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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (25)
- The Journal of Nutrition
- Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
- Journal of Natural Products
- Journal of Natural Products
- Chemical Research in Toxicology
- Chemical Research in Toxicology
- Chemical Research in Toxicology
- Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
- Journal of Natural Products
- Cancer Research
- Journal of the American Chemical Society
- Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
- Chemistry & Biology
- Endocrine-related Cancer
- Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
- Molecular Pharmaceutics
- BMB Reports
- Endocrine-related Cancer
- Anti-cancer Drugs
- Bioconjugate Chemistry
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Articles by Joanna E. Burdette in JoVE
Альгинат гидрогелей для трехмерных органной культуры яичников и Яйцеводы
Shelby M. King*, Suzanne Quartuccio*, Tyvette S. Hilliard*, Kari Inoue, Joanna E. Burdette
Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, University of Illinois at Chicago
Культура нормальных клеток в трехмерном контексте представляет альтернативный метод для изучения ранних событий, необходимых для сотовых трансформации и опухолей. Этот метод используется для выращивания нормального яичника и яйцевода клетках для изучения ранних событий в яичниках образование рака.
Other articles by Joanna E. Burdette on PubMed
Trifolium Pratense (red Clover) Exhibits Estrogenic Effects in Vivo in Ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley Rats
The Journal of Nutrition. Jan, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11773503
Studies were conducted using an ovariectomized rat model to determine the estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity of Trifolium pratense L. (red clover) extracts. A red clover extract, standardized to contain 15% isoflavones was administered by gavage [250, 500 and 750 mg/(kg x d)] to virgin, ovariectomized 50-d-old Sprague-Dawley rats, for 21 d in the presence and absence of 17beta-estradiol [50 microg/(kg x d)]. Estrogenic effects included an increase in uterine weight, vaginal cell cornification and mammary gland duct branching. Red clover produced a dose-dependent increase in uterine weight and differentiated vaginal cells at the two higher doses, but it did not stimulate cell proliferation in the mammary glands. Neither antiestrogenic nor additive estrogenic properties were observed in any of the tissues studied. These data suggest that red clover extract is weakly estrogenic in the ovariectomized rat model.
Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga Racemosa L.) Protects Against Menadione-induced DNA Damage Through Scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species: Bioassay-directed Isolation and Characterization of Active Principles
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Nov, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12428954
The roots/rhizomes of Cimicifuga racemosa L. (Nutt.) (black cohosh) have traditionally been used to treat menopausal symptoms through an unknown mechanism of action. In an effort to determine if black cohosh had additional health benefits, methanol extracts were investigated for their potential to scavenge reactive oxygen species and to protect against menadione-induced DNA damage. These extracts effectively scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals. In addition, the extracts showed dose-dependent decreases in DNA single-strand breaks and oxidized bases induced by the quinone menadione using the comet (single-cell gel electrophoresis assay) and fragment length associated repair enzyme assays, respectively. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the methanolic extracts using the DPPH assay as a monitor led to the isolation of nine antioxidant active compounds: caffeic acid (1), methyl caffeate (2), ferulic acid (3), isoferulic acid (4), fukinolic acid (5), cimicifugic acid A (6), cimicifugic acid B (7), cimicifugic acid F (8), cimiracemate A (9), and cimiracemate B (10). Six of these antioxidants were found to reduce menadione-induced DNA damage in cultured S30 breast cancer cells with the following order of potency: methyl caffeate (2) > caffeic acid (1) > ferulic acid (3) > cimiracemate A (9) > cimiracemate B (10) > fukinolic acid (5). These data suggest that black cohosh can protect against cellular DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species by acting as antioxidants.
