrated that CSCs generated cellular heterogeneity within the tumor. These head-to-head comparisons between matched CSCs and non-stem tumor cells provide the first functional evidence using live imaging that in the same microenvironment, CSCs more than non-stem tumor cells are responsible for tumor propagation, confirming the functional definition of a CSC.