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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (24)
- Brain Research Bulletin
- The Journal of Comparative Neurology
- The Journal of Comparative Neurology
- Journal of Physiology, Paris
- The Journal of Comparative Neurology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- European Journal of Endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies
- The Journal of Comparative Neurology
- Journal of Neurobiology
- Journal of Neurophysiology
- Developmental Biology
- The Journal of Comparative Neurology
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Developmental Biology
- The Biological Bulletin
- Developmental Neurobiology
- The Journal of Physiology
- Brain, Behavior and Evolution
- Journal of Neurophysiology
- The Journal of Comparative Neurology
- ILAR Journal / National Research Council, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources
- The Journal of Physiology
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)
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Articles by Joel C. Glover in JoVE
Xenotransplantation av mänskliga stamceller i Chicken Embryo
Jean-Luc Boulland1, Gabor Halasi1, Nedim Kasumacic1, Joel C. Glover1,2
1Department of Physiology, University of Oslo, 2Norwegian Center for Stem Cell Research, University of Oslo
I detta paper presenterar vi en metod för transplantation av mänskliga stamceller i olika regioner i centrala nervsystemet av kyckling embryot. Detta ger ett
Other articles by Joel C. Glover on PubMed
Comparative Aspects of the Hodological Organization of the Vestibular Nuclear Complex and Related Neuron Populations
Brain Research Bulletin. Feb-Mar 1, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11922978
In recent years, axonal tracing and fate mapping studies in avian embryos have revealed a mosaic pattern of hodologically defined neuron groups within the vestibular nuclear complex and related nuclei. Specific vestibular neuron clusters projecting to different targets (spinal, oculomotor, cerebellar) reside within largely segregated neuroepithelial domains. The close relationship between this pattern and the neuromeric organization of the hindbrain suggests a strong link between the expression of specific developmental patterning genes (such as Hox and Pax genes) and the specification of the individual neuron groups. Earlier tracing studies in mammals and more recent tracing studies in anamniote species performed by other workers indicate that many of the hodological features seen in avians are highly conserved in the vertebrate line. Here, we compare and contrast hodological patterns in birds and other vertebrate classes in an attempt to elucidate common denominators that may represent an evolutionary bauplan for vestibular connectivity.
The Journal of Comparative Neurology. May, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11954034
We have studied the axonal projection patterns of commissural interneurons (CINs) in the neonatal rat spinal cord. Some CINs are integral components of the neuronal networks in the vertebrate spinal cord that generate locomotor activity. By using differential retrograde labeling protocols with fluorescent dextran amines, we show that CINs with ascending axons (ascending CINs, or aCINs) and CINs with descending axons (descending CINs, or dCINs) constitute largely different populations. We show that aCINs and dCINs occupy partially overlapping domains in the transverse plane. The aCINs are located at the dorsal margin, within the dorsal horn, centrally within the intermediate zone, and in the medial region of the ventral horn, whereas the dCINs are located predominantly among the ventral and central aCINs and in smaller numbers within the dorsal horn. The labeled aCINs and dCINs project for at least one and a half segment rostrally or caudally and are present in roughly equal numbers. We also demonstrate the presence of a third, smaller population of CINs whose axons bifurcate to project for at least one and a half segment both rostrally and caudally (adCINs). The adCINs are located predominantly among the central and ventral groups of aCINs and dCINs. Finally, we demonstrate the presence of CINs with axons projecting for fewer than one and a half segment in either direction. These "short-range CINs" are intermingled with the aCINs, dCINs, and adCINs. Our results provide an anatomical framework for further electrophysiological studies aimed at identifying the CINs that participate in the mammalian locomotor central pattern generator.