Isolation and Structure Elucidation of an Isoflavone and a Sesterterpenoic Acid from Henriettella Fascicularis
Journal of Natural Products. Dec, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12502307
A new isoflavone, 4',5,7-trihydroxy-6,8-dimethylisoflavone (1), and a new sesterterpenoic acid (2), together with five known compounds, lichexanthone (3), (-)-pinoresinol (4), betulinic acid, palmitic acid, and beta-sitosterol, were isolated from a dichloromethane extract of the branches of Henriettella fascicularis. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic methods. An attempt to determine the absolute stereochemistry of (2E,6S)-6-[(1R,5Z,3aS,9R,10Z,12aR)-1,2,3,3a,4,7,8,9,12,12a-decahydro-9-hydroxy-3a,6,10-trimethylcyclopentanocycloundecen-1-yl]-2-methylhept-2-enoic acid (2) was performed by single-crystal X-ray analysis, using Cu Kalpha radiation. Compound 1 showed significant competitive binding to estrogen receptor beta and moderate antiestrogenic activity with cultured Ishikawa cells.
Journal of Natural Products. Apr, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12713409
The hot water and 70% ethanol extracts of dried mad-dog skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora) both bound to the 5-HT(7) receptor, with 87.2 +/- 6.2% and 56.7 +/- 1.3% inhibition of [(3)H]-LSD binding to the receptor at 100 microg/mL, respectively. The on-line analysis of a 70% ethanol extract by HPLC-UV/MS resulted in the identification of five flavones (1-5). Fractionation of the ethanol extract resulted in the isolation of three flavone-glucuronides (6-8) and a flavanone-glucuronide (9), including one new compound, lateriflorin (5,6,-dihydroxy-7-glucuronyloxy-2'-methoxyflavone) (8). The structure of 8 was determined by NMR ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and NOESY experiments) and MS analysis. From the results obtained in the testing of the pure compounds, it is evident that the activity on the 5-HT(7) receptor is at least partly due to the presence of flavonoids. Scutellarin and ikonnikoside I showed the highest inhibition of [(3)H]-LSD binding with IC(50) values of 63.4 and 135.1 microM, respectively.
Chemical Research in Toxicology. Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12807356
Dietary supplements containing Piper methysticum Forst. (kava) have been implicated in multiple cases of liver injury in humans, including 10 recently reviewed cases in which patients required liver transplantation following the usage of kava-containing products (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, reprinted. (2003) J. Am. Med. Assoc. 289, 36-37). To investigate a possible mechanism(s) of kava-induced hepatotoxicity, an extract of kava was incubated in vitro with hepatic microsomes, NADPH, and GSH. Electrophilic intermediates that were generated via metabolic activation were trapped as GSH conjugates and removed from the protein mixture using ultrafiltration. Positive ion electrospray LC-MS/MS with precursor ion scanning was used for the selective detection of GSH conjugates, and LC-MS(n) product ion scanning was used to elucidate their structures. Using this in vitro MS-based screening assay, two novel electrophilic metabolites of kava, 11,12-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrokavain-o-quinone and 11,12-dihydroxykavain-o-quinone, were identified. Mercapturic acids of these quinoid species were not detected in the urine of a human volunteer following ingestion of a dietary supplement that contained kava; instead, the corresponding catechols were metabolized extensively to glucuronic acid and sulfate conjugates. These observations indicate that quinoid metabolites, under most circumstances, are probably not formed in substantial quantities following the ingestion of moderate doses of kava. However, the formation of electrophilic quinoid metabolites by hepatic microsomes in vitro suggests that such metabolites might contribute to hepatotoxicity in humans when metabolic pathways are altered (e.g., because of a drug interaction, genetic difference in enzyme expression, etc.) or if conjugation pathways become saturated.