The Relationship Between Hodological and Cytoarchitectonic Organization in the Vestibular Complex of the 11-day Chicken Embryo
The Journal of Comparative Neurology. Feb, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12541327
To understand the relationship between structure and function in specific brain regions, it is necessary to ascertain which anatomical features are physiologically relevant. Physiological studies of brain function traditionally have been set in the context of anatomical features based on cytoarchitectonics and myeloarchitectonics, but the relationship between structure and function in this context can be complex. Alternative schemes of anatomical organization, such as that based on hodology (the mapping of projections) may provide greater insight. Here, we make a direct comparison of the hodological and the cytoarchitectonic organization of the vestibular complex in the mid-term chicken embryo, using retrograde tracing and three-dimensional reconstruction. In one set of experiments, vestibulospinal and vestibulo-ocular neuron groups were selectively labeled with biotin dextran-amines and aligned with the cytoarchitectonically defined vestibular nuclei in alternating sections that were then combined into intercalated three-dimensional models. This allowed a semiquantitative analysis of the apportionment of individual hodological groups among cytoarchitectonic nuclei. In another set of experiments, vestibulospinal and vestibulo-ocular neuron groups were labeled differentially with fluorescent dextran-amines, three-dimensionally reconstructed, and subjected to a quantitative analysis of spatial overlap. Our results provide the first three-dimensional representation and quantitative analysis of the hodological compartmentalization of the vestibular complex (the "hodological mosaic"). They also show directly how each hodologically defined neuron group relates to the conventional vestibular nuclei, underscoring the fact that the units of the hodological mosaic do not bear a one-to-one correspondence to the cytoarchitectonic nuclear divisions. Some hodologically defined groups are localized to restricted portions of a nucleus, whereas others overlap multiple nuclei. Thus, hodology and cytoarchitectonic features appear to be separately regulated in the vestibular complex of the chicken embryo, possibly through different sets of positional specification mechanisms. The three-dimensional representations we present here provide a foundation for integrating anatomical, physiological, developmental, and evolutionary studies of the vestibular system.
Journal of Physiology, Paris. Jan, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14706687
This article reviews studies of the organization and development of the vestibulo-ocular reflex arc in the chicken embryo. It summarizes some of the principal features that characterize the development of this circuit, including the gradual clustering of motoneurons in the oculomotor nucleus into functionally identifiable motoneuron pools, the patterning of vestibular projection neurons into coherent clusters with specific axonal trajectories and terminations onto the oculomotor motoneuron pools, the reverse order of synapse formation during development (motoneuron to muscle, then vestibular projection neuron to motoneuron), and the selectivity of initial synaptic termination at both the ultimate and penultimate relays within the reflex arc. Reference to studies in other vertebrate species is made to provide a comparative context, and potential mechanisms are discussed that may contribute to the underlying synaptic specificity in this circuit.
Development of Projection-specific Interneurons and Projection Neurons in the Embryonic Mouse and Rat Spinal Cord
The Journal of Comparative Neurology. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15672401
Interneurons and projection neurons in the lumbar spinal cord of mouse and rat embryos were labeled retrogradely with fluorescent dextran amines from a distance of one segment from the segment of origin [lumbar segment (L) 2]. Six classes with specific axonal projections (ipsilateral ascending, descending, and bifurcating, and commissural ascending, descending, and bifurcating) were identified by differential labeling in both species and followed from embryonic day (E)12 to birth in the mouse. Neurons with shorter projections (intrasegmental interneurons) were not studied. We show that the four nonbifurcating neuron classes occupy characteristic, partially overlapping domains in the transverse plane, indicating a systematic pattern of migration and settlement related to axon trajectories. The number of neurons in each of the nonbifurcating classes increased steadily during development. Bifurcating neurons represented a minor fraction of the total throughout development and had relatively scattered positions within the ipsilateral and commissural neuron domains. Combination of retrograde tracing and immunohistochemistry for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) showed that none of the spinal neurons in the six projection-specific classes was GABA positive, suggesting that all GABA-positive spinal neurons, including previously described GABA-positive commissural neurons, are unlikely to have projections exceeding one or two segments in either direction.