Effect of Halogenated Substituents on the Metabolism and Estrogenic Effects of the Equine Estrogen, Equilenin
Chemical Research in Toxicology. Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12807357
Estrogen replacement therapy has been correlated with an increased risk for developing breast and endometrial cancers. One potential mechanism of estrogen carcinogenesis involves metabolism of estrogens to 2- and 4-hydroxylated catechols, which are further oxidized to electrophilic/redox active o-quinones that have the potential to both initiate and promote the carcinogenic process. Previously, we showed that the equine estrogens, equilin and equilenin, which are major components of the estrogen replacement formulation Premarin (Wyeth-Ayerst), are primarily metabolized to the catechol, 4-hydroxyequilenin. This catechol was found to autoxidize to an o-quinone causing oxidation and alkylation of DNA in vitro and in vivo. To block catechol formation from equilenin, 4-halogenated equilenin derivatives were synthesized. These derivatives were tested for their ability to bind to the estrogen receptor, induce estrogen sensitive genes, and their potential to form catechol metabolites. We found that the 4-fluoro derivatives were more estrogenic than the 4-chloro and 4-bromo derivatives as demonstrated by a higher binding affinity for estrogen receptors alpha and beta, an enhanced induction of alkaline phosphatase activity in Ishikawa cells, pS2 expression in S30 cells, and PR expression in Ishikawa cells. Incubation of these compounds with tyrosinase in the presence of GSH showed that the halogenated equilenin compounds formed less catechol GSH conjugates than the parent compounds, equilenin and 17beta-hydroxyequilenin. In addition, these halogenated compounds showed less cytotoxicity in the presence of tyrosinase than the parent compounds in S30 cells. Also, as stated above, the 4-fluoro derivatives showed similar estrogenic effects as compared with parent compounds; however, they were less toxic in S30 cells as compared to equilenin and 17beta-equilenin. Because 17beta-hydroxy-4-halogenated equilenin derivatives showed higher estrogenic effects than the halogenated equilenin derivatives in vitro, we studied the relative ability of the 17beta-hydroxy-4-halogenated equilenin derivatives to induce estrogenic effects in the ovariectomized rat model. The 4-fluoro derivative showed higher activity than 4-chloro and 4-bromo derivatives as demonstrated by inducing higher vaginal cellular differentiation, uterine growth, and mammary gland branching. However, 17beta-hydroxy-4-fluoroequilenin showed a lower estrogenic activity than 17beta-hydroxyequilenin and estradiol, which could be due to alternative pharmacokinetic properties for these compounds. These data suggest that the 4-fluoroequilenin derivatives have promise as alternatives to traditional estrogen replacement therapy due to their similar estrogenic properties with less overall toxicity.
Chemical Research in Toxicology. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12870885
The antiestrogen, tamoxifen, has been extensively used in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Although tamoxifen showed benefits in the chemotherapy and chemoprevention of breast cancer, epidemiological studies in both tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients and healthy women indicated that treatment caused an increased risk of developing endometrial cancer. These troubling side effects lead to concerns over long-term safety of the drug. Therefore, it is important to fully understand the relationship between the antiestrogenic and the genotoxic mechanisms of tamoxifen, other antiestrogens, and their metabolites. Previously, we have shown that o-quinone formation from tamoxifen and its analogues, droloxifene and 4-hydroxytoremifene, may not contribute to the cytotoxic effects of these antiestrogens; however, these o-quinones can form adducts with deoxynucleosides and this implies that the o-quinone pathway could contribute to the genotoxicity of the antiestrogens in vivo. To further investigate this potential genotoxic pathway, we were interested in the role of estrogen receptor (ER)(1) alpha and beta since work with catechol estrogens has shown that ERs seem to enhance DNA damage in breast cancer cell lines. As a result, we investigated the binding affinities of 4-hydroxy and 3,4-dihydroxy derivatives of tamoxifen and toremifene to ER alpha and beta. The antiestrogenic activities of the metabolites using the Ishikawa cells were also investigated as well as their activity in ERalpha and ERbeta breast cancer cells using the transient transfection reporter, estrogen response element-dependent luciferase assay. The data showed that the antiestrogenic activities of these compounds in the biological assays mimicked their activities in the ER binding assay. To determine if the compounds were toxic and if ERs played a role in this process, the cytotoxicity of these compounds in ERbeta41(2) (ERbeta), S30 (ERalpha), and MDA-MB-231 (ER(-)) cell lines was compared. The results showed that the cytotoxicity differences between the metabolites were modest. In addition, all of the metabolites showed similar toxicity patterns in both ER positive and negative cell lines, which means that the ER may not contribute to the cytotoxicity pathway. Finally, we compared the amount of DNA damage induced by these metabolites in these cell lines using the comet assay. The catechols 3,4-dihydroxytoremifene and 3,4-dihydroxytamoxifen induced a greater amount of cellular single strand DNA cleavage as compared with the phenols in all cell lines. The different amounts of DNA damage in ER positive and negative cell lines suggested that the ERs might play a role in this process. These data suggest that the formation of catechols represents a minor role in cytotoxic and antiestrogenic effects in cells as compared with their phenol analogues. However, catechols induced more DNA damage at nontoxic doses in breast cancer cells, which implies that o-quinones formed from catechols could contribute to genotoxicity in vivo, which is ER-dependent.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Sep, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12952416
Extracts of the rhizome of black cohosh [Actaea racemosa L., formerly called Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt.] were evaluated for potential mechanisms of action in the alleviation of menopausal hot flashes. Ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a 40% 2-propanol extract of black cohosh [4, 40, and 400 mg/(kg.day)] by gavage for 2 weeks with or without estradiol [50 microg/(kg.day)] to determine if black cohosh could act as an estrogen or antiestrogen on the basis of an increase in uterine weight or vaginal cellular cornification. No effects were observed on uterine weight or on vaginal cellular cornification in rats treated with black cohosh alone or in combination with 17beta-estradiol, indicating this black cohosh extract had no estrogenic or antiestrogenic properties in the ovariectomized rat model. To evaluate other potential pathways by which black cohosh might reduce menopausal hot flashes, serotonin activity was first assessed by the inhibition of radioligand binding to cell membrane preparations containing recombinant human serotonin receptor (5-HT) subtypes. A 40% 2-propanol extract of black cohosh was tested against 10 subtypes of the serotonin receptor, revealing the presence of compounds with strong binding to the 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1D), and 5-HT(7) subtypes. Subsequent binding studies were carried out using 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors because of their association with the hypothalamus, which has been implicated in the generation of hot flashes. The black cohosh 40% 2-propanol extract inhibited [(3)H]lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) binding to the human 5-HT(7) receptor (IC(50) = 2.4 +/- 0.4 microg/mL) with greater potency than binding of [(3)H]-8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino)tetralin to the rat 5-HT(1A) receptor (IC(50) = 13.9 +/- 0.6 microg/mL). Analysis of ligand binding data indicated that components of a black cohosh methanol extract functioned as a mixed competitive ligand of the 5-HT(7) receptor. In addition, a black cohosh methanol extract elevated cAMP levels in 293T-5-HT(7)-transfected HEK cells, suggesting the extract acted as a partial agonist at the receptor. The elevation in cAMP mediated by the black cohosh extract could be reversed in the presence of the antagonist methiothepin, indicating a receptor-mediated process. These data suggest that reductions in hot flashes in some women taking black cohosh may not be due to estrogenic properties. This study identifies other possible biological targets of black cohosh that could account for reported biological effects.
Journal of Natural Products. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15620245
Estrogenicity-directed fractionation of a methanol extract of the strobiles of Humulus lupulus that had been extracted previously with supercritical CO(2), known as "spent hops", led to the isolation and identification of 22 compounds including 12 prenylated chalcones (1-8, 10-13), five prenylflavanones (14-17), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (18), sitosterol-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (19), humulinone (20), and cohumulinone (21). In addition, the prenylated chalcone xanthohumol C (9a) was obtained as a 6:1 mixture along with its 1' ',2' '-dihydro derivative (9b). Three new chalcones (4, 11, 12) and four previously unreported constituents of hops (5, 6, 9b, 13) are reported. The structures of the new compounds were determined through a combination of spectrometric techniques including 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and ESIMS-MS. Full 1H NMR spin system analyses were performed to characterize the higher-order glucopyranosyl, prenyl, and chalcone B-ring spectra of the isolates. The principle estrogen 8-prenylnaringenin (15) from hops is an artifact formed along with its positional isomer 6-prenylnaringenin (16) through the spontaneous isomerization of the pro-estrogenic chalcone DMX (7).