Adult Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells Produce Neurons Efficiently in the Regenerating Chicken Embryo Spinal Cord
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15790679
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been proposed as a potential source of neural cells for use in repairing brain lesions, but previous studies indicate a low rate of neuronal differentiation and have not provided definite evidence of neuronal phenotype. To test the neurogenic potential of human HSCs, we implanted CD34+ HSCs from adult human bone marrow into lesions of the developing spinal cord in the chicken embryo and followed their differentiation by using immunohistochemistry, retrograde labeling, and electrophysiology. We find that human cells derived from the implanted population express the neuronal markers NeuN and MAP2 at substantially higher rates than previously reported. We also find that these cells exhibit neuronal cytoarchitecture, extend axons into the ventral roots or several segments in length within the spinal white matter, are decorated with synaptotagmin+ and GABA+ synaptic terminals, and exhibit active membrane properties and spontaneous synaptic potentials characteristic of functionally integrated neurons. Neuronal differentiation is accompanied by loss of CD34 expression. Careful examination with confocal microscopy reveals no signs of heterokaryons, and human cells never express a chicken-specific antigen, suggesting that fusion with host chicken cells is unlikely. We conclude that the microenvironment in the regenerating spinal cord of the chicken embryo stimulates substantial proportions of adult human HSCs to differentiate into full-fledged neurons. This may open new possibilities for a high-yield production of neurons from a patient's own bone marrow.
Thyrotrophin-releasing Hormone Receptor 1 and Prothyrotrophin-releasing Hormone MRNA Expression in the Central Nervous System Are Regulated by Suckling in Lactating Rats
European Journal of Endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies. May, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15879366
The accepted function of the hypothalamic peptide, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH), is to initiate release of thyrotrophin (TSH) from the pituitary. A physiological role for TRH in lactating rats has not yet been established.
The Journal of Comparative Neurology. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16041716
Studying the developing brain of urochordates can increase our understanding of brain evolution in the chordate lineage. To begin addressing regional patterns of neuronal differentiation in appendicularian urochordates, we examined the development of putative GABAergic neurons in Oikopleura dioica using GABA immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization for the GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD. First, we assessed the developmental dynamics of neuron number and organization in the cerebral and caudal ganglia. We then identified and mapped the positions of putative GABAergic neurons using confocal microscopy. We found GAD mRNA-positive and GABA-immunopositive neurons in the first brain nerves and the cerebral and caudal ganglia, but not in the caudal nerve cord. In both ganglia GAD mRNA-positive and GABA-immunopositive neurons are found in the same characteristic intraganglionic locations. The differentiation of these GABAergic markers occurs first in the first brain nerves and the cerebral ganglion and then with a several-hour delay in the caudal ganglion. In all three structures GAD mRNA expression appears 2-3 hours prior to GABA expression. In general, GABA is expressed by the same number of neurons as express GAD. Several discrepancies suggest differential regulation of the GABAergic phenotype in different neurons, however. Our results show that the GABAergic phenotype has a stereotyped pattern of expression along the anteroposterior axis of the CNS. Given recent genome sequencing and developmental patterning gene studies in this species, the GABAergic neurons in O. dioica provide a good model for assessing, at the invertebrate-vertebrate transition, the molecular mechanisms that specify the GABAergic phenotype.
Journal of Neurobiology. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16688767
Retinoid signaling plays an important role in the developmental patterning of the hindbrain. Studies of the teratogenic effects of retinoids showed early on that the hindbrain suffered patterning defects in cases of retinoid excess or deficiency. Closer examination of these effects in animal models suggested that retinoids might play a physiological role in specifying the antero-posterior axis of the hindbrain. This idea was supported by the localization of retinoid synthetic and degradative enzymes, binding proteins, and receptors to the hindbrain and neighboring regions of the neuroepithelium and the mesoderm. In parallel, it became clear that the molecular patterning of the hindbrain, in terms of the regionalized expression of Hox genes and other developmental regulatory genes, is profoundly influenced by retinoid signaling.
Development of Functional Synaptic Connections in the Auditory System Visualized with Optical Recording: Afferent-evoked Activity is Present from Early Stages
Journal of Neurophysiology. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16790599
A comprehensive survey of auditory network formation was performed in the brain stem of the chicken embryo using voltage-sensitive dye recording. Intact medulla/brain stem preparations with the auditory branch of the eighth nerve attached were dissected from 5.5- to 8-day chicken embryos, and responses evoked by nerve stimulation were recorded optically. In the medulla of 7- and 8-day embryos, we identified four response areas, corresponding to ipsilateral Nucleus magnocellularis (NM) and Nucleus angularis (NA), which receive the auditory afferents, and ipsi- and contralateral Nucleus laminaris (NL), which receive projections from NM. The optical responses consisted of a fast spikelike signal followed by a long-lasting slow signal, which reflected the sodium-dependent action potential and glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), respectively. In NM, NA, and NL, the EPSP-related slow optical signals were detected from some 6-day and all 7- and 8-day preparations, indicating that functional synaptic connectivity in these nuclei arises by the 7-day stage. In the pons of 7- and 8-day embryos, we identified two additional response areas, which evidently correspond to ipsi- and contralateral Nucleus lemnisci lateralis (NLL), the higher-order nuclei of the auditory pathway. Furthermore, we detected optical responses from the contralateral cerebellum, which possibly correspond to transient projections observed only during embryogenesis. The present study demonstrates that functional auditory circuits are established in the chicken embryo at stages earlier than previously reported. We discuss the possible role of afferent-evoked activity with reference to auditory neural network formation.
Forced Expression of Phox2 Homeodomain Transcription Factors Induces a Branchio-visceromotor Axonal Phenotype
Developmental Biology. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17208219
What causes motor neurons to project into the periphery is not well understood. We here show that forced expression of the homeodomain protein Phox2b, shown previously to be necessary and sufficient for branchio-visceromotor neuron development, and of its paralogue Phox2a imposes a branchiomotor-like axonal phenotype in the spinal cord. Many Phox2-transfected neurons, whose axons would normally stay within the confines of the neural tube, now project into the periphery. Once outside the neural tube, a fraction of the ectopic axons join the spinal accessory nerve, a branchiomotor nerve which, as shown here, does not develop in the absence of Phox2b. Explant studies show that the axons of Phox2-transfected neurons need attractive cues to leave the neural tube and that their outgrowth is promoted by tissues, to which branchio-visceromotor fibers normally grow. Hence, Phox2 expression is a key step in determining the peripheral axonal phenotype and thus the decision to stay within the neural tube or to project out of it.
Development of the Caudal Nerve Cord, Motoneurons, and Muscle Innervation in the Appendicularian Urochordate Oikopleura Dioica
The Journal of Comparative Neurology. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17492623
The development of the caudal nerve cord and muscle innervation in the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica was assessed using differential interference contrast and confocal microscopy, phalloidin staining of actin, and in situ hybridization for the neuronal markers tubulin and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). The caudal nerve cord first appears as a stream of tubulin mRNA-positive neurons that extends into the tail from the caudal ganglion. By this stage a few actin-rich nerve fibers course longitudinally along the cord. As the tail lengthens, the caudal nerve cord extends and becomes more fasciculated and the neurons cluster at stereotyped longitudinal positions. The number of neurons in the nerve cord reaches a relatively stable maximum of about 29. A subset of neurons in the caudal ganglion and caudal nerve cord expresses ChAT mRNA. These putative motoneurons are distributed along nearly the full extent of the tail in numbers consistent with an independent innervation of each tail muscle cell. The longitudinal series of putative motoneurons is not aligned with the muscle cells, but peripheral nerve fibers extending to the muscle cells are, indicating that motor axons grow along the cord before exiting adjacent to their peripheral target. Muscle innervation occurs roughly coincident with the onset of ChAT mRNA expression. Our results provide the first molecular identification of motoneurons and the first developmental characterization of the motor system in an appendicularian and help set the stage for gene expression studies aimed at understanding the evolution of developmental patterning in this part of the chordate central nervous system.
Fate-mapping the Mammalian Hindbrain: Segmental Origins of Vestibular Projection Neurons Assessed Using Rhombomere-specific Hoxa2 Enhancer Elements in the Mouse Embryo
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17804628
As a step toward generating a fate map of identified neuron populations in the mammalian hindbrain, we assessed the contributions of individual rhombomeres to the vestibular nuclear complex, a major sensorimotor area that spans the entire rhombencephalon. Transgenic mice harboring either the lacZ or the enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter genes under the transcriptional control of rhombomere-specific Hoxa2 enhancer elements were used to visualize rhombomere-derived domains. We labeled functionally identifiable vestibular projection neuron groups retrogradely with conjugated dextran-amines at successive embryonic stages and obtained developmental fate maps through direct comparison with the rhombomere-derived domains in the same embryos. The fate maps show that each vestibular neuron group derives from a unique rostrocaudal domain that is relatively stable developmentally, suggesting that anteroposterior migration is not a major contributor to the rostrocaudal patterning of the vestibular system. Most of the groups are multisegmental in origin, and each rhombomere is fated to give rise to two or more vestibular projection neuron types, in a complex pattern that is not segmentally iterated. Comparison with studies in the chicken embryo shows that the rostrocaudal patterning of identified vestibular projection neuron groups is generally well conserved between avians and mammalians but that significant species-specific differences exist in the rostrocaudal limits of particular groups. This mammalian hindbrain fate map can be used as the basis for targeting genetic manipulation to specific subpopulations of vestibular projection neurons.