Activin A Mediates Growth Inhibition and Cell Cycle Arrest Through Smads in Human Breast Cancer Cells
Cancer Research. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16140969
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of growth factors is responsible for a variety of physiologic actions, including cell cycle regulation. Activin is a member of the TGF-beta superfamily that inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Activin functions by interacting with its type I and type II receptors to induce phosphorylation of intracellular signaling molecules known as Smads. Smads regulate transcription of many genes in a cell- and tissue-specific manner. In this study, the role of activin A in growth regulation of breast cancer cells was investigated. Activin stimulated the Smad-responsive promoter, p3TP, 2-fold over control in T47D breast cancer cells. Activin inhibited cellular proliferation of T47D breast cancer cells after 72 hours, an effect that could be abrogated by incubation with the activin type I receptor inhibitor, SB431542. Activin arrested T47D cells in the G0-G1 cell cycle phase. Smad2 and Smad3 were phosphorylated in response to activin and accumulated in the nucleus of treated T47D cells. Infection of T47D cells with adenoviral Smad3 resulted in cell cycle arrest and activation of p3TP-luciferase, whereas a adenoviral dominant-negative Smad3 blocked activin-mediated cell cycle arrest and gene transcription. Activin maintained expression of p21 and p27 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors involved in cell cycle control, enhanced expression of p15, reduced cyclin A expression, and reduced phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. Smad3 overexpression recapitulated activin-induced p15 expression and repression of cyclin A and Rb phosphorylation. These data indicate that activin A inhibits breast cancer cellular proliferation and activates Smads responsible for initiating cell cycle arrest.
Journal of the American Chemical Society. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16173742
We have synthesized the first steroid hormone-MR contrast agent conjugate designed to track the cell signaling process upon binding to a gene switch system. The derivative has a high relaxivity and when tested in vitro is active as a progesterone antagonist (RU-486). By combining a transcriptional system and a noninvasive imaging technology, such as MRI, it would be a powerful tool to research the cell signaling pathway in vivo.
Endocrinology. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16484319
The ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) is a monolayer of cells that surround the ovary and accommodate repeated tear and repair in response to ovulation. OSE cells are thought to be the progenitors of 90% of ovarian cancers. Currently, the total amount of proliferation of the OSE has not been reported in response to one ovulatory event. In this study, proliferation of the OSE was quantified in response to superovulation induced by ip injection of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in immature 27-d-old CD1 mice using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). BrdU incorporation into the OSE cells was measured from the time of hCG injection for a total cumulative label of 12 h. BrdU incorporation was also measured from the time of PMSG injection for a total label of 60 h to correlate proliferation with specific gonadotropin stimulation. The OSE proliferation was significantly higher in superovulated animals compared with control mice at all time points. Proliferation was also analyzed in discrete anatomical sections and indicated that OSE covering antral follicles and corpora lutea proliferated more rapidly than OSE distal to follicular growth. Finally, apoptosis was assessed in response to ovulation, and virtually no cell death within the OSE was detected. These data demonstrate that the OSE, especially near antral follicles and corpora lutea, proliferates significantly in response to the gonadotropins PMSG and hCG. Therefore, ovarian surface cell division in response to ovulation could contribute to ovarian cancer by proliferation-induced DNA mutations and transformed cell progression.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.). Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16566672
To document the chemical and biologic profile of a clinical phase II red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) extract by identifying and measuring the major and minor components visible in the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) chromatogram and evaluating each compound for estrogenic and antioxidant activity.
Ovarian Epithelial Inclusion Cysts in Chronically Superovulated CD1 and Smad2 Dominant-negative Mice
Endocrinology. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17431007
Chronic ovulation as a contributing factor for the development of epithelial ovarian cancer in women has long been an outstanding hypothesis. To test the incessant ovulation hypothesis, mice were superovulated using weekly ip injections of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (5 IU/animal), followed 48 h later by human chorionic gonadotropin (5 IU/animal). Wild-type CD1 mice were used along with CD1 mice expressing a Smad2 dominant-negative (Smad2DN) transgene under the control of the Müllerian inhibiting substance promoter that targets expression to the ovary and enhances cyst formation. After chronic injections, ovaries were analyzed from animals 6 months of age for the total adjusted number of cysts, cyst area, cyst location, and key signaling pathways. All observed cysts were confirmed to be of epithelial origin. The number of cysts was not significantly different between superovulated and control mice in either the wild-type or Smad2DN groups. However, the combination of the Smad2DN transgene and superovulation resulted in an increase in cyst formation compared with normal littermates that were unstimulated. Rapid proliferation of the cells lining the cysts was detected using bromodeoxyuridine and phospho-histone 3 immunohistochemistry but was not different in the ovarian surface epithelium or in the cyst lining between groups. These data suggest that chronic superovulation in Smad2DN mice results in a higher incidence of cyst formation compared with unstimulated controls, but the epithelial lined cysts did not progress to cancer over the course of this study.
Chemistry & Biology. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17656319
A series of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) aimed at noninvasively determining the hormone receptor status of cancer in vitro was developed. These MRI contrast agents were prepared by conjugating progesterone to clinically used Gd(III) chelates. These agents exhibited higher progesterone receptor binding affinities in the nanomolar range and intracellular accumulation. High logP values of the modified compounds suggested that the lipophilicity of the steroid conjugates may have contributed to membrane permeability. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence microscopy and magnetic resonance images revealed that the synthesized conjugates showed the greatest cellular accumulation and significant increase in relaxivity in vitro compared to the previously developed steroid-modified agent. Transcriptional assays using the progesterone response element linked to luciferase indicated that the contrast agents entered the cell, interacted with the biological target, and drove specific progesterone-mediated transcription.
Endocrine-related Cancer. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17914098
Activin is a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily that regulates mammary cell function during development, lactation, and in cancer. Activin slows the growth of breast cancer cells by inducing G(0)/G(1) cell cycle arrest. Estrogen is a steroid hormone that stimulates the proliferation of mammary epithelial cells in development and oncogenesis. The crosstalk between estrogen and activin that regulates activin ligand expression, activin and estrogen signal transduction, and cell cycle arrest was investigated in this study. Estrogen antagonized activin-dependent production of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) mRNA, while activin repressed estrogen-dependent transcription of trefoil factor 1. The repression of estrogen signaling by activin was recapitulated using a simple estrogen response element-luciferase construct and was enhanced in the presence of overexpressed estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha). In contrast, estrogen-mediated repression of activin signaling could not be recapitulated on a simple CAGA Smad-binding element but did inhibit the short PAI-1 promoter, p3TP-luciferase, especially when ERalpha was overexpressed. Repression of both estrogen- and activin-regulated transcription was found to be ligand induced and Smad3 dependent. In addition to transcriptional repression, estrogen also reduced the amount of activin B mRNA and protein produced by MCF7 breast cancer cells. These studies demonstrate the importance of activin and estrogen crosstalk during mammary cell growth and cancer initiation.
An Estrogen Receptor-alpha Knock-in Mutation Provides Evidence of Ligand-independent Signaling and Allows Modulation of Ligand-induced Pathways in Vivo
Endocrinology. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18339713
Estrogen-nonresponsive estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) knock-in (ENERKI) mice were generated to distinguish between ligand-induced and ligand-independent ER-alpha actions in vivo. These mice have a mutation [glycine 525 to leucine (G525L)] in the ligand-binding domain of ERalpha, which significantly reduces ERalpha interaction with and response to endogenous estrogens, whereas not affecting growth factor activation of ligand-independent pathways. ENERKI mice had hypoplastic uterine tissues and rudimentary mammary gland ductal trees. Females were infertile due to anovulation, and their ovaries contained hemorrhagic cystic follicles because of chronically elevated levels of LH. The ENERKI phenotype confirmed that ligand-induced activation of ERalpha is crucial in the female reproductive tract and mammary gland development. Growth factor treatments induced uterine epithelial proliferation in ovariectomized ENERKI females, directly demonstrating that ERalpha ligand-independent pathways were active. In addition, the synthetic ERalpha selective agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT) and ER agonist diethylstilbestrol (DES) were still able to activate ligand-induced G525L ERalpha pathways in vitro. PPT treatments initiated at puberty stimulated ENERKI uterine development, whereas neonatal treatments were needed to restore mammary gland ductal elongation, indicating that neonatal ligand-induced ERalpha activation may prime mammary ducts to become more responsive to estrogens in adult tissues. This is a useful model for in vivo evaluation of ligand-induced ERalpha pathways and temporal patterns of response. DES did not stimulate an ENERKI uterotrophic response. Because ERbeta may modulate ERalpha activation and have an antiproliferative function in the uterus, we hypothesize that ENERKI animals were particularly sensitive to DES-induced inhibition of ERalpha due to up-regulated uterine ERbeta levels.
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18502818
Imaging is one of the fastest growing fields of study. New technologies and multimodal approaches are increasing the application of imaging to determine molecular targets and functional processes in vivo. The identification of a specific target, transporter, or biological process using imaging has introduced major breakthroughs to the field of endocrinology primarily utilizing computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging. This review provides a general background to the specific developments in imaging that pertains to in vivo function and target identification in endocrine-based diseases.
Three-dimensional Ovarian Organ Culture As a Tool to Study Normal Ovarian Surface Epithelial Wound Repair
Endocrinology. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19423762
Ovarian cancers are primarily derived from a single layer of epithelial cells surrounding the ovary, the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). Ovarian surface proliferation is associated with ovulation and has been suggested to play a role in ovarian surface transformation and cancer progression. Aspects of ovarian surface repair after ovulation include proliferation, migration, and surface regeneration. To study ovarian surface repair, an organ culture system was developed that supports the proliferation, encapsulation, and repair of an artificially wounded surface. Wounded mouse ovaries embedded into an alginate hydrogel matrix have normal OSE cells as demonstrated by expression of cytokeratin 8, vimentin, N-cadherin, and a lack of E-cadherin. Normal OSE cells began proliferating and migrating around wounded surfaces after 1 d of culture. Organ cultures were propagated in medium supplemented with BSA and fetal bovine serum to determine optimal growth conditions. BSA cultured organs had OSE that proliferated significantly more than controls until d 4, whereas fetal bovine serum cultured organs had significantly more surface area encapsulated by OSE. Overall, a three-dimensional ovarian organ culture supports the growth of normal OSE in response to artificial wounding and provides a novel system for investigating wound repair as it relates to the possible role of ovulation and ovarian cancer.
Fitoterapia. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20837111
The biological mechanism of action for any botanical extract is a necessary part of discovery to determine pharmacological use and safety. Interestingly, many activities that are governed by endogenous compounds are not fully understood making the characterization of mechanisms elusive. For example, phytoestrogens are being consumed for menopausal symptoms while the biological action of estradiol are still being investigated. Therefore, long term efficacy and safety issues are a challenge in the field. As new activities are associated with new biological pathways, an important component of therapeutic discovery will need to be the re-evaluation of negative or less active natural products to determine their relative use as medicines.
A Steroid-conjugated Magnetic Resonance Probe Enhances Contrast in Progesterone Receptor Expressing Organs and Tumors in Vivo
Molecular Pharmaceutics. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21736390
Progesterone receptor (PR) is a significant biomarker in diseases such as endometriosis and breast, ovarian, and uterine cancers that is associated with disease prognosis and therapeutic efficacy. While receptor status is currently determined by immunohistochemistry assays, the development of noninvasive PR imaging agents could improve molecular characterization, treatment decisions, and disease monitoring. ProGlo, a progesterone-conjugated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, was evaluated in vivo to determine whether it targets and enhances signal intensity in organs and tumors that express high PR levels. A tissue distribution study indicated that ProGlo accumulates in the PR-rich uterus, which was confirmed by in vivo imaging studies. Ex vivo images of these organs revealed that ProGlo was distributed in the substructures that express high PR levels. In xenograft tumor models, ProGlo was taken up to a greater extent than the nonfunctionalized Gd-DO3A in tumors, particularly in PR(+) tumors. The ability to accumulate and enhance signal intensity in PR(+) organs and tumors suggests that ProGlo may be a promising MRI probe for PR(+) diseases.
BMB Reports. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21777513
Serous ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal gynecological malignancies. Progress on effective diagnostics and therapeutics for this disease are hampered by ambiguity as to the cellular origins of this histotype of ovarian cancer, as well as limited suitable animal models to analyze early stages of disease. In this report, we will review current animal models with respect to the two proposed progenitor cells for serous ovarian cancer, the ovarian surface epithelium and the fallopian tube epithelium.
The Impact of Ovulation on Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells: Evaluating Three Hypotheses Connecting Ovulation and Serous Ovarian Cancer
Endocrine-related Cancer. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21813729
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy affecting American women. Current hypotheses concerning the etiology of ovarian cancer propose that a reduction in the lifetime number of ovulations decreases ovarian cancer risk. Advanced serous carcinoma shares several biomarkers with fallopian tube epithelial cells, suggesting that some forms of ovarian carcinoma may originate in the fallopian tube. Currently, the impact of ovulation on the tubal epithelium is unknown. In CD1 mice, ovulation did not increase tubal epithelial cell (TEC) proliferation as measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining as compared to unstimulated animals. In superovulated mice, an increase in the number of pro-inflammatory macrophages was detected in the oviduct. Ovulation also increased levels of phospho-γH2A.X in TEC, indicating that these cells were susceptible to double-strand DNA breakage following ovulation. To determine which components of ovulation contributed to DNA damage in the fallopian tube, an immortalized baboon TEC cell line and a three-dimensional organ culture system for mouse oviduct and baboon fallopian tubes were developed. TEC did not proliferate or display increased DNA damage in response to the gonadotropins or estradiol alone in vitro. Oxidative stress generated by treatment with hydrogen peroxide or macrophage-conditioned medium increased DNA damage in TEC in culture. Ovulation may impact the fallopian tube epithelium by generating DNA damage and stimulating macrophage infiltration but does not increase proliferation through gonadotropin signaling.
Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Inhibitors Induce Apoptosis in Ovarian Cancer Cells and Inhibit In-vivo Tumor Growth
Anti-cancer Drugs. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21878813
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy among US women. Paclitaxel/carboplatin is the current drug therapy used to treat ovarian cancer, but most women develop drug resistance and recurrence of the disease, necessitating alternative strategies for treatment. A possible molecular target for cancer therapy is glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), a downstream kinase in the Wnt signaling pathway that is overexpressed in serous ovarian cancer. Novel maleimide-based GSK3β inhibitors (GSK3βi) were synthesized, selected, and tested in vitro using SKOV3 and OVCA432 serous ovarian cancer cell lines. From a panel of 10 inhibitors, GSK3βi 9ING41 was found to be the most effective in vitro. 9ING41 induced apoptosis as indicated by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-positive nuclear condensation, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining. The mechanism for apoptosis was through caspase-3 cleavage. GSK3βi upregulated phosphorylation of the inhibitory serine residue of GSK3β in OVCA432 and SKOV3 cell lines and also inhibited phosphorylation of the downstream target glycogen synthase. An in-vivo xenograft study using SKOV3 cells demonstrated that tumor progression was hindered by 9ING41 in vivo. The maximum tolerated dose for 9ING41 was greater than 500 mg/kg in rats. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed 9ING41 to have a bioavailability of 4.5% and to be well distributed in tissues. Therefore, GSK3β inhibitors alone or in combination with existing drugs may hinder the growth of serous ovarian cancers.
Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Water-soluble Progesterone-conjugated Probes for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Hormone Related Cancers
Bioconjugate Chemistry. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21972997
Progesterone receptor (PR) is strongly associated with disease prognosis and therapeutic efficacy in hormone-related diseases such as endometriosis and breast, ovarian, and uterine cancers. Receptor status is currently determined by immunohistochemistry assays. However, noninvasive PR imaging agents could improve disease detection and help elucidate pathological molecular pathways, leading to new therapies and animal disease models. A series of water-soluble PR-targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes were synthesized using Cu(I)-catalyzed click chemistry and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. These agents demonstrated activation of PR in vitro and preferential accumulation in PR(+) compared to PR(-) human breast cancer cells with low toxicity. In xenograft tumor models, the agents demonstrated enhanced signal intensity in PR(+) tumors compared to PR(-) tumors. The results suggest that these agents may be promising MRI probes for PR(+) diseases.