Developmental Biology. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17915207
Incorporation of the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to assess cytogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS) of the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica. A series of timed cumulative labelings carried out from 45 minutes (min) to 8 hours (h) after fertilization provided labeling patterns that showed when neurons and support cells residing at specific sites within the 9 h CNS became postmitotic. Throughout the CNS, which includes the cerebral ganglion, caudal ganglion and caudal nerve cord, neurogenesis occurs during an earlier time window than the genesis of support cells. Neurons are first generated at about 45 min to 1 h after fertilization in all 3 CNS regions, starting in the cerebral ganglion. Support cells are generated starting at about 2 h after fertilization. In both the cerebral ganglion and the caudal ganglion, neurons born during different time epochs settle in a specific spatial pattern, following a caudal to rostral gradient in the caudal ganglion and a more complex pattern in the cerebral ganglion. No such regional pattern was seen in the caudal nerve cord, where neurons born during different epochs were evenly distributed along the length of the cord. In the cerebral ganglion a small subpopulation of cells continued to incorporate BrdU from 8 h to at least 15 h and may represent a reserve of stem cells or progenitor cells that generate additional cells seen in the adult. The results show that this simple urochordate exhibits several vertebrate features of CNS cytogenesis, including a different timing of neurogenesis and gliogenesis (support cells being the likely candidates for glial cells in Oikopleura), gradients of neuron position according to birthdate, and a maintenance of neural cell precursors beyond embryonic and larval stages.
Continued Growth and Cell Proliferation into Adulthood in the Notochord of the Appendicularian Oikopleura Dioica
The Biological Bulletin. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18258772
The appendicularian urochordate Oikopleura dioica retains a free-swimming chordate body plan throughout life, in contrast to ascidian urochordates, whose metamorphosis to a sessile adult form involves the loss of chordate structures such as the notochord and dorsal nerve cord. Development to adult stages in Oikopleura involves a lengthening of the tail and notochord and an elaboration of the repertoire of tail movements. To investigate the cellular basis for this lengthening, we have used confocal microscopy and BrdU labeling to examine the development of the Oikopleura notochord from hatching through adult stages. We show that as the notochord undergoes the typical urochordate transition from a stacked row of cells to a tubular structure, cell number begins to increase. Addition of new notochord cells continues into adulthood, multiplying the larval complement of 20 cells by about 8-fold by the third day of life. In parallel, the notochord lengthens by about 4-fold. BrdU incorporation and a cell-cycle marker confirm that notochord cells continue to proliferate well into adulthood. The extensive postlarval proliferation of notochord cells, together with their arrangement in four circumferentially distributed longitudinal rows, presumably provides the Oikopleura tail with the necessary mechanical support for the complex movements exhibited at adult stages.
Using Voltage-sensitive Dye Recording to Image the Functional Development of Neuronal Circuits in Vertebrate Embryos
Developmental Neurobiology. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18383552
Recent developments in the design of voltage-sensitive dyes and of recording apparatuses for detecting voltage-dependent changes in the optical properties of such dyes have established voltage-sensitive dye recording as an important technique for assessing the functional development of neuronal circuits in the brain and spinal cord. Here we discuss general technical issues regarding the recording of voltage-sensitive dye signals and describe studies that have utilized this approach to follow the development of sensory and sensorimotor circuits in the embryonic brain stem. Functional imaging through voltage-sensitive dye recording permits a noninvasive analysis of synaptic development and function at submillisecond temporal resolution in widely distributed circuits. These advantages are particularly valuable in assessing sensorimotor circuit development at early stages when neurons are small and synapses are fragile.
Differential Origin of Reticulospinal Drive to Motoneurons Innervating Trunk and Hindlimb Muscles in the Mouse Revealed by Optical Recording
The Journal of Physiology. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18772205
To better understand how the brainstem reticular formation controls and coordinates trunk and hindlimb muscle activity, we used optical recording to characterize the functional connections between medullary reticulospinal neurons and lumbar motoneurons of the L2 segment in the neonatal mouse. In an isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparation, synaptically induced calcium transients were visualized in individual MNs of the ipsilateral and contralateral medial and lateral motor columns (MMC, LMC) following focal electrical stimulation of the medullary reticular formation (MRF). Stimulation of the MRF elicited differential responses in MMC and LMC, according to a specific spatial organization. Stimulation of the medial MRF elicited responses predominantly in the LMC whereas stimulation of the lateral MRF elicited responses predominantly in the MMC. This reciprocal response pattern was observed on both the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the spinal cord. To ascertain whether the regions stimulated contained reticulospinal neurons, we retrogradely labelled MRF neurons with axons coursing in different spinal funiculi, and compared the distributions of the labelled neurons to the stimulation sites. We found a large number of retrogradely labelled neurons within regions of the gigantocellularis reticular nucleus (including its pars ventralis and alpha) where most stimulation sites were located. The existence of a mediolateral organization within the MRF, whereby distinct populations of reticulospinal neurons predominantly influence medial or lateral motoneurons, provides an anatomical substrate for the differential control of trunk and hindlimb muscles. Such an organization introduces flexibility in the initiation and coordination of activity in the two sets of muscles that would satisfy many of the functional requirements that arise during postural and non-postural motor control in mammals.
Brain, Behavior and Evolution. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18815442
Using differential retrograde axonal tracing, we identified motoneurons (MNs) and projection-specific interneuron (IN) classes in lumbar segment D9 of the adult red-eared turtle spinal cord. We characterized the distribution of these neurons in the transverse plane, and estimated their numbers and proportions. Different labeling paradigms allowed us to distinguish ipsilateral INs (IINs) from commissural INs (CINs), and to identify IINs and CINs with either ascending (a) axons, descending (d) axons, or axons that bifurcate to both ascend and descend (ad). Local interneurons with axons shorter than 1 segment in length were not studied. We show that most retrogradely labeled INs are located dorsal to the MNs, in the ventral horn, the intermediate zone and the dorsal horn. IINs predominate in the dorsal horn. CINs are located on average more medially than the IINs in the ventral horn and intermediate zone. Within the IIN and CIN populations, aINs and dINs overlap extensively. The adIINs and adCINs make up only a small fraction of the total number of INs and are scattered throughout much of the respective IIN and CIN domains. The proportions of IINs and CINs are about equal, as are the proportions of aIINs versus dIINs, of aCINs versus dCINs, and of adIINs versus adCINs. The findings are compared to the organization of lumbar spinal INs in other vertebrate species.
Differential Involvement of Projection Neurons During Emergence of Spontaneous Activity in the Developing Avian Hindbrain
Journal of Neurophysiology. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19036869
To better characterize the emergence of spontaneous neuronal activity in the developing hindbrain, spontaneous activity was recorded optically from defined projection neuron populations in isolated preparations of the brain stem of the chicken embryo. Ipsilaterally projecting reticulospinal (RS) neurons and several groups of vestibuloocular (VO) neurons were labeled retrogradely with Calcium Green-1 dextran amine and spontaneous calcium transients were recorded using a charge-coupled-device camera mounted on a fluorescence microscope. Simultaneous extracellular recordings were made from one of the trigeminal motor nerves (nV) to register the occurrence of spontaneous synchronous bursts of activity. Two types of spontaneous activity were observed: synchronous events (SEs), which occurred in register with spontaneous bursts in nV once every few minutes and were tetrodotoxin (TTX) dependent, and asynchronous events (AEs), which occurred in the intervals between SEs and were TTX resistant. AEs occurred developmentally before SEs and were in general smaller and more variable in amplitude than SEs. SEs appeared at the same stage as nV bursts early on embryonic day 4, first in RS neurons and then in VO neurons. All RS neurons participated equally in SEs from the outset, whereas different subpopulations of VO neurons participated differentially, both in terms of the proportion of neurons that exhibited SEs, the fidelity with which the SEs in individual neurons followed the nV bursts, and the developmental stage at which SEs appeared and matured. The results show that spontaneous activity is expressed heterogeneously among hindbrain projection neuron populations, suggesting its differential involvement in the formation of different functional neuronal circuits.
The Journal of Comparative Neurology. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19731323
Commissural interneurons (CINs) are a necessary component of central pattern generators (CPGs) for locomotion because they mediate the coordination of left and right muscle activity. The projection patterns and relative locations of different classes of CINs in the ventromedial part of the rodent lumbar cord have been described (Eide et al.  J Comp Neurol 403:332-345; Stokke et al.  J Comp Neurol 446:349-359; Nissen et al.  J Comp Neurol 483:30-47). However, the distribution and relative prevalence of different CIN neurotransmitter phenotypes in the ventral region of the mammalian spinal cord where the locomotor CPG is localized is unknown. In this study we describe the relative proportions and anatomical locations of putative inhibitory and excitatory CINs in the lumbar spinal cord of newborn mice. To directly visualize potential neurotransmitter phenotypes we combined retrograde labeling of CINs with in situ hybridization against the glycine transporter, GlyT2, or the vesicular glutamate transporter, vGluT2, in wildtype mice and in transgenic mice expressing eGFP driven by the promoters of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65, GAD67, or GlyT2. Our study shows that putative glycinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic CINs are expressed in almost equal numbers, with a small proportion of CINs coexpressing GlyT2 and GAD67::eGFP, indicating a putative combined glycinergic/GABAergic phenotype. These different CIN phenotypes were intermingled in laminas VII and VIII. Our results suggest that glycinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic CINs are the principal CIN phenotypes in the CPG region of the lumbar spinal cord in the newborn mouse. We compare these results to descriptions of CIN neurotransmitter phenotypes in other vertebrate species.
ILAR Journal / National Research Council, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20075498
The clinical use of stem cells for regenerative medicine is critically dependent on preclinical studies in animal models. In this review we examine some of the key issues and challenges in the use of animal models to study human stem cell biology-experimental standardization, body size, immunological barriers, cell survival factors, fusion of host and donor cells, and in vivo imaging and tracking. We focus particular attention on the various imaging modalities that can be used to track cells in living animals, comparing their strengths and weaknesses and describing technical developments that are likely to lead to new opportunities for the dynamic assessment of stem cell behavior in vivo. We then provide an overview of some of the most commonly used animal models, their advantages and disadvantages, and examples of their use for xenotypic transplantation of human stem cells, with separate reviews of models involving rodents, ungulates, nonhuman primates, and the chicken embryo. As the use of human somatic, embryonic, and induced pluripotent stem cells increases, so too will the range of applications for these animal models. It is likely that increasingly sophisticated uses of human/animal chimeric models will be developed through advances in genetic manipulation, cell delivery, and in vivo imaging.
Segmental Patterns of Vestibular-mediated Synaptic Inputs to Axial and Limb Motoneurons in the Neonatal Mouse Assessed by Optical Recording
The Journal of Physiology. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20962007
Proper control of movement and posture occurs partly via descending projections from the vestibular nuclei to spinal motor circuits. Days before birth in rodents, vestibulospinal neurons develop axonal projections that extend to the spinal cord. How functional these projections are just after birth is unknown. Our goal was to assess the overall functional organization of vestibulospinal inputs to spinal motoneurons in a brainstem-spinal cord preparation of the neonatal mouse (postnatal day (P) 0-5). Using calcium imaging, we recorded responses evoked by electrical stimulation of the VIIIth nerve, in many motoneurons simultaneously throughout the spinal cord (C2, C6, T7, L2 and L5 segments), in the medial and lateral motor columns. Selective lesions in the brainstem and/or spinal cord distinguished which tracts contributed to the responses: those in the cervical cord originated primarily from the medial vestibulospinal tracts but with a substantial contribution from the lateral vestibulospinal tract; those in the thoracolumbar cord originated exclusively from the lateral vestibulospinal tract. In the thoracolumbar but not the cervical cord, excitatory commissural connections mediated vestibular responses in contralateral motoneurons. Pharmacological blockade of GABA(A) receptors showed that responses involved a convergence of excitatory and inhibitory inputs which in combination produced temporal response patterns specific for different segmental levels. Our results show that by birth vestibulospinal projections in rodents have already established functional synapses and are organized to differentially regulate activity in neck and limb motoneurons in a tract- and segment-specific pattern similar to that in adult mammals. Thus, this particular set of descending projections develops several key features of connectivity appropriately at prenatal stages. We also present novel information about vestibulospinal inputs to axial motoneurons in mammals, providing a more comprehensive platform for future studies into the overall organization of vestibulospinal inputs and their role in regulating postural stability.
Organization of Functional Synaptic Connections Between Medullary Reticulospinal Neurons and Lumbar Descending Commissural Interneurons in the Neonatal Mouse
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21430172
The medullary reticular formation (MRF) of the neonatal mouse is organized so that the medial and lateral MRF activate hindlimb and trunk motoneurons (MNs) with differential predominance. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether this activation is polysynaptic and mediated by commissural interneurons with descending axons (dCINs) in the lumbar spinal cord. To this end, we tested the polysynapticity of inputs from the MRF to MNs and tested for the presence of selective inputs from medial and lateral MRF to 574 individual dCINs in the L2 segment of the neonatal mouse. Reticulospinal-mediated postsynaptic Ca(2+) responses in MNs were reduced in the presence of mephenesin and after a midline lesion, suggesting the involvement of dCINs in mediating the responses. Consistent with this, stimulation of reticulospinal neurons in the medial or lateral MRF activated 51% and 57% of ipsilateral dCINs examined (255 and 352 dCINs, respectively) and 52% and 46% of contralateral dCINs examined (166 and 133 dCINs, respectively). The proportion of dCINs that responded specifically to stimulation of medial or lateral MRF was similar to the proportions of dCINs that responded to both MRF regions or to neither. The three responsive dCIN populations had largely overlapping spatial distributions. We demonstrate the existence of dCIN subpopulations sufficient to mediate responses in lumbar motoneurons from reticulospinal pathways originating from the medial and lateral MRF. Differential control of trunk and hindlimb muscles by the medullary reticulospinal system may therefore be mediated in part by identifiable dCIN populations.
Effect of Development on [Ca2+]i Transients to ATP in Petrosal Ganglion Neurons: a Pharmacological Approach Using Optical Recording
Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22241051
ATP, acting through P2X(2)/P2X(3) receptor-channel complexes, plays an important role in carotid body chemoexcitation in response to natural stimuli in the rat. Since the channels are permeable to calcium, P2X activation by ATP should induce changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)). Here, we describe a novel ex-vivo approach using fluorescence [Ca(2+)](i) imaging that allows screening of retrogradely labeled chemoafferent neurons in the petrosal ganglion of the rat. ATP-induced [Ca(2+)](i)-responses were characterized at postnatal days (P) 5-8 and P19-25. While all labeled cells showed a brisk increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in response to depolarization by high KCl (60mM), only a subpopulation exhibited [Ca(2+)](i)-responses to ATP. ATP (250-1000 μM) elicited one of three temporal response patterns: fast (R1), slow (R2) and intermediate (R3). At P5-8, R2 predominated and its magnitude was attenuated 44% by the P2X(1) antagonist, NF449 (10μM), and 95% by the P2X(1)/P2X(3)/P2X(2/3) antagonist, TNP-ATP (10μM). At P19-25, R1 and R3 predominated and their magnitudes were attenuated 15% by NF449, 66% by TNP-ATP, and 100% by suramin (100μM), a non-specific P2 purinergic receptor antagonist. P2X(1) and P2X(2) protein levels in the petrosal ganglion decreased with development, while P2X3 protein levels did not change significantly. We conclude that the profile of ATP-induced P2X-mediated [Ca(2+)](i)-responses changes in the postnatal period, corresponding with changes in receptor isoform expression. We speculate that these changes may participate in the postnatal maturation of chemosensitivity